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					The Phrase
   and
Comma Use
               The Phrase
A phrase is a group of related words without both
  a subject and a verb that function together as
  one part of speech.
Types of Phrases (Explanations to follow.)
- Verb Phrase
- Prepositional Phrase
   - Adjective Phrase
    - Adverb Phrase
- Verbal Phrase
   - Participial Phrase
   - Gerund Phrase
   - Infinitive Phrase
- Appositive Phrase
            Types of Phrases
A verb phrase consists of at least one helping
  verb and a main verb (action or linking) that
  together act as the verb in the sentence.

To identify the kind of verb phrase (action or
  linking), focus on the main verb – the last verb in
  the phrase.

Comma Use: only used to separate a series of
 verb phrases
              Types of Phrases
A prepositional phrase consists of a
  preposition, its object, and all modifiers of
  the object which together function as an
  adjective or an adverb.
Types of Prepositional Phrases
(Explanations to follow.)
- Adjective Phrase
- Adverb Phrase
Types of Prepositional Phrases
An adjective phrase is a prepositional
 phrase that functions as an adjective.
 Identify it, “box it”, and ask the adjective
 checking questions to see if it answers
 them.
Comma Use: a comma follows the last in
 a series of introductory prepositional
 phrases
Types of Prepositional Phrases
An adverb phrase is a prepositional phrase
 that functions like an adverb. Identify it,
 “box it”, and ask the adverb questions to
 see if it answers them.

Comma Use: a comma follows the last in
 a series of introductory prepositional
 phrases
              Types of Phrases
A verbal phrase is a phrase that contains a
  verb form, its modifiers and complements
  which together act as something other
  than a verb.
Types of Verbal Phrases
(Explanations to follow.)
- Participial Phrases
- Gerund Phrases
- Infinitive Phrases
      Types of Verbal Phrases
A participial phrase consists of a verb form
  ending in –ed/-d, -ing, or an irregular form
  without a helping verb before it, its modifiers
  and complements which together function as an
  adjective. Identify it, “box it”, and ask the
  adjective questions.

Comma Use:
Set off unnecessary participial phrases with commas.
Place a comma after an introductory participial phrase.
      Types of Verbal Phrases
A gerund phrase consists of a verb form ending in
  –ing, its modifiers and complements which
  together function as a noun in a sentence.
  Identify it, “box it”, and see if it serves one of the
  noun functions below.

Noun functions: subject, predicate nominative,
 direct object, indirect object, object of a
 preposition.
     Types of Verbal Phrases
An infinitive phrase consists of “to” plus a
 verb, its modifiers and complements which
 together function as a noun, adjective, or
 adverb. Identify it, “box it”, and ask the
 noun, adjective, or adverb questions to
 see how it functions in the sentence.
           Types of Phrases
An appositive phrase is a group of related words
  that renames or further identifies the noun or
  pronoun directly before it.

Comma Use:
All appositive phrases are set off by commas.
A one-word appositive that closely identifies
  the preceding noun/pronoun (a restrictive
  appositive) does not need a comma

				
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posted:10/10/2010
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