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7 Leadership -Styles 2 - Slide 1

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7 Leadership -Styles 2 - Slide 1 Powered By Docstoc
					LEADERSHIP
 qualities, duties,
characteristics &
     styles
               By
     Sr. Vinaya Annese KP
    Professor cum Principal,
   Kasturba Nursing College,
           Sevagram.
DEFINITION :-
“Leadership is the process of empowering
beliefs and teaching others to tap their full
capabilities by shifting the beliefs that
have been limiting them”.
                                   (Robins)
„Leadership may be defined as a process
of persuading and influencing others
towards a goal and is composed of a wide
variety of roles‟.
QUALITIES OF A LEADER
         1. PURPOSEFULNESS
         (WHY ARE YOU A LEADER)


            2. CONFIDENCE
 (SELF-CONFIDENCE, CONFIDENCE IN OTHERS)


       3. SENSE OF COMMITMENT
          (TO PERSONS, CAUSES)


             4. INTEGRITY
          (OPENNESS, SINCERITY)
    5. CREATIVITY
  (TO TAKE INITIATIVES)

     6. COURAGE
     (TO TAKE RISKS)

   7. INVOLVEMENT
     (SOCIAL SKILLS)

     8. FLEXIBILITY

(ADAPTABLE TO SITUATIONS)

   9. COMPETENCE
    (ABILITY + DESIRE)
         10. CO-OPERATING
          (WORKING TOGETHER)

           11. OBEDIENCE
          (CO RESPONSIBILITY)

          12. SACRIFICING
            (HARDWORKING)

          13. ORGANIZING
            (CO-ORDINATING)

            14. EFFICIENT
(TASK ORIENTATED, RELATIONSHIP-ORIENTED)
       15. UN –SELFISH
          (EXTROVERT)


 A PERSON OF RIGHT
      VALUES
   “A LEADER IS AT HIS BEST
   WHEN THE SUBORDINATES
SCARCELY KNOW THAT HE EXISTS”
duties OF A LEADER

         1. ORGANIZE
          (CO-ORDINATE)


    2. CLARIFY THE GOAL
   (COMMUNICATE THE PURPOSE)

     3. KNOW THE GROUP
    (RECOGNIZE THEIR ABILITIES)

           4. INSPIRE
     (HELP TO GET MOTIVATED)
           5. ENCOURAGE
(ACKNOWLEDGE APPRECIATE AND REINFORCE)

          6. BE SENSITIVE
 (ATTEND TO THEIR NEEDS AND PROBLEMS)

           7. HAVE COURAGE
              (TO TAKE RISK)

          8. TAKE INITIATIVE
       (IF THE GROUP LACKS COURAGE)
     9. GET INVOLVED
   (USE THE SOCIAL SKILLS)

      10. BE GENUINE
(HAVE INTEGRITY AND OPENNESS)

   11. HAVE CONFIDENCE
   (IN SELF AND IN THE GROUP)


    ALWAYS ACT WITH
THE SENSE OF COMMITMENT
    SOCIAL SKILLS
      (FOR A SMOOTH AND EFFECTIVE
     INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIP)

         GREETING SKILLS
(WELCOMMING OTHERS “GOOD MORNING,” “I
    AM SO AND SO,” “HOW ARE YOU?”)

        POLITENESS SKILLS
(EXPRESSING ONE‟S CO-FEELINGS BY GOOD
     WISHES AND HELPING OTHERS)
          LISTENING SKILLS
          (OPENNESS TO OTHERS)
      1. ATTENDING PHYSICALLY
WELCOMING, INTEREST IN, PROVIDING FOR THE
            NEEDS OF OTHERS

          2. UNDERSTANDING
 SPOKEN WORDS (CONTENT), FEELING, BODY-
               LANGUAGE

         OBSERVING SKILLS
      (SENSING NON-VERBAL MESSAGE)
    BEHAVIOUR, SILENCE, NON-
         COOPERATION
       SKILL OF GRATITUDE
    (UNDERSTANDING, ACKNOWLEDGE,
    APPRECIATE, THE GOOD IN OTHERS)
     THANK YOU”, “VERY KIND OF YOU”,
               “EXELLENT”

         SKILL OF HUMOUR
        (TAKE IT EASY STRATEGY)

 CREATING A PLEASANT ATMOSPHERE JOKES
WITHOUT HURTING OTHERS READINESS TO BE
LAUGHED AT BUT NOT LAUGHING AT OTHERS
             SOCIAL SKILLS
                     LISTENING SKILLS

1. BE INTERESTED AND SHOW IT
  (Have genuine concern with suitable
  expressions)

2. TUNE IN TO THE OTHER PERSON
  (Viewpoint, assumptions, needs and beliefs of
  the speaker)

3. HOLD YOUR FIRE
  (Avoid jumping into conclusions)
4. LOOK FOR THE MAIN IDEAS
  (Focus on the key issue details may distract)

5. WATCH FOR FEELINGS
  (Feeling, not facts, may be main message)

6. MONITOR YOUR FEELINGS & VIEWS
  (Beware of your own attitudes, reactions)

8. READ NONVERBAL LANGUAGE
 (A smile, a nervous laugh, gestures, facial
 expressions etc.)
9. GIVE THE BENEFIT OF DOUBT
  (Prejudices can block new messages)

10. WORK AT LISTENING
    (Hearing is passive, listening is active)

11. GET FEEDBACK
    (Confirm your understanding)

     The Golden rule of listening
Listen to others as you would like to be listened to
GOD ALONE IS THE PERFECT LISTENER
   Leadership styles
I. Scientific   Leaders Styles:-

 This theory was developed by F.W.Taylor. He
 relied on scientific study of time and movement
 spent and used for a job to improve the
 performance of the worker and recommended
 careful selection and training of workers, who
 could meet the established work standard. The
 leader utilizes this Taylor‟s principles. He will be
 the most competent individual in planning and
 organizing the work of subordinates.
II. Trait Theory of Leadership:-

  Trait theory has a belief that leaders were
  born with certain qualities that determine
  leadership ability and success and relies
  on research that relates various traits to
  the success of leader.
  According to this theory, leader is gifted
  with or develops certain physical,
  intellectual or personality.
        Characteristics of a leader:

   A Forceful personality
   Ability to persuade people to a cause of
    action
   Efficiency
   Integrity
   Ability to get along people
            A broad classification of six
          characteristics of Traits Theory


    Physical characteristics of a leader – e.g. Age,
    height, weight.

   Background characteristics – e.g. education,
    experience

   Personality – e.g. alertness, self confidence,
    independence.

   Task oriented characteristics e.g. responsibility,
    initiative
5.   Intelligence – e.g. ability, judgment,
     knowledge

6. Social characteristics – e.g.
   cooperativeness, popularity.
III. Behaviour Theory of Leadership Style:-


  A leader behaves according to the role
  expectations of the group.
  This theorist believes that leadership
  style like other behviours can be learned,
  regulated and developed.

  Research has identified four style of
  leadership.
I. Autocratic Style:-

 In this style, leader takes all decisions and
 assigns all responsibility to himself, he is
 firm    insistent,    self    assured     and
 dominating. Such a leader stresses
 prompt,       orderly     and     predictable
 performance from employees or followers.

 The authoritarian leader may also be
 “Benevolent autocratic”
     The autocratic          style   the   leader   is
     characteristics
1.   Strong control is maintained over the groups

2.   Others are motivated by coercion

3.   Communication flows downwards.

4.   Decision making does not involve others

5.   Emphasis on difference and status

6.   Criticism is punitive
II. Democratic Style:-
    In this type of leadership, the leader values the
    individual characteristics and abilities of each
    subordinate.
    This style is a people centered approach. The
    democratic leader uses personal and positional
    power and cooperative decision methods. To
    draw out ideas from employees and motivate
    them to set their own work goals, develop their
    own plans, control their own practice.
   It is a creative leadership, here leader delegate
    authority to subordinate.
    In democratic style          leader     exhibits
    following behaviour:-

   Less control is maintained
   Economic and ego awards are used to motivate.
   Others are directive through suggestions and
    guidance.
   Communication flows up to down.
   Decision making involves others
   Emphasis in “we” rather than I & you.
   Criticism is constructive
III. Participative Style:-

  Here the leader allows subordinates to
  participate      in     decision    making,
  consequently the subordinates have the
  feeling of satisfaction and freedom.

IV. Laissez faire style/ Freedom style:-
  The leader leaves all decision making and
  responsibility to the group
 It is characterized by the following behaviours

1.   He is permissive with little or no control
2.   Motivate by support when requested by the group
3.   Little or no direction is provided
4.   Communication is between members of the group
     and upward and downward
5.   Decision making is dispersed throughout the group
6.   Emphasis is on the group
7.   Criticism not given
Situational Theory of Leadership:-

In this style a leader is the product of a
given situation and the behaviour may in
fact vary from one situation to another. This
theory includes the traits of man i.e.
qualities    and   motivation,     the   role
expectations of the group and the social
forces at the work i.e. external fact is that
bring forth and shape the leadership
potential.
     According to this theory there are five kinds of
     leaders


1.    Natural Leader:- Here the person becomes a
      leader in spite of himself. Eg. Mahatma Gandhi.

2.    Charismatic Leader:-         the person is an
      authentic hero in the eyes of the followers for he
      can do no role. Ex. Netaji Subhaschandra Bose.

3.    Rational Leader:-         Here the person         is
      consistent and persistent. Ex. Carle Marks.
4.   Consensus Leader:- The leader is perceived
     as acceptable to all. Ex. President of India

5.   Leader by Force:- He dominates other to
     fear suppresses the opposition. Ex. Hitler,
     Napoleon
     In situational leadership the leader adopts four
                         methods


1.    Directing:-      The leader provide specific
      instructions and supervises the accomplishment
      of task. There is high direction and low
      supportive behaviour.

2.    Coaching:-            Leader      monitors     the
      accomplishment of tasks, explain decisions
      asking for feed back or suggestions. There is
      high directive and high supportive behaviours.
      The leader and staff jointly develop work plan.
3.   Supporting:-       Leader support efforts of
     others. Facilitated their goal accomplishment
     and shares responsibility for decision making.
     There is high supportive and low directive
     behaviour.

4.   Delegating:- Leader gives the responsibility
     for decision making and problem solving to
     mature staff who have demonstrated their
     competence. There is low supportive and low
     directive behaviour. The leader recognize that
     there are more than one right way to do things
     and gives authority to staff that matches their
     level of responsibility. This leads to staff
     empowerment.
     The corner stone of the situational
     leadership is the flexibility of the leader in
     adapting to the needs of the individual or
     group.

         Characteristics of a
               leader

1.   Realize the dignity of the people
2.   Should not manipulate human beings or
     use them to achieve his own purpose
3.   Set examples for others
4.   Promote happiness among members
5.   Should be able to speak well and write
     well
6.   Able to motivate others
7.   Able to influence others
8.   Posses all the human qualities
           LEADERSHIP
  14 STEPS TOWARDS BECOMING A LEADER


1. BRODEN YOUR VISION
  (Have a high dreams)


2. WIN, DON‟T REPEL
  (Never force any one challenge and warm up)


3. COMMUNICATE
  (Clarify, remove obstacles, improve)
4. LISTEN
 (Understand, acknowledge, appreciate)

5. KEEP LEARNING
 (Search for truth is a life long journey)

6. BE YOURSELF
 (No imitation, no pretension)

7. GIVE AS YOU WOULD GET
 (Abide by the golden rule)

8. SHOW COURAGE
 (Do good, the power is within)
9.   DON‟T JUMP INTO CONCLUSIONS
     (Be patient, don‟t judge)

10. TAKE TIME TO THINK
     (Stop think. Pray Cry a little. Smile a little.
     Then go on)

11. DON‟T BE IN SUCH A HURRY
     (Slow but steady. Haste makes waste)

12. PRAY
     (Prayer unites you with the almighty it brings
     power within)
13. SAY THANKS
    (Everyone is worthy of it)


14. PONDER ON “WHAT IS TRUE
     LEADERSHIP?”
    (Remember the sole commandment: “Love
    one another”)


 LIFE IS A CALL TO SHARE IN THE
 WORLD’S MAKING

				
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