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Developing Leadership Qualities

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					       Leadership
   Part I: A Dialog on
     Understanding

        Kelvin K. Droegemeier
        University of Oklahoma

NCAR Undergraduate Leadership Workshop
            14 June 2010
We’re Bombarded with Material
on Leadership but do we Really
       Understand It?
What Does the Word “Leadership”
         Mean to You?

Do You See Yourself as a Leader? If
        so, in What Ways?

   What Individuals Have Been
 Important Leaders in Your Life?
             Why?
Leadership: Searching
for a Definition
Leadership: Searching
for a Definition
 Leadership: Searching
 for a Definition
 Powerful/influential
 Intelligent
 Mobilize people and resources to work toward
  a common goal
 Effectuate positive change
 People of high values/standards/ethics – role
  models
 Well known/famous – leave a legacy
 Operate with a mixture of formal and informal
  authority
But What Makes Them
Leaders?
   Money?
   Pedigree/education?
   Beliefs?
   Actions?
   Personalities?
   Looks?
   Connections?
   Work ethic?
   Chance?
 "Leadership is a combination of strategy
 and character. If you must be without
 one, be without the strategy."

     - Gen. H. Norman Schwarzkopf
Leadership: Searching
for a Definition
  Leadership: Searching
  for a Definition
 Powerful/influential
 Intelligent
 Mobilize people and resources to work toward
  a common goal
 Effectuate positive change
 Role models
 People of high values/standards/ethics
 Well known/famous
 Operate exclusively with formal authority,
  usually by coercion
What Other Adjectives Work?
 Demagogue
 Dictator
 Madman
 Control Freak
 Other….?
According to Webster…
 Leadership is the position, office, or term
  of a leader
 A leader is one who
  –   Directs
  –   Guides
  –   Is in command
  –   Has influence
That’s Sort of a Useless
Working Definition!
 It ignores values/ethics
 It does not describe the work of
  leadership
 It does not distinguish between a shift
  worker at a restaurant and 4-star
  general!
Key Facts About Leadership
 Leadership is inexorably tied to values,
  morality, and ethics
Key Facts About Leadership
 We shape our values early in life, and
  thereafter our values shape us
 Respect cannot be demanded, it must be
  earned – by giving it away.
Do You Buy This??
 Look at how long these people have been
  in power or the influence they have!
 Do you think they ultimately will succeed?
What Does History Tell Us?
Key Facts About Leadership
 Leadership seeks positive outcomes to
 benefit others – a servant viewpoint
The Servant Leader - Humility
 Humility is not thinking less of yourself,
  but thinking of yourself less
 “We make a living by what we get; we
 make a life by what we give."

              - Winston Churchill
Key Facts About Leadership
 Leadership is called forth by crisis and
  challenge and helps shape it, but is not
  produced by it
LIFE: Is Difficult!!
LEADERSHIP: Is Difficult!!
 “This is a great truth, one of the greatest
  truths. Once we truly know that life is
  difficult – once we truly understand and
  accept it – then life is no longer difficult.
  Because once it is accepted, the fact that
  life is difficult no longer matters.”

                 - Scott Peck (The Road Less Traveled)
What is our Response?
 “…[we] moan…about the enormity of
 [our] problems…as if life should be easy.
 [We] voice [our] belief…that [our]
 difficulties represent a unique kind of
 affliction...visited upon [our] families,
 tribe, class, nation, race, or species…and
 not on others.”

               - Scott Peck (The Road Less Traveled)
A Dose of Reality
 More than 1 billion people live on less than
  $1 per day
 6 million children under the age of five die
  each year from malnutrition
 More than 800 million people go to bed
  hungry every day; 300 million are children
 More than 40% of the world’s population
  does not have basic sanitation or access to
  clean water
The Good News
 …It is in this whole process of meeting and
 solving problems that life has its meaning.
 Problems call forth our courage and our
 wisdom; indeed, they create our courage
 and wisdom.”

               - Scott Peck (The Road Less Traveled)
Leadership
 In a nutshell, that’s what leaders do –
  they solve problems
 But they do so in a way fundamentally
  different than what you might imagine
Two Words that Often are
Confused: Leadership and
Management
 Leadership and Management are very
  different, though some confuse them as
  being nearly synonymous
 Few people are effective leaders and
  managers
Leadership and Management
 Management
  – is about coping
    with complexity
  – brings order and
    consistency out
    of potential chaos
  – applies known
    solutions and
    strategies
“Leader” of a Baseball Team??
Leadership and Management
 Leadership
  – is about coping
    with or planning
    change,
    especially if
    it’s sudden
The Generals Managed Our
Troops into Battle???
 "Management is efficiency in climbing
 the ladder of success; leadership
 determines whether the ladder is leaning
 against the right wall."

                    - Stephen R. Covey
 "Management is doing things right…

 Leadership is doing the right things."

                    - Peter Drucker
Leadership and Management:
Parallel but Not Equal
 Management
  – Creating a plan
  – Defining steps
  – Establishing a
    structure
  – Allocating
    resources
  – Executing the plan
  – Controlling situations
    and solving problems
Leadership and Management:
Parallel but Not Equal
 Leadership
  – Developing a vision
    and setting direction
  – Defining strategies
  – Aligning, motivating,
    and inspiring people
  – Testing reality
  – Delegating work
The Reality of Vision
 The crucial feature of visions is that
 they must serve the interests of the
 constituency
Important Facts
 Management controls people by pushing
  them in the right direction
 Leadership motivates people by drawing
  them in a way that satisfies the basic
  human needs for
  –   achievement
  –   recognition
  –   self-esteem
  –   a sense of belonging
 Are You a Leader??
 The role of the leader is to take people on
  journeys where they’ve not been before
   – By definition, you don’t know how to get there!!!
 “Never walk the traveled path because it only
  leads you where the others have been”
  (Alexander Graham Bell)
 Leaders hate, and instinctively challenge, the
  status quo!
 Are You a Leader??
 You know you’re a leader if you…
  – feel you can do things better, and know how to do
    them better, without offending those in authority
  – are comfortable being challenged
  – are comfortable with being under authority
  – are comfortable with crediting other people for things
    you helped accomplish
 How many of these fit you?
Major Tenants of Leadership
 Leadership involves coping with or
  producing useful change in response to
  challenges, problems or opportunities
 Leadership can be exercised with or
  without formal authority
Major Tenants of Leadership
 Leadership involves coping with or
  producing useful change in response to
  challenges, problems or opportunities
 Leadership can be exercised with or
  without formal authority
Producing Useful Change
 Problems -- when circumstances do not
  conform to the way we think things ought
  to be
 Two solutions
  – Apply a known technical fix (management)
  – Develop solutions that previously were
    unknown (leadership) – known as adaptive
    change
Examples
 Someone doesn’t show up for work
Examples
 Terrorism threat in the United States
Major Tenants of Leadership
 Leadership involves coping with or
  producing useful change in response to
  challenges, problems or opportunities
 Leadership can be exercised with or
  without formal authority
 Leading With Formal Authority
 Conferred in exchange for protection,
  direction, conflict control
 Based on a set of expectations or a job
  description
 Essentially a formal contract – it can be
  revoked or walked away from
 Pros and cons
   – Breadth and completeness of information
   – Must operate within specific bounds
   – Must operate at a distance from the front lines
Leading With Formal Authority
 Leading With Informal
 Authority
 Based upon trust, reputation, civility,
  admiration, creativity and availability
 It can never be revoked, though the trust
  relationship can be broken and the reputation
  damaged
 This is the most powerful type of authority
   – Can deviate from norms of decision making
   – Can focus on hard issues
   – Can get closer to the experiences of the stakeholders
     down in the trenches, where relationships are
     developed
Leading With Informal
Authority
Authority is ALWAYS Present
 If you don’t learn to lead “under,” you’ll
  have few opportunities to lead “over.”
 You cannot have authority unless you are
  under authority (formal or informal)
  –   President (Constitution, Courts)
  –   Policemen/policewomen (Laws)
  –   Professors (Chairs, Deans)
  –   Students (Professors)
  –   Children (Parents)
 Is Leadership “A Part of
Who You Are,” or Can it be
        Learned?
The Key is Intelligence!
 Part I: Intellect
  – Intellectual capacity (IQ)
  – Technical expertise
  – Knowledge and experience
The Key is Intelligence!
 Part I: Intellect
  – Intellectual capacity (IQ)
  – Technical expertise
  – Knowledge and experience
 Part II: Emotions
  – 90% of the difference between outstanding
    and average leaders is due to emotional
    intelligence (EI)
  – It’s twice as important as IQ and technical
    expertise combined
  – It is THE differentiating factor in leadership
You’ve Experienced This!
 Have you been around people that don’t
  have a clue when they offend others?
 What instructors did you enjoy or value
  the most?
  – The really brilliant one who cared nothing
    about you individually? or …
  – The one who was really smart (can’t be a
    professor otherwise) but made an effort to
    learn about your plans and dreams?
 People are persuaded by reason, but
 moved by emotion; [the leader] must
 both persuade them and move them."

               - Richard M. Nixon
Emotional Intelligence (EI)
 The capacity for recognizing our feelings
 and those of others; for motivating
 ourselves and others; for managing
 emotions in ourselves and in our
 relationships
  –   #1a: Understanding yourself (self-awareness)
  –   #1b: Managing yourself (self-regulation)
  –   #2a: Understanding others (empathy)
  –   #2b: Managing others (motivation, social skills)
Self-Awareness/Self-Perception
 This is a key aspect of being a leader
 The ability to recognize and understand
 your moods, emotions, and drives, as well
 as their effect on others
  – Self-confidence (but not arrogance)
  – Self-assessment
  – Self-deprecating sense of humor (rolling
    with the punches)
 What are my strengths and weaknesses?
Knowing Yourself
 “Good timber does not grow with ease;
 the stronger the wind, the stronger the
 trees” - J. Willard Marriott
Knowing Yourself
 Taking criticism – tough medicine to
 swallow, but usually always valuable
Knowing Yourself
 Giving criticism -- kindly?
 Leaders have to bring correction, but
  HOW it’s brought can make or literally
  break someone
Knowing Yourself
 Being aware of how people respond
 to you
        Self-Regulation
 This is another key aspect of being a leader
 Self-regulation is the ability to manage your
  emotions and reactions
   – Creates an environment of trust, safety, and fairness
   – Discourages those around you from losing control or
     reacting impulsively
 Bad scenes stick in people’s minds
 Others can and should be understanding, but
  SELF-regulation -- is up to YOU!
    Social Awareness/Skills
 Empathy – do you understand others and
  take an interest in their concerns?
 Are you concerned with serving the needs
  of others – do you put others ahead of
  yourself?
 Do you encourage others, inspire, and
  communicate well?
 Do you foster relationships?
 This requires that you see the difference
  between you and your role . . .
 . . . and that you put yourself in another
  person’s shoes – empathy
The Other Side of Leadership
 Leaders are under pressure to
  restore equilibrium and produce
  solutions
 Emotions usually suggest squashing
  those who raise disturbing questions
 Annoyance is often a signal of
  opportunity
 Deviants are a leader’s best friend!
Beware of Power!
 Power abusers over-value themselves and
  under-value or de-value others
   – The “I owe this to myself” syndrome
 Power abusers use people, often without
  realizing it
 Power abusers often don’t take the time
  to deal with the root cause of problems
 Power abusers often are blind to counsel
  because of their “positional ego”
 Key Characteristics of Leaders
 A true leader is likely to be one who has no
  desire to lead, but is forced into a position of
  leadership by the press of the external
  situation.
 I believe it might be accepted as a fairly reliable
  rule of thumb that the man who is ambitious to
  lead is disqualified as a leader. (A.W. Tozer)
 The true leader will be as ready to follow as to
  lead, and when a wiser and more gifted man
  than himself appears, he will step aside.
As a Leader, You’re Going to
Make Mistakes!! How to Deal
With Them?
It’s a Fact of Life
 "I've missed over 9,000 shots in my
 career. I've lost almost 300 games.
 26 times I've been trusted to take the
 game-winning shot . . . and missed.
 I've failed over and over and over again
 in my life. And that is why I succeed."

                - Michael Jordan
What is Our Usual Response to
Having Made a Mistake?
 Cover it up, quickly!
  – Totally a protection of our ego
  – We put the focus on ourselves rather than
    others
Being Human
 “Never let them see you sweat”
 This is the worst advice in the world
 Remember about acknowledging our
  strengths and weaknesses?
 Think how others will respond to
  your mistakes if you come across as
  perfect and full of infinite wisdom!
Being Human
 "It is necessary for us to learn from
  others' mistakes. You will not live long
  enough to make them all yourself."

            -- Adm. Hyman G. Rickover
Ethics in Leadership/Science
 From the Greek “ethos,” ethics is the
  critical inquiry about the adequacy of
  any morality
 Morality is group norms for acceptable
  behavior that give the possibility for
  continued membership
 You must know where you stand because
  this determines your actions
Values
Beliefs


Values
Attitudes



 Beliefs


 Values
Behaviors




Attitudes



 Beliefs


 Values
            Credibility
Behaviors   is lost when
            behavior is
            inconsistent
Attitudes   with values


 Beliefs


 Values
Ethics in Leadership/Science
 Character and virtue are inseparable from
  leadership and ethics
 The true judge of character is what one would
  do if no one could find out!
 Where does character arise in science?
  –   Collaborative research and sharing
  –   Factual reporting – negative and positive
  –   Reproducibility of results
  –   Balanced reporting of negative and post
  –   Stance on “moral” issues, even if not meteorological
      (cloning, etc)
As a True Leader
 You WILL…
  – Disappoint
  – Receive unjust criticism
  – Be misunderstood, misquoted, mistreated
  – Be viewed as other than you really are
  – Be unappreciated
As a True Leader
 You WILL…
  – Receive incredible satisfaction
  – Make an impact on people
  – Not be forgotten
 But You Have to PERSEVERE
 Life is difficult, leadership is difficult,
  and nothing will change that fact!
 One of the most important factors that
  define great leaders is perseverance
A Man I Personally Admire
 His brother died when he was 7
 His mother died when he was 9
 His fiancée died
 His eventual wife had 4 sons, only 1 of whom
  made it to adulthood
 He suffered deep depression and was
  hospitalized for a nervous breakdown
 He started two businesses and both failed
 He was defeated multiple times in runs for the
  state legislature, US Congress, and US Senate
But He Persevered….
The Takeaway Message?
 Had Lincoln lived an easier life, would he
  have become a great man?
 He accepted the difficulty of life and
  refused to let obstacles dissuade him
 He used them to build his character and
  impacted the world in profound ways
 That’s a hope for all of us as leaders
    The Payoff of Leadership
 This is not about getting people to buy into
  your own ideas!
 It’s about teaching people to
   – Recognize and embrace their unique abilities and
     limitations
   – Relate effectively to people having different views
   – Deal with situations they’ve never faced and that
     have no known solutions
   – Work for a broader purpose while fulfilling their
     own specific goals and needs
   – Draw the best out of others by motivating and
     inspiring
Summary
 There are NO UNIMPORTANT people or
  positions
 Everyone is a leader to some extent because
  everyone has a set of followers
 Leadership isn’t a task but rather a way of life!
 Find out what you’re good at both technically
  and emotionally
 Walk in those things and try to shore up other
  weaknesses
 History may not recognize you as a “leader,”
  but you’ll be a history-maker if you mobilize
  people to do something that’s socially useful
One Piece of Advice…
 Don’t waste your time looking around to
 see what the world needs. Rather, look
 inside to see what makes you come alive,
 and do those things…for the world needs
 people who are alive, walking in their
 passions.

				
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