OPTO 241 Ocular Anatomy and Phys by fjwuxn


									OPTO 241 Ocular Anatomy and Physiology (2+1)

A detailed study of the human visual apparatus and related structures is presented.

This course presents a systematic study of the physiology of the eye.

Lecture topics include function, physiology and biochemistry of the lids, lacrimal apparatus,
cornea, uveal tract, intraocular fluids, lens, retina and optic nerve.

Topics are approached from gross anatomical, histological and embryological perspectives.

The laboratory is devoted to the demonstration of basic ocular anatomy concepts.

Laboratories include dissection of the mammalian eye and examination of the human eye.


To enable students to examine and determine the similarities and differences between the
mammalian and human eye.

To enable students to recognize orbital contents as well as the globe structure.

Course Contents

1- Ocular anatomy
The orbit and paranasal sinuses
The lacrimal system
The eyelids
The conjunctiva
The cornea
The ciliary body
The iris
The lens
The choroid and sclera
The retina
The visual pathways
The extraocular muscles
2- Orbital vasculature and the cavernous sinus
3- Skull osteology
4- Visual acuity and adaptation
5- Colour vision
6- Binocular vision and stereopsis
7- General physiology of eye structure

8- The Orbital Blood Vessels

9- The Nerve Supply of the Orbit
10- Embryology

General Ophthalmology              by Daniel G. Vaughan

The Ophthalmic assistant           by Stein. Slatt. Stein

Ocular Anatomy and Physiology              by Saude

Ocular Anatomy and Physiology      by Tammy Langley, Shiela Coyne Nemeth, Carolyn
       Shea and Al Lens (Editor)

Clinical Anatomy of the Eye        by Richard S. Snell and Michael A. Lemp



OPTO 242 Ocular Neuroanatomy and Physiology (3+0)

This course presents the study of the central nervous system, including cellular
neurophysiology, organization of sensory pathways, voluntary control of movement, and the
physiology of central visual pathways.

Neuroanatomy and neurophysiology of the eye and visual system will be studies.

Gross anatomy, histology and functional significance of the optic nerve, optic chiasma, optic
radiation, lateral geniculate body and the visual cortex will be studies.

The cranial nerves, their nuclear organization and innervation of ocular and extraocular
tissues will also be studied.

Visual information processing and introduction to visual field defects will be covered.


The student will gain a basic understanding of the central nervous system. In addition to the
study of the major sensory and motor pathways of the brain, and discussion of the clinical
correlations of neuroanatomical structure.

students will learn the anatomy and physiology of the visual pathways, along with the
psychophysics and physiology of binocular vision.

The neuroanatomy and physiology of the ocular motor system is introduced in order to
understand eye movements and ocular motor system.


Part A

1- Gross anatomy of the cerebrum and brain stem.

2- Anatomy of the Visual Pathway:
      i) Anatomy of the optic nerve.
      ii) Anatomy of the optic chiasm.
      iii Anatomy of the optic radiations.
      iv) Anatomy of the Visual Cortex

3- Visual information processing (physiology of vision),

4- The ocular sensory and motor system

5- The ocular sensory and motor pathways
Part B
1- The cranial nerves

2- Nuclear organization and innervational control of the cranial
    Nerves which sub serve the oculovisual system.


Basic Science Ophthalmology                  By: John Ferris and D L Easty

Functional Neuroanatomy                      by Wendell J. S. Krieg.

Ocular Anatomy and Physiology                 by Saude




         Optic Nerve Image
OPTO 271 Visual Science I (1+1)

This course is concerned with the study of visual stimuli and the response they evoke in the
human organism. Included are the principles of photometry and radiometry as well as topics
related to the visual response to light stimuli such as intensity discrimination, light and dark
adaptation visual acuity, and quantum effects of light perception.


The student will gain a basic understanding of light and its role in vision.


1)       Overview of Light as an electromagnetic radiation

2)       Photometry

3)       Some fundamental laws guiding the behavior of light

4)       Reflectance, Absorption and Optical density

5)       Visible spectrum - As dictated by optical media absorption characteristics

6)       Functional differences between rods and cones, their retinal distribution, and how
         light interacts with each

7)     The basis of scotopic and photopic vision


     1) Visual Perception              by Cornsweet.
     2) Physiology of the Eye          by Hugh Davson
     3) Optics                         by Tunnacliffe A. H. and Hirst J. G.


OPTO 272 Visual Science II (1+1)

The eye is studied as the physiological optical element of the visual system. The optical
components of the eye are discussed in terms of their geometrical, physical, physiological,
psychophysical, and optical properties.

The eye is then considered as an image-forming mechanism, where each component
contributes to the nature and quality of the retinal image.

The relationship between optics and visual performance is discussed, including the effects of
ametropias and oculomotor systems on vision.

Photochemical processes, transduction, absolute and increment thresholds, light and dark
adaptation, spatial interactions, spatial resolution and visual acuity, temporal interactions, and
temporal resolution.


The student will gain a basic understanding of light and its role in vision. The photochemistry
and electrophysiology of vision. Sensory aspects of vision: thresholds and adaptation.


1) Glossary of terms

2) Retinal Structure and Organization

3) Photochemical and electrophysiological aspects of Vision

4) Sensory aspects of Vision

5) Concept of Threshold: Frequency of seeing curve

6) Temporal phenomena

I. Flicker

II. Talbot-Plateau law

III. Granit-Harper law

IV. Ferry-Porter law

7) Spatial phenomenon

Recommended texts

1) VisualPerception             by Cornsweet.

2) Physiology of the eye        by hugh Davson.


OPTO 377 Visual Science III (2+0)

This course is concerned with the study of the perception of depth, direction, size, shape,
distance, motion and time, through the visual medium.

Optical illusions and entopic phenomena; their causes and significance to the visual system.

The mechanisms of color vision, color vision defects and their significance.

Perception of wavelength as color; colorimetry, color vision theories,

Trichromatic-opponent colors theory, neurophysiology of color vision.


The aim of the course is to teach students how the perception process of the visual system is
and the mechanism color vision and its defects.


1) Visual Perception

• Understanding Visual Perception

• Perception of Depth

• Perception of Motion

o Directional Sensitivity

• Perception of Shape

• Perception of Size

• Perception of Distance

• Perception of Time

2) Optical Illusions and Entopic Phenomena

• Description of Optical Illusions

• Causes

• Significance to the Visual System
3) Color Vision

• Mechanisms of Color Vision

• Color Vision Defects and their Significance

Recommended Texts

1) Visual Perception           by Cornsweet

2) Optometry                   by Keith Edwards and Richard Llewellyn

3) The physiology of the eye (Fourth Ed.)           by Hugh Davson


OPTO 371 Optometric Statistics (2+1)

The fundamental concepts in research design are presented. Included is a special emphasis on
skills used in lifelong learning and independent study necessary in optometric practice.

Discussions include how to design clinical research studies, an overview of statistical
methods including sample size determination, how to apply research results to optometric
practice and how to access and evaluate research literature.

The course introduces guidelines for the student research projects conducted during the
eighth and ninth professional years.

Topics taught in the course will include: Descriptive statistics: Data presentation, measures of
central tendency (mean, median, mode), measures of dispersion (range, variance, standard
deviation).Data plots: 2- and 3- dimensional plots, bar charts, pie charts.

 Linear regression and correlation.Inferential statistics: Normal distribution, probability,
sampling distributions (z-test, t-test), ANOVA: One-way and multifactor.

The course will also cover general research design principles and applicable statistical
analysis of research data.


The aim of the course is to teach students how to analyze experimental data.

The students shall learn to use a computer software statistical package in the analysis of
vision research data.

A completed research proposal is to be submitted before the end of the semester.

 Research projects may be in any of the basic or clinical sciences related to the practice of

Course Contents

Descriptive Statistics

1- Data Presentation

2- Measures of central tendency (mean, mode, median)

3- Measures of dispersion (range, variance, standard deviation)

4- Data Plots - 2- and 3- dimensional plots, bar charts, pie charts

5- Linear regression and correlation

6- Inferential Statistics
7- Normal distribution

8- Probability

9- Sampling distributions (one sample- and two sample- t-tests

10- ANOVA: One way and multifactor

11- Non-parametric tests (Chi-square test, Wilcoxon sign test, Wilcoxon

ranks test etc.)

12- Finally, students will be taught to carry out these tests on at least 2 computer statistical


Statistical problems and Microsoft excel exercises

Recommended Texts

Elementary Biostatistics With Applications from Saudi Arabia,          byNancy A. Hasabelnaby

Essential of Writing Biomedical Research Papers                        by Mimi Zeiger

www.dh.gov.uk/PublicationsAnd Statistics/fs/en

OPTO 394 Geriatric Optometry (2+0)

This course introduces the principles of vision rehabilitation with respect to the geriatric and
visually impaired populations.

The topics presented include the clinical characteristics of aging, etiology and visual
impairment, demographics and psychosocial factors of geriatric and visually impaired
patients, the case history and clinical examination of these patients, and optics of treatment
options for the visually impaired.

 The laboratory presents examination procedures and techniques utilized for geriatric and
visually impaired patients in traditional and non-traditional settings; motility procedures;
geriatric case management; and an introduction to rehabilitation optics and optical systems
for visual impairment.


The students will be introduced to problems unique to the geriatric population and the
characteristics of visual problems as well as social, environmental and other factors affecting
them and possible solutions.


   1- Overview

   2- Vision screenings

             a. Communication

             b. Patient Information

             c. Pre and Post- examination Procedures

             d. pharmacokinetics.

   3- Assessing and Managing the older Patient

             a. Non-visual Assessment

             b. ocular health assessment

   4- Normal Vision Problems In The Elderly

   5- Geriatric Ocular Diseases

   6- Continue Geriatric Ocular Diseases

General Ophthalmology      by Daniel G. Vaughan

The Ophthalmic assistant   by Stein. Slatt. Stein



OPTO 491 Optometric Practice (2+0)

This course is designed to provide educational information and exercises that facilitate the
acquisition of knowledge and skills necessary for entering independent practice.

Students will be taught modern business principles and be able to select their preferred mode
of practice.

 This course coincides with the introduction of students to patient care in a clinical setting.
Emphasis is placed on enhancing a student’s interpersonal skills and professionalism as part
of patient care.

Using a seminar/workshop format, emphasis is placed on the ethical implications of
professional practice.

Doctor/patient communication methods are practiced and clinicians are taught how to enable
patients to fully evaluate the consequences of various treatment and management options.

The business concepts of public relations and practice marketing, patient retention, recall and
office production monitoring are presented.

Clinical-legal aspects from record keeping, patient confidentiality, documentation, coding
and billing, record release, and PDA (Patients with Disabilities Act) issues are also covered.

This course provides learning experiences for students in planning personal and professional
goals, and in the financial arrangements necessary to reach these goals.

Personal finance strategies are introduced to manage debt and prepare for future business

 Career choices using the Doctor of Optometry degree, modes and scope of optometric
practice, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the various paths are discussed.

The historical events affecting the profession of optometry, the state of optometry today, and
optometric organizations supporting the profession are also presented.

Ethical implications of career choices are discussed throughout the curriculum.


The desired outcome of the course is that the student will be able to select and enter the best
practice situation to meet his/her personal goals upon graduation.

Each student will prepare a loan proposal to secure funding for the practice opportunity
Course Contents

   1-   Demographics

   2-   Employment Options

   3-   Starting A private Practice

   4-   practice financing

   5-   organizing an office

   6-   managing office staff

   7-   Recall System


Business aspects of Optometry By John G Glasse
OPTO 495 Low Vision (2+1)

The topics presented include the performance characteristics of optical and non-optical
treatment options for the visually impaired; assessment, treatment, and management of
geriatric and visually impaired patients; development of a vision rehabilitation plan; the
multi-disciplinary team approach to rehabilitation; patient communication and education;
management of special populations; and practice management considerations.

During this unit of study, the nature of the rehabilitation process will be explored in relation
to individuals who are visually impaired and those with associated conditions such as motor
impairment from stroke. The orthoptist's role beyond the clinical environment will be
addressed. By the end of the unit, the student will be able to demonstrate an understanding of
the implication of vision impairment on all aspects of an individual's life and show an
awareness of appropriate low vision services available in Saudi Arabia

The laboratory presents the performance characteristics and clinical application of optical and
non-optical treatment options for visual impairment.


The desired outcome of the course is that the student will be able to select and enter the best
rehabilitation plane for the visually impaired and blind people.

Course Contents

1-Introduction and Definitions

2- Magnification

3-Low Vision Aids

4-The Low Vision Examination

   •   What is low vision.
   •   Why all individuals with visual impairments should be referred for a low vision
       rehabilitation examination.
   •   Structured examination procedure components.
   •   Core principles of low vision rehabilitation.
   •   The goal of low vision rehabilitation
   •   Who needs low vision rehabilitation services?

5-Low Vision Devices

       . Optical

       . Non- Optical

6- Prescribing Magnification
7- Telescopes

8- Low Vision Non-Optical Aids


Understanding Low Vision         by Randall T. Jose

Low Vision care                  by Mehr & Freid

www.vision 2020uk.org.uk



OPTO 496 Occupational Vision (2+0)
This course will place special emphasis on the visual, illumination and safety needs of both
the industrial and office work environment.

The prescribing the fitting of safety eyewear, the physical and physiological principles of
illumination and occupational vision needs brought about by the widespread use of computer
terminals will be discussed.


The desired outcome of the course is that the student will be able to be concerned with the
field of occupational optometry. Eye protection against the sports- related eye injuries and
modifications or revisions to some of the vision standards advised for various occupations
has been demonstrated.


1- Construction of Eye- protectors

2- Vision Screening

3- Visual Performance

4- Mechanical Ocular Injuries

5- Driving and Vision

6- Visual Display Units


Work and the Eye Second edition

www.nelh-ec.warwick.ac.uk            www.cochraneeyes.org
OPTO 475 Senior Research

The research project proposed in Research Proposal (OPTO 371) is completed and a formal
research report is written and submitted by the end of the semester of level nine.

Selected projects are presented at the Student Research Symposium, held during
Commencement Week.




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