What is an Adverb

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					                  What is an Adverb?

   1. An adverb is a part of speech that describes or modifies a verb, an adjective,
      another adverb, clause, or sentence.
   2. Adverbs answer the questions "How?", "When?", "Where?", "Why?", "In what
      way?", "How much?", "How often?", "Under what condition", "To what degree?"
   3. The easiest adverbs to recognizes are those that end in -ly. Some adjectives end
      with -ly also but remember that adjectives can modify only nouns and pronouns.
      Adverbs modify everything else.
   4. An adverb can be placed anywhere in a sentence.

           Adverbs as modifiers (adverbs in adverbial functions)

An adverb modifies a verb
 He walked quickly. ('quickly' modifies verb 'walked')
 I accepted new task willingly. ('willingly' modifies verb 'accepted')
 Mike snored melodically. ('melodically' modifies verb 'snored')

An adverb modifies an adjective
 They were really unhappy. ('really' modifies adjective 'unhappy')
 My brother is completely fearless. ('completely' modifies adjective 'fearless')
 I know she is very careful. ('very' modifies adjective 'careful')

An adverb modifies an adverb
 He is almost always hungry. ('almost' modifies adverb 'hungry')
 John plays tennis very well. ('very' modifies adverb 'well')
 You never can work too carefully. ('too' modifies adverb 'carefully')

An adverb modifies a clause
 Perhaps you are correct, but not at first glance. ('perhaps' modifies clause 'you are
correct')
 Surely he will be on time, but I hope not. ('surely' modifies clause 'he will be on time')

An adverb modifies a sentence
 Suddenly, she went home. ('suddenly' modifies a whole sentence)
 Finally, he will be on time. ('finally' modifies a whole sentence)
 Today, we can take a vacation.('today' modifies a whole sentence)
                                  Adverb Formation
Adverbs that end in -ly are formed by adding -ly to an adjective, a present participle, or a
past participle.


- from an adjective            - from a present participle     - from a past participle
 careful - carefully           willing - willingly            assured - assuredly
 beautiful - beautiful         glowing - glowingly            affected - affectedly
 fitting - fittingly           surprising - surprisingly      surprised - surprisedly

When adjective ends in -able or -ible, the adverb is formed by replacing final -e with -y
 horrible - horribly
 terrible - terribly
When adjective ends in -y, the adverb is formed by replacing final -y with -ily
 happy - happily
 lucky – luckily
When adjective ends in -ic, the adverb is formed by replacing final -ic with -ically
 economic - economically
 ironic - ironically

                                   Adverbs Position
Adverbs can be placed anywhere in a sentence.

At the front (prior to the     At the center of the            At the end of the sentence
subject)                       sentence (between the            I learn English slowly.
 Today we will study          subject and the verb)            I study adverbs now.
adverbs.                        He seldom goes to
 Lately, I have had lots of   movies.
phone calls.                    I hardly noticed her.

                               Adverbs as intensifiers
Adverbs can be used as amplifiers, down toners, or emphasizers.

- as emphasizers.              - as amplifiers                 - as down toners
 I really likes him.           They completely                I somewhat like this
 I literally wrecked my       abandoned the city.             movie.
car.                            I absolutely refuse to         Peter almost quit that job.
                               leave.
                 Adverbs can be classified by their functions.
Adverb lists that follow each category are only partial ones.


Adverbs of manner - answer the question How?
 I watch them closely.
 I play well.
 I walk carefully.
List: cheerfully, fast, quickly, slowly, inadequately, healthy
Adverbs of time - answer the question When?
 He has not played chess recently.
 I arrive late for most appointments.
 Lately, I have had many sleepless nights.
List: early, never, now, often, soon, then, today, tomorrow
Adverbs of place (location, direction) - answer the question Where?
 I walked downstairs.
 Have you ever gone there?
 I will meet you outside.
List: above, away, below, down, here, inside, there, up
Adverbs of degree - answer the question How much?
 He is totally prepared for his birthday.
 I am too tired to play tennis tonight.
 He is completely tired from the journey.
List: almost, entirely, little, much, rather, very, too
Adverbs of frequency - answer the question How often?
 He rarely goes by himself.
 She constantly finishes her job first.
always, never, usually, frequently, sometimes, occasionally

                        Conjunctive (connecting) adverbs
Connect the ideas expressed in different clauses or sentences.

Use of conjunctive adverb between two independent clauses requires a semicolon before
the adverb and comma after it.
 I want to sleep; however, I need to study.
If conjunctive adverb is used at the beginning of a sentence, comma is used to set it off.
note that the period takes the place of a semicolon.
 The day was over. Therefore, I went to sleep.
If conjunctive adverb is placed within a clause, commas are used to set it off.
 The day is over. I will, therefore, go to sleep.
Some of the most common conjunctive adverbs: accordingly, also, anyhow,
furthermore, however, moreover, otherwise, still, therefore.
            Interrogative adverbs - used at the beginning of questions.

                              Why are you so angry?
                              When does the movie start?
                             List: why, where, how, when


                             Comparison of adverbs.
Like adjectives, adverbs have three forms of comparison: positive, comparative, and
superlative.

Positive degree expresses the quality without comparison.
Comparative degree compares two verbs, adjectives, or adverbs.
Superlative degree compares three or more verbs, adjectives or adverbs.


                                Adverb comparison

                Most adverbs are compared by using another adverb.
                More or less are used to express the comparative degree.
                Most or least are used to express the superlative degree.
                 I dance gracefully (or horribly).
                 I dance more gracefully (or more horribly).
                 I dance most gracefully ( or most horribly).


                                 Suffix comparison
Some adverbs are compared using a suffix –er for the comparative forms and –est for the
superlative forms.
                          I will arrive soon (or fast).
                          I will arrive sooner (or faster).
                          I will arrive soonest (or fastest).
                                  Irregular comparison
There are also a number of adverbs compared irregularly.
These must be remembered. Here are some of them.

                   POSITIVE        COMPARATIVE               SUPERLATIVE
                   bad/badly      worse                     worst
                   far            farther/further           farthest/furthest
                   late/lately    later                     latest
                   little         less                      least
                   much           more                      most
                   well           better                    best

Beyond comparison
Some adverbs are never compared. They express qualities unsuitable for comparison.
Here are some of them: again, almost, before, ever, never, here, there, now, then, there,
thus, too, twice, very.

Note
The three most common adverbs used in English Language are: not, very, too


                       Adapted from: http://www.esldesk.com/grammar/adverbs.htm




                           Quiz on Adverbs
For each question, you will be asked to select the most appropriate order of modifiers or
the only appropriate placement of modifier(s).

1. Select the sentence in which usually appears in an appropriate position.
A. She usually shops for clothes at the local thrift store.
B. Usually she shops for clothes at the local thrift store.
C. She shops for clothes at the local thrift store usually.
D. Either "A" or "B" is fine.

2. Select the sentence with the most appropriate order of adverbial phrases.
A. She leaves the island during the months of December and January after dark.
B. She leaves the island after dark during the months of December and January.
C. Either "A" or "B" is fine.

3. Select the sentence with the most appropriate order of adverbs and adverbial phrases.
A. Ramonita prays at St. Matthew's Church fervently for her grandmother's recovery.
B. Ramonita prays fervently for her grandmother's recovery at St. Matthew's Church.
C. Ramonita prays fervently at St. Matthew's Church for her grandmother's recovery.
D. Any one of the above is fine.

4. Select the sentence with the most appropriate order of adverbial phrases.
A. Juan made an appointment to see his doctor at two o'clock on the first Thursday of
July next summer.
B. Juan made an appointment next summer to see his doctor next July at two o'clock on
the first Thursday.
C. Either "A" or "B" is fine.

5. Select the sentence with the most appropriate order of modifiers.
A. My father was born in Cleveland in the backroom of a bakery.
B. My father was born in the backroom of a bakery in Cleveland.
C. Either "A" or "B" is fine.

6. Select the sentence with the most appropriate order of modifiers.
A. Dry the car carefully with a soft fluffy towel.
B. Dry the car with a soft fluffy towel carefully.
C. Carefully dry the car with a soft fluffy towel.
D. Either "A" or "C" is fine.

7. Select the most emphatic position for the adverbial modifier of this sentence.
A. Rarely do we see this kind of talent on a small-town high school baseball team.
B. We rarely see this kind of talent on a small-town high school baseball team.
C. "A" and "B" are equally emphatic.

8. Select the sentence with the most appropriate order of adverbial modifiers.
A. He found the golf clubs that his father had used to win the U.S. Open in the car trunk.
B. In the car trunk, he found the golf clubs that his father had used to win the U.S. Open.

9. Select the sentence with the most appropriate position for the adjectival modifier.
A. These miniature roses only grow to be an inch across.
B. These miniature roses grow to be only an inch across.
C. Either "A" or "B" is fine

                 ADAPTED FROM: http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/cgi-shl/quiz.pl/adverbs_quiz.htm




Answers: 1. D; 2. B; 3. C; 4. A; 5. B; 6. D; 7. A; 8. B; 9. B

				
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