Spring 2009

                                          Andrew Wicks

      This course will examine conceptions of leadership where values and ethics play a central
role, which we call ―Leading by Values‖. Specifically, the course will provide students with
examples and models of how leaders have incorporated ethics and values into a multiplicity of
definitions of leadership. It will offer the students the opportunity to reflect on their own values
and ethics as well as examine and build upon their own definition of leadership. Throughout the
course, the emphasis is on cognitive dimensions of leadership, even though we will use materials
that explore other dimensions of leadership.

      The majority of leaders chosen for study are not business entrepreneurs or leaders of large
corporations. You all are familiar with those folks. Rather, the idea is to look to a series of
leaders, largely from outside the business domain, who offer a range of approaches to leadership
and the value systems that can underlie it. Our focus will be on the leaders, their stories, and
how they connect values and leadership. We will use these conversations to better understand
what constitutes great leadership. At the same time, we will periodically tie these discussions
back to the present and reflect on how they may be relevant to your own efforts to be leaders in
the world of practical affairs. The last segment of the course will allow us to take our ideas of
leadership and apply them to thinking about more current examples of leadership and to bring
them more explicitly into the business context.

      The first week of the course provides an opportunity to reflect on our ideas of leadership
and to begin exploring research in leadership theory. There are many different theories and
models of leadership and much conflict about what leadership really is. We will look at a variety
of leadership theories during the course of the term, both to accent different features of the
leaders we study and to give you a range of concepts to draw from in developing your own ideas
of leadership. For the first two weeks, we will examine some of the basic ideas of leadership
through the lives of two British leaders who faced very different challenges: the explorer Ernest
Shackleton and Margaret Thatcher. We will use a case on Thatcher, and a new edition of a book
by Shackleton that draws on many sources in addition to Shackleton‘s own account in South:
The Story of Shackleton’s Last Expedition 1914–1917, edited by Peter King.

      To think critically about what it means to be a leader, it is important to understand how,
when and why leadership can go wrong. Thus, we will spend two sessions focusing on the darker
side of leadership, looking at figures who are either controversial (Mao) or reviled (Hitler). Each
leader provides an opportunity to think about the potential of leadership, but also how it can
leave us with disturbing questions about what can be done in the name of leadership, and how
the connections between leadership, values and ethics can become strained or severed.

      The creation of change—both in the value systems and the structure of how people live—
is a key challenge of leadership. We will spend the next several classes looking at leaders who
are noted for trying to create change. We begin with Ataturk and his efforts to transform Turkey.
One approach to putting ethics and values together with leadership to create change relies
heavily on the idea of non-violence or ―Satyagraha.‖ Gandhi exemplified that idea. We will look
at how this iconic figure was able to create change using these non-violent methods and develop
such a reputation for great leadership. We will also look at the approach taken by Malcolm X in
his efforts to create change in the face of racism in the US – using rhetoric and tactics that
explicitly were different from Martin Luther King and Gandhi.

      In the last segment of the course we will look at a range of leaders who are alive and still in
the midst of their leadership. All are also either in business or closely connected to the business
world. We begin by examining the leadership of Indra Nooyi, particularly her work at Pepsi. We
will also get to meet and interact with three leaders. Al Groh, the UVA Men‘s Football Coach,
will come to class and tell us about his approach to leadership. We will also get to meet and hear
from Moustapha Sarhank, who spent many years as the CEO of (and currently acts as the
Honorary Chairman of) the Sarhank Group. Finally, e will get to talk with Dean Bob Bruner and
hear more about his views on leadership and what it means to be a ―leader in the world of
practical affairs‖. We end the course by looking to a business leader who recently won a Nobel
Prize, Muhammad Yunus, and his efforts to eradicate poverty through the work of the Grameen

       This course is an inquiry into the basic ideas of leadership, particularly in ways that invite
us to think about the role of values, and ethics. The course will contain few cases, but lots of
ideas. It requires that you commit to understanding leadership at a conceptual and practical
level. I hope that we can design a set of conversations that lead to some critical insights about
leadership, while, at the same time, having a substantial amount of fun.

      I intend to run this class like a graduate school seminar. The focus will be on ideas and
what we can do with them as managers. You are expected to come to class prepared and ready
to contribute. This class is a joint endeavor and its success depends on us working together to
create a great learning experience. Much of what sets the agenda of where we go and what we do
are your ideas and initiative. We are all going to be taking a leadership role in making sure the
sessions and our discussions add value and help us become better leaders.

      Please pay attention to the attached schedule and assignment sheet. I have scheduled
viewing times for the films, but you are also obviously free to obtain the films and see them at a
time convenient for you. I do require, however, that you not rely on ―I saw that movie years
ago,‖ and ask that you watch it actively again. The quality of our conversations will be directly
related to the preparation that all of us do.

       Grades will be assigned in the following manner. Class participation will count for 70%.
A key part of doing well in class participation is attendance as well as coming to class prepared
and making regular contributions to the discussion. To foster your participation and engagement
in the material, you will be asked to write a series of response papers on several of the leaders we
study. Included in class participation will be an ―Expert‖ assignment where you will be expected
to act as an expert for one of the leaders that we discuss during the term. Your response papers,
including one longer paper (3-4 pages), will count for 30%.

                                           Spring 2009
                                         Andrew Wicks


1. Expert Assignment: During the first class each of you will be asked to form a team and
select one leader that we will discuss in class. I will provide you with a handout on the first day
describing the presentation assignment in more detail. For the person selected you and your
group will become the ―experts‖ for that class. While I expect you to become intimately familiar
with the life and leadership of your figure, your job is not to do a book report on that leader or
make your peers experts. We don‘t have the time or space to do so. Your job is to take critical
aspects of their life, their leadership, and their choices that raise interesting questions about
leadership, values and ethics that we can explore together. You will be expected to work with me
to run the class on that person. In preparation for the session, your team will need to meet with
me (at least 48 hours before the session) to design a great class. Your team should come to the
meeting having done your research and developed well formed ideas of what you‘d like to do for
the session, including 4-5 questions your team thinks would be good for us to explore during the
discussion after your presentation. Your focus should be on using the presentation as a
vehicle to set up a rich and interesting discussion of the leader in question – not on giving a
definitive biography or resolving all questions about how your leader put leadership, values and
ethics together (or failed to do so). Your team will have approximately 25-30 minutes of class to
help the class become more familiar with the leader (and the context) and to provide a way for us
to have a rich discussion that will engage your peers. Your preparation, creativity, and
enthusiasm on this assignment are critical to the success of the course. Thus, this assignment will
make up approximately 50% of your class participation grade [35% of your final grade]. Your
evaluation will be a mixture of my evaluation and that of your peers (70% for my rating; 30% for
your peers).

2. Class Discussion: The rest of your class participation grade (i.e. the other 50%) comes from
your contributions to class discussion when your team is not presenting as well as your response

   a. Comments in Class: While it is easy to de-emphasize this component of the class, given
   that you aren‘t ―on stage‖ while it is happening, it is the most important. The quality of our
   discussions is driven not only by the presenters, but also by the commitment of everyone to
   be prepared and ready to engage the material. The presenters set the table for us. The real
   challenge of the class is for the rest of us to take that set-up and use it to have a great
   discussion. Part of what I expect is for you to come with carefully thought out questions that
   you are prepared to ask of the presenters and the class on the leader in question. The success
   of the class, and what you get from it, will be directly connected to our collective
   commitment to the discussion. Your focus should be on offering a combination of quality
   and quantity in your participation (and being in class to contribute). [35% of your final

3. Response Papers: you are required to write 4 papers for this course – 3 one page papers
   and 1 three page paper. You need to submit a brief, 1 page (single spaced) paper on 3 of
   the leaders for the term (excluding our three visitors to class and the leader you present
   on). This provides an opportunity for you to think about the leaders from the course and
   how they influence your own ideas about leadership. You are also required to write one
   longer paper at the end of the term (3 pages single spaced) in which you explore some of
   your key insights and take-aways about leadership from the course. The longer paper
   should be turned in by March 3 at 5pm. [30% of your final grade].

       a. Due Dates: Papers are due by 4pm the weekday before we discuss the leader
          in class – late papers will not be accepted [i.e. Papers for a Monday class are
          due the Friday before; papers for a Tuesday class are due Monday].

       b. Hard Copy: Please turn in hard copy of your papers to me (either in class or
          under my door in the FOB). I will draw on your insights and questions to help
          shape the conversation in class.

                    LEADERSHIP, VALUES AND ETHICS (GBUS 8704 A)
                                                 Spring 2009

                                                Andrew Wicks

Book List:

   (1) South: The Story of Shackleton’s Last Expedition edited by Peter King.

      The Book may be purchased by students at The Darden Exchange Bookstore and is
also on RESERVE in Darden Library.

Movie List:

     (1) Gandhi            Jan. 30, 31, Feb 1, 2009 at 12; 4; 8 pm 150 Darden Classroom
     (2) Malcolm X         Feb. 6, 7, 8, 2009 at 12; 4; 8 pm       150 Darden Classroom

     Movies are to be viewed before these figures are discussed in class.


     1.   The building is closed Saturday evening at 9pm (i.e. no 8 pm films on 1/31 or 2/7)

                  LEADERSHIP, VALUES AND ETHICS [GBUS 8704 A]
                       CLASS ASSIGNMENTS & SCHEDULE

                                        Spring 2009

                                       Andrew Wicks


12 January:           The Idea of Leadership

Case:                 ▪ ―Wall Street‘s Latest Crisis of Leadership‖ by Bill George. Wall Street
                      Journal, October 3, 2008.

13 January:           Reading/Preparation Day


14 January:           Ernest Shackleton

Leader Reading:       ▪ South: The Story of Shackleton’s Last Expedition, edited by Peter King.

Theory Reading:       ▪ ―Transactional and Transforming Leadership‖ by James MacGregor
                      Burns in The Leader’s Companion (New York, NY: The Free Press); pp
                      ▪ ―The Transformation of Transforming Leadership‖ by Richard A.
                      Coutro in The Leader’s Companion (New York, NY: The Free Press,
                      1995); pp 102-107

Suggested:            ▪ South-Pole.com on Shackleton
                      ▪ Shackleton's Expedition
                      ▪ About Ernest
                      ▪ NOVA documentary on Shackleton
                      ▪ South: Ernest Shackleton and the Endurance Expedition, Videotape of
                      1919 documentary, 88 minutes
                      ▪ A&E Biography on Shackleton; A&E movie on Shackleton w/ Kenneth

20 January:           Margaret Thatcher
Leader Reading:       ▪ ―Margaret Thatcher‖ (Harvard Case 9-497-018)
                      ▪ ―The Iron Lady‘s Sterling Rhetoric‖ (Harvard Bus. Pub., Article

Theory Reading:       ▪ Leading Minds by Gardner; pp. 1–21.

Suggested:        ▪ Thatcher Foundation
                  ▪ Time 100 Leaders


21 January:       Mao Zedong

Leader Reading:   ▪ Mao Tse-Tung: Father of the Chinese Revolution. Obituary in The New
                  York Times (9/10/76), by Fox Butterfield. (use the website link below
                  from Darden to access this article)
                  Mao Reading

Theory Reading:   ▪ ―Leadership—Warts and All‖, by Barbara Kellerman (HBR Reprint
                  ▪ Leading Minds by Gardner; pp. 22-65.

Suggested:        ▪ Mao Zedong by Jonathan Spence (New York, NY: Penguin Lives,
                  1999); 188 pages
                  ▪ Wikipedia on Mao

26 January:       Adolf Hitler

Leader Reading:   ▪ Selections from Mein Kampf (pp 258–269 and 296–299)
                  ▪ Wikipedia on Hitler

Theory Reading:   ▪ ―Leadership and Paranoia‖ by M F R Kets de Vries in Organizational
                  Paradoxes; pp 72–87.

Suggested:        ▪ Time 100 Leaders
                  ▪ The Nizkor Project
                  ▪ Hilter Background


27 January:       Mustafa Kemal Ataturk

Leader Reading:   ▪ ―His name meant ‗Father Turk,‘ and that he was‖ Eric Lawlor (The
                  Smithsonian Vol. 29, No.12; March 1996)
                  ▪ ―Mustafa Kemal Ataturk‖ Historic World Leaders (Gale Research,
                  ▪ Wikipedia on Ataturk

Theory Reading:   ▪ ―Contingency Theory,‖ in Northouse; Chapter 5, pp 75–82

Suggested:        ▪ Ataturk.com

2 February:       Mohandes K. Gandhi

Leader Reading:   ▪ Before class please view the movie Gandhi
                  ▪ Check out some of the thousands of WEB sites on Gandhi

Theory Reading:   ▪ ―Path-Goal Theory,‖ in Northouse; Chapter 6, pp 89-99

Suggested:        ▪ Gandhi background
                  ▪ Time 100 Leaders
                  ▪ Gandhi Photo Album
                  ▪ Influence on MLK
                  ▪ Gandhi Foundation
                  ▪ Influence on Business

3 February:       Reflection Day

                  On this day we will meet, reflect on the conversations to date, and spend
                  time focusing on the Leadership, Values and Ethics themes.

Theory Reading:   ▪ ―Leading from the Middle,‖ Chapter 14 from The Portable MBA, 3rd
                  Edition (New York, NY: Wiley & Sons, Inc.); pp 251-275.

9 February:       Malcolm X

Leader Reading:   ▪ Before class please view the movie Malcolm X
                  ▪ Words of Malcolm X site

Theory Reading:   ▪ ―Crucibles of Leadership‖ by Warren Bennis and Robert Thomas
                  (HBR Product Number 1717)

Suggested:        ▪ Official Website of Malcolm X
                  ▪ Malcolm X resource site


10 February:      Moustapha Sarhank (Visitor to Class)

Suggested:        http://www.m-cam.com/sarhank

16 February:      Indra Nooyi

Leader Reading:   ▪ ―The Pepsi Challenge: Can This Snack and Soda Giant Go Healthy?‖
                  Fortune (March 3, 2008): 55-66.

Theory Reading:   ▪ ―Where are The Women?‖ Fast Company (February 2004): 52-60.

Suggested:        ▪ ―Ways Women Lead‖ Harvard Business Review (1990: Reprint)

17 February:      Al Groh (Visitor to Class)

Suggested:        ▪ Al Groh Article

23 February:      Bob Bruner

24 February:      Muhammed Yunus

Leader Reading:   ▪ Banker to the Poor, by Muhammad Yunus (New York: Public Affairs):
                  p. 45-83.
                  ▪ Grameen Bank Website

Theory Reading:   ▪ ―Level 5 Leadership: The Triumph of Humility and Fierce Resolve‖ by
                  Jim Collins [HBR R0101D]

Suggested:        ▪ NPQ Interview
                  ▪ Writings by Yunus


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