Gender_Poverty_HIV.ppt - WORKSHO by pengxiuhui

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									  WORKSHOP ON
WOMEN’S LEADERSHIP
  Leadership and Gender Mainstreaming for Tackling
               HIV/AIDS and Poverty

          29 August – 03 September 2005




                                                     1
OVERVIEW OF THE MODULE
Part 1 : Why gender is a poverty and
HIV/AIDs dimension? What are the gender
issues in poverty and HIV/AIDs?
Part 2: What are the linkages between
gender inequalities, poverty and the HIV/AIDs
pandemic?
Part 3: How to effectively address gender
concerns in poverty reduction strategies and
HIV/AIDS programmes? (will be an introduction to
Module 3)

                                                   2
WHY GENDER IS A POVERTY
           AND
  HIV/AIDs DIMENSION?


                          3
  WHY GENDER IS A POVERTY
        DIMENSION?
• What is poverty about?
• Evolution in the understanding and definition of
  poverty
• Rights-based and gender responsive human
  development, poverty = a state as well as a
  dynamic, complex and multi-dimensional
  process of socio-cultural, political and economic
  deprivation experienced differently by groups
  and individuals
• Women and men, girls and boys have different
  and specific gender roles and COINs:
  Constraints, Options, Incentives and Needs.
                                                      4
  WHY GENDER IS A POVERTY
     DIMENSION? (cont.)
• Because of gender differences, women and men
  are:
• (i) affected differently by poverty,
• (ii) have different poverty reduction priorities
• (iii) are affected differently by poverty reduction
  strategies
• Contribute to and benefit differently from poverty
  reduction strategies
• Discussion in plenary: example of how
  women and men experience poverty in
  Ethiopia
                                                    5
  GENDER ISSUES IN POVERTY
• Gender issues in poverty
• Gender is a poverty dimension that cuts across each of
  the other poverty dimensions:
• (i) Capabilities: women and girls have limited access to
  social services such as education, health, compared to
  men and boys. Example in Ethiopia, data from various
  surveys estimate women’s literacy rate at 32.4% against
  48.1% for men. Primary school enrolment rate
  (2000/2001): 67.3 for boys compared to 47.8% for girls.
• Secondary school: only 10.99% of girls compared to
  14.3% of boys.
• Health: 97% of births take place at home (DHS, 2000),
  high maternal mortality rate i.e. 810/100000. Harmful
  traditional practices such as milk extraction, massaging
  abdomen of pregnant women, FGM, abduction and early
  marriage lead to females’ serious health problems.
                                                         6
  GENDER ISSUES IN POVERTY
            (cont.)
• (ii) Opportunities: women lack or have limited access to
  and control over socio-economic opportunities such as
  land, agricultural inputs, employment, credit.
• (iii) Vulnerability: they are more vulnerable to risk and
  shocks and violence. WAO’s 2000 report on case
  violence committed against w estimates the total number
  of cases reported in 10 regions at 2263 for rape and 507
  for abduction.
• (iv) Empowerment: women’s representation to decision-
  making sphere at national and local level are lower than
  men’s. W represent around 6% (5,9%) of Ministers and
  rank of Ministers against 94% of men. One W is Vic e
  Minister compared to 11 men. They represent only 7.7%
  of parliamentarians and 11.4% of the regional councils
  (WAO 2004 Report).
                                                              7
   WHY GENDER IS A HIV/AIDs
        DIMENSION?
• Gender roles and relations and the inherent
  power relations influence directly and indirectly
  the level an individual woman and man, girl and
  boy’s risk and vulnerability to HIV infection.
• Gender is a critical dimension in determining the
  level and quality of care, treatment and support
  that HIV positive women and men receive.
• Gender also determines the burden of care for
  sick people supported largely by women and
  girls.

                                                      8
   WHY GENDER IS A HIV/AIDs
      DIMENSION? (cont.)
• In HIV/AIDs pandemic, both a person’s sex and
  gender determine the extent to which he/she is
  vulnerable to infection and his/her ability to
  access to care and treatment.
• Epidemiological and bio-medical research done
  by UNAIDs, WHO, 1994, Women Foundation,
  1997) suggests that physiological factors
  account for the more transmission of infection
  from an infected man to a woman than from an
  infected woman to a man.
                                                   9
   GENDER ISSUES IN HIV/AIDs
         PANDEMIC
• Socio-cultural norms about masculinity and
  feminity, and the unequal power relationships in
  favour of men combined with biological and
  physiological factors determine an individual
  woman/girl and man/boy’s vulnerability and risk
  of HIV infection.
• While sex is biologic, sexuality is the social
  construction of a biological drive. Thus,
  imbalance in power in favour of men leads to
  women’s powerless to negotiate their sexuality.
                                                     10
   GENDER ISSUES IN HIV/AIDs
       PANDEMIC (cont.)
• Socio-cultural harmful norms and practices such
  as female genital mutilation, levirate, dry sex,
  widow clearing rites increase women and girls to
  to high HIV infection.
• Socio-cultural norms also create social pressure
  for men and boys to take risks as they are
  socialised to prove their manhood by having sex
  with multiple partners.
• In certain societies, gender norms expect
  unmarried girls to remain virgins an innocent,
  this restrict their access to full information about
  sexuality and reproductive health services.

                                                     11
   GENDER ISSUES IN HIV/AIDs
       PANDEMIC (cont.)
• Because of the above gender factors, women and girls
  are more infected by HIV/AIDs in Africa, the most
  infected and poorer continent.
• Some evidences: 55% of the HIV infected in Africa
  (where more than two/third of the HIV positive live) is
  female.
• The SA Statistics Department of Health (2004) estimates
  that 6.23 millions SA were HIV positive at the end of
  2004 with w being more infected: 3.3 millions.
• by HIV/AIDs and women constitute 1.1 million.


                                                        12
   GENDER ISSUES IN HIV/AIDs
       PANDEMIC (cont.)
• In Ethiopia, data from UNAIDs, UNICEF, WHO,
  2002 estimates that 1.9 million of the population
  between 15-49 years old are infected.

• This suggests the need for empowering women
  through leadership: promoting women’s self-
  confidence to speak out and act for themselves
  and protect themselves from HIV/AIDs but also
  to effectively contribute to decision-making over
  strategies to address the interlinkages between
  gender, poverty and HIV/AIDs.
                                                      13
  GENDER INEQUALITIES,
POVERTY AND HIV/AIDs: THE
     VICIOUS CYCLE
       • Gender inequalities




                     Poverty
  HIV/AIDs




                               14
    GENDER INEQUALITIES,
  POVERTY AND HIV/AIDs: THE
       VICIOUS CYCLE
• Gender inequalities exacerbate poverty and
  HIV/AIDs pandemic. In turn, poverty and
  HIV/AIDs pandemic exacerbate gender
  inequalities and women/girls’ marginalisation.
• Indeed, poverty and HIV/AIDs reinforce gender
  inequalities.
• Gender inequalities act as a powerful constraint
  to poverty reduction.
• Evidence from Africa suggests that gender
  inequality in access to education is strongly
  associated with lowered economic growth
  (Klasen, 1999, Dollar and Gatti, 1999).
                                                     15
    GENDER INEQUALITIES,
  POVERTY AND HIV/AIDs: THE
     VICIOUS CYCLE (cont.)
• Gender inequalities in technology lowers
  women’s agricultural productivity this in
  turn reduce the national agricultural
  productivity and growth, given the driving
  force of agriculture in African economies.




                                               16
    GENDER INEQUALITIES,
  POVERTY AND HIV/AIDs: THE
     VICIOUS CYCLE (cont.)
• Cross-country evidence on the impact of gender
  inequalities in education suggests that if
  countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia,
  and the Middle East and North Africa closed
  their gender gaps in average years of schooling
  at the rate achieved by East Asia from 1960 to
  1990, gross national product (GNP) per capita in
  those regions could have grown by about one-
  half percentage point higher per year, equivalent
  to 30 to 45% increases (World Bank, 2000).
                                                 17
    GENDER INEQUALITIES,
  POVERTY AND HIV/AIDs: THE
     VICIOUS CYCLE (cont.)
• Gender inequality in time budget has negative
  impacts on the household income generation.
  Tibaijuka,1994 found that in Tanzania, a
  reduction in women’s time burden led to
  increase in household income by 10%, labour
  productivity by 15% and productivity of capital by
  44%.
• Poverty also exacerbated gender inequalities,
  poor women are more marginalized as they are
  not able to voice their needs and interests, they
  are more powerless vis-à-vis to men.
                                                   18
     GENDER INEQUALITIES,
   POVERTY AND HIV/AIDs: THE
      VICIOUS CYCLE (cont.)
• HIV/Aids decimates the agriculture labour force
• affecting food security (women being the backbone of
  food production in Africa).

• As analysed above, gender inequalities increase women
  and men’s vulnerability and risk to HIV/AIDs infection.
  This correlation is exacerbated by poverty.

• Women are primary responsible for domestic tasks while
  men are considered as breadwinners and are primary
  responsible for performing productive tasks.

                                                         19
    GENDER INEQUALITIES,
  POVERTY AND HIV/AIDs: THE
     VICIOUS CYCLE (cont.)
• These gender roles assignment dramatically
  reduce women and girls’ access to and control
  over services and opportunities such as
  education, employment, land, credit essential to
  develop and use effectively their potentials.

• This significantly increases their dependency on
  men and reduces their ability to negotiate safe
  sexuality.

                                                     20
    GENDER INEQUALITIES,
  POVERTY AND HIV/AIDs: THE
     VICIOUS CYCLE (cont.)
• The existence of strong linkages between
  gender inequalities, poverty and HIV/AIDs
  means that gender concerns have to be
  effectively and meaningfully addressed in
  poverty reduction strategies and HIV/AIDs
  programmes if poverty and HIV/AIDs are to be
  tackled in Africa.
• It is also the condition sine qua non for the
  continent to achieve the MDGs by 2015.

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