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The ABCs of IDA


									                            The ABCs of IDA
The World Bank’s Fund for the Poorest
The ABCs of IDA
                                                     The World Bank’s Fund for the Poorest

Lifting People Out of Poverty
The International Development Association, IDA, is the World Bank’s Fund for
the Poorest. One of the world’s largest sources of aid, IDA provides support for
health and education, infrastructure and agriculture, and economic and institutional
development to the 79 poorest countries—39 of them in Africa. These countries
are home to 2.5 billion people, 1.5 billion of whom survive on $2 a day or less.

IDA funds are not tied to any given sector. Governments determine their own
priorities. And should conditions change—in the face of economic shock or
natural disaster—IDA funds can be redirected as needed.

IDA accounts for 20 percent of all development assistance. IDA’s 2010 commit-
ments reached a record $15 billion—$7.2 billion of that for Africa. About one-fifth
of this funding was provided as grants, the rest is in the form of interest-free,
long-term credits. IDA also helps maximize scarce aid resources: Every $1 of IDA
aid leverages, on average, another $2.

IDA is replenished every three years with contributions from developed and
developing country donors, as well as from two other parts of the World Bank
Group: the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the
International Finance Corporation.

With help from IDA, 27 countries—home to 2.1 billion people or 34 percent of
the world’s population—have “graduated.” Their economic development means
they are no longer reliant on IDA support, and many have gone on to become
IDA donors.

During the past decade, IDA funding helped save at least 13 million lives.
IDA financing immunized 310 million children; provided access to water and
sanitation for 177 million people; helped more than 47 million people receive
health services; provided nutrition supplements to 98 million children; and brought
better education to more than 100 million children each year.

                                International Development Association 1
Afghanistan     • 22 percent reduction in infant mortality and 26 percent reduction in child mortality, in just three years
                • 8 million fixed and mobile telecommunication subscribers

Armenia         • 45 percent of households in urban multi-apartment buildings now use safe, clean, and affordable gas-based
                  heating solutions, up from 11 percent in 2004
                • 44 water users associations established as part of reforms supported in the irrigation sector

Azerbaijan      • 1.2 million people in 431 communities benefitted from new or reconstructed roads over the past five years
                • 700,000 people in 30 communities reached through rehabilitated small-scale irrigation systems

Bangladesh      • 20 million people benefitted from microfinance over the last 12 years
                • 4.4 million girls now enrolled in secondary schools—triple the 1.1 million enrolled in 1991

Benin           • 230,000 residents gained better access to infrastructure and basic services over the past five years
                • 2 million long-lasting medicated bed nets have benefitted pregnant women and children under age five
                  since March 2007

Bhutan          • 3,400 households in 39 villages have benefitted from the construction of 129 kilometers of roads
                • Schools and homes rebuilt expeditiously allowed primary school girls in a remote village to continue their
                  education within days of the 2009 earthquake

Bolivia         • 130,000 people in rural and peri-urban areas now have access to electricity
                • 45,000 people in the poorest rural areas benefitted from more than 9,200 solar home systems since 2005, and another
                  30,000 people benefitted from 87 solar systems installed in schools and clinics in the large, poor city of El Alto

Bosnia and      • Approximately 200,000 jobs created or sustained during the period 1997–2005
Herzegovina     • More than 7,000 ex-professional soldiers provided employment and integrated into civilian life

Burkina Faso    • 94 percent of Ouagadougou’s population—1,480,000 people—now have access to safe water
                • 55 percent female enrollment in the 20 most underprivileged provinces in 2006, compared to 36 percent in 2000

Burundi         • 29,527 adult ex-combatants demobilized from 2004 to 2008; since September 2006, socioeconomic reintegration
                  provided to 6,886 demobilized ex-combatants, including 380 minors
                • A revised procurement code, investment code, commercial code, and competition law in place since 2004

Cambodia        • Primary completion rate reached 85.6 percent in 2008–2009, up from less than 50 percent only five years ago
                • More than 27,000 lower secondary school students and more than 3,000 primary school students received
                  scholarships to continue their schooling

Cameroon        • 1.6 million people benefitted directly from improved infrastructure, including more than 98,000 from improved
                  access to education facilities and more than 117,000 from improved access to health facilities
                • 90,000 people benefitted from improved access to energy, and more than 45,000 from improved access to markets

Cape Verde      • Corporate tax rate reduced from 35 percent to 30 percent from 2003 to 2008
                • Customs taxes streamlined and import fees and taxes significantly modified and lowered over a five-year period

Côte d’Ivoire   • 15,000 ex-combatants and at-risk youths provided with jobs
                • 250,000 certificates/deeds salvaged, restored, and digitized by the National Civil Registry Archives, safeguard-
                  ing citizenship, property information, and official documents related to birth, marriage, and other life events;
                  another 36,000,000 certificates/deeds in the process of being digitized

                                             International Development Association 4
Djibouti   • 71 percent of students now completing primary school without repeating a grade, up sharply from 52 percent
             in 2003–2004
           • 404,000 insecticide-treated bed nets distributed to households in high-transmission areas in 2010; up from
             136,000 bed nets distributed in 2008

Eritrea    • 31,556 orphans placed with families by 2005
           • 162,752 additional cases of malaria diagnosed

Ethiopia   • 264,000 primary school teachers were hired, helping to increase the net primary school enrollment rate from
             68.5 percent in 2005 to 83.5 percent in 2009
           • 61.5 percent rural access to potable water in 2009, up from 46 percent in 2005

Gambia     • 378,000 urban residents benefitted from better living conditions as a result of infrastructure improvements
           • 25 percent to 40 percent decrease in under-five mortality during 2000–2008 in Ethiopia, Gambia, Malawi, and Rwanda

Georgia    • 29 percent and 59 percent increases in health insurance coverage for, respectively, poor women of reproduc-
             tive age and children under age five
           • 98 percent vaccination rate for common childhood diseases in 2009, up from 78 percent in 2004

Ghana      • Improved provision of maternal and child health care has reduced under-five mortality rates to 80 per 1,000 live
             births in 2008, from 111 in 2003; neonatal mortality has also declined
           • 79 percent immunization coverage in 2008, up from 69 percent in 2003

Haiti      • 200,000 buildings assessed for structural damage in the wake of the earthquake
           • 50,000 solar lanterns purchased and distributed, increasing safety, reducing fire hazard, and benefitting more
             than 200,000 people

Honduras   • 3,000 rural families built farms and set up rural enterprises that provided them with assured income and employment
           • 2.5 million people in poor municipalities benefitted from almost 1,500 rehabilitated schools, 700 new schools,
             163 new health centers, 347 small water and sanitation systems, and 461 latrines

India      • Over 98 percent of India’s children now have access to a primary school within 1 kilometer of their home;
              5 million children out of school compared to 25 million in 2003; transition rates from primary to upper primary
             school rose from 75 percent in 2002 to 84 percent in 2007
           • 12 million households in 90,000 villages have benefitted from rural livelihood programs

Kenya      • 32,000 poor orphans and vulnerable children benefitted from better living conditions because of additional
             cash transfers to their households
           • 25 percent reduction in malaria-related deaths among children in Western Kenya as a result of bed net usage

Kyrgyz     • 92 percent of people now have access to pharmaceuticals, up from 77 percent in 2001
Republic   • Better access to health care: primary care up by 36 percent and hospital care up by 18 percent; hospital stays
             fell from 15.3 days to 12.7 between 2004 and 2007

Lao PDR    • Backbone of the country’s road transport network improved since 1996, with travel speeds rising from
             35 kilometers/hour to 80 kilometers/hour
           • 200 kilometers of road upgraded, resulting in savings in vehicle operating costs estimated at US$39 million
             and a reduction in the average time-to-market from 5 to 3 hours

                                        International Development Association 5
Lesotho              • 10 percentage-point increase in modern contraceptive prevalence rate, from 37 percent in 2004 to
                       47 percent in 2009
                     • 136 health facilities now providing mother-to-child HIV transmission prevention services, up from 9 in 2005, and the
                       prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission has risen over the same period from 5 percent to 31 percent

Liberia              • 842 kilometers of roads—almost one-tenth of Liberia’s road network—worked on during the last several
                       years, and major road corridors rehabilitated or repaired
                     • 45,000 people across Liberia provided with short-term public-works employment since October 2008

Madagascar           • 5,000 new businesses registered in three regions between 2006 and 2008, and an estimated 10,000 new
                       jobs created
                     • 400,000 people gained access to safe water through the construction of 627 boreholes, equipped with hand
                       pumps, and 320 gravity schemes

Malawi               • 12 percentage-point decline in poverty headcount, from 52 percent in 2005 to 40 percent in 2008
                     • Development of a national government virtual private network, covering an area of 645 kilometers and linking
                       all major cities and all government ministries, departments, and agencies has improved the efficiency of
                       intragovernment communications and business transactions

Mali                 • 650,000 more people have access to electricity as of May 2010
                     • 803 public institutions, including 172 schools and 139 health centers, provided with access to off-grid electricity

Moldova              • 26,000 temporary jobs created, providing around 2 million person-days of work
                     • 1,700 new businesses created in high-value agriculture, livestock, and small industries, creating 7,000 new jobs

Mongolia             • 69 percent increase in the kindergarten enrollment rate since 2002
                     • 460 wells rehabilitated

Mozambique           • 11.3 million tons of port traffic in 2009, compared to 8.2 million tons in 2002
                     • 4.3 million tons of rail traffic in 2009, compared to 3.4 million tons in 1999

Nepal                • 168,000 workers employed and 118 kilometers of rural roads constructed and/or rehabilitated over the last
                       two years through a community-driven operation
                     • 83 percent of the population had full immunization coverage in 2006, up from 43 percent in 1996

Nicaragua            • 35 micro-enterprises employing approximately 400 people established and are routinely maintaining
                       2,400 kilometers or 88 percent of the maintainable core road network
                     • 104,000 people from 214 communities in five major ethnic groups benefitted from a land rights program
                       established in 15 indigenous territories in the historically marginalized Caribbean Coast autonomous regions

Niger                • Use of health centers almost doubled, from 20 percent in 2005 to 39 percent in 2009
                     • 72 percent of the population in the country’s 51 urban centers served through 103,000 private water
                       connections and 2,870 standpipes as of December 2008—up from 64 percent in 2001

Nigeria              • 3.4 million beneficiaries from the agricultural sector were able to increase their income by about 63 percent
                       between 2004 and 2009, through access to better equipment
                     • 385,000 borrowers and 1.2 million customers were able to access medium-, small-, and micro-enterprise facilities

OECS*                • 8.4 percent increase in the net enrollment rate for secondary education in Grenada and 34.7 percent for
                       St. Vincent between 2002 and 2008, and a 10 percent increase in the transition rate to secondary education
                       for underserved areas
                     • 5.9 percent increase in students passing at least five subjects at the Caribbean Examination Council (CXC)
                       exams for St. Vincent and the Grenadines, and 9.5 percent increase for St. Lucia

Pakistan             • 62 percent net enrollment in primary schools in Punjab in 2007, up from 45 percent in 2001; primary net
                       enrollment of girls during the same period increased from 43 percent to 59 percent, and girls’ enrollment
                       in rural areas increased from 38 percent to 55 percent
                     • 4,600 irrigation subprojects irrigated an estimated 186,000 acres of farmland, and around 40,000 acres of
                       formerly barren land is now being used for productive farming purposes

*Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States

                                                   International Development Association 6
Rwanda         • 750,000 people now have access to a reliable electric supply, with electricity load shedding reduced substan-
                 tially from approximately 50 percent at peak hours in 2004 to 0 percent in 2010
               • Time to start a business cut from 14 days to 3 days, the number of procedures reduced from 8 to 2, and the cost of
                 starting a business dropped from 109 percent to 10 percent of income per capita between 2008 and 2009

Samoa          • 24 kilometers of sea wall rehabilitated to protect coastal villages, and four bridges rebuilt
               • A policy and plan for health care waste management established for the first time

Senegal        • 84 percent gross primary school enrollment rate in 2008, up from 67 percent in 2002
               • 24 percent of children under age five reached by an integrated package of community nutrition activities

Sierra Leone   • 700,000 people gained access to improved health and sanitation facilities, and 148 health facilities renovated
                 and equipped, between 2004 and 2009
               • 360,000 children gained access to basic education as a result of building or rehabilitating more than
                 920 classrooms between 2004 and 2009

Sri Lanka      • 55,000 farm households benefitted from the recultivation of 35,000 hectares of irrigated land and the rehabilita-
                 tion of seven major irrigation schemes between 2004 and 2009
               • 90 percent of students completed their basic education (grades 1–9) in 2009, compared to 80 percent in 2005

Tajikistan     • 71,000 food-insecure households benefitted from wheat seed and fertilizer distribution in 2008
               • 58 percent increase in the proportion of underweight children detected and treated

Tanzania       • 88 percent of trunk and regional roads now in good condition, compared to 51 percent in 2000
               • 50 percent decrease in infant mortality (from 99 to 51 deaths per 1,000 live births), and substantial decline
                 in under-five mortality (from 146 to 81 deaths per 1,000 live births) between 1999 and 2010, bringing the
                 Millennium Development Goal target within reach

Tonga          • 42 community halls repaired or reconstructed
               • 368 cyclone-damaged houses repaired and refurbished; 470 cyclone-resistant houses built

Uganda         • Time needed to register a property reduced from 225 days to 77 and to register a business from 135 days to 25
               • 500 solar systems, with a capacity of 117,000 watt peak hours, installed in health centers across the country,
                 improving service delivery and enhancing safety

Uzbekistan     • 66 percent of Uzbeks report improvements in health care quality, including improved availability and quality of
                 equipment and medicines, and more access to better-trained doctors
               • 79 percent of women received antenatal care in 2008, compared to 86 percent in 2004

Vietnam        • 50,000 smallholder farmers have enhanced access to markets with the provision of technology services, farmer
                 organizations, and linkages to agribusinesses
               • 91 percent of the majority Kinh population and 80 percent of the ethnic minority population residing in rural
                 areas were living within 2 kilometers of an all-weather road by 2006; in 1998 almost half the rural ethnic
                 minority population experienced considerable isolation during wet seasons

Yemen, Rep.    • 30,000 girls attend school as a result of conditional cash transfer schemes introduced in 2008 and 2009
               • Taxation reform put in place—an Automated System for Customs Documentation and Administration adopted

Zambia         • 1.2 million people in nine towns across the country provided access to improved water and sanitation facilities
                 between 1996 and 2000
               • 50 percent decrease in number of malaria deaths annually from 2000 to 2008, during a period when the
                 population rose by 30 percent, implying a real decrease of more than 60 percent

                                            International Development Association 7

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