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					      THE SUM OF THE PARTS:
    Turning Digital Library Initiatives
           into a Great Whole


Keynote Address to the Joint
Conference on Digital Libraries
Denver, Colorado, 8 June 2005

Deanna B. Marcum
Associate Librarian for Library Services
Library of Congress
Washington, DC
    The Sum of the Parts: Turning Digital Library Initiatives in a Great Whole

       JOINT CONFERENCE ON DIGITAL LIBRARIES – JUNE 2005
Announcement from

 “. . . the future of the library is that there is
 no library -- at least not as we know it today
 . . . the always-on Millennial generation is
 knocking on the workforce door in ever-
 increasing numbers with expectations that
 are further rocking the floorboards of the
 enterprise.”
                Outsell, Inc., “TrendAlert: Google’s Impact on Libraries,”
                   InfoAboutInfo Briefing, vol. 8 (April 15, 2005): 10.

   The Sum of the Parts: Turning Digital Library Initiatives in a Great Whole

      JOINT CONFERENCE ON DIGITAL LIBRARIES – JUNE 2005
“The Infinite Library”
 “If you’re over 30, today’s libraries are probably
 nothing like the ones you remember ... Enter any
 major library today and you’ll find an armory of
 computers and a platoon of specialists, from the
 reference librarians who are expert at accessing
 online resources to the acquisitions officers who
 decide which books, CDs, DVDs, and subscriptions
 to purchase, to the computer geeks who keep the
 building’s network running.”
        Wade Roush, “The Infinite Library,” MIT Technology Review (June 2005):
    http://www.technologyreview.com/articles/05/05/issue/feature_library.asp, pg. 5.

    The Sum of the Parts: Turning Digital Library Initiatives in a Great Whole

       JOINT CONFERENCE ON DIGITAL LIBRARIES – JUNE 2005
A Decade of Digital Library Projects




   The Sum of the Parts: Turning Digital Library Initiatives in a Great Whole

      JOINT CONFERENCE ON DIGITAL LIBRARIES – JUNE 2005
American Memory – 3.4 Billion Hits




   The Sum of the Parts: Turning Digital Library Initiatives in a Great Whole

      JOINT CONFERENCE ON DIGITAL LIBRARIES – JUNE 2005
Global Gateway – International Projects




   The Sum of the Parts: Turning Digital Library Initiatives in a Great Whole

      JOINT CONFERENCE ON DIGITAL LIBRARIES – JUNE 2005
Prints and Photographs Online Catalog




   The Sum of the Parts: Turning Digital Library Initiatives in a Great Whole

      JOINT CONFERENCE ON DIGITAL LIBRARIES – JUNE 2005
Veterans History Project




   The Sum of the Parts: Turning Digital Library Initiatives in a Great Whole

      JOINT CONFERENCE ON DIGITAL LIBRARIES – JUNE 2005
Library of Congress Exhibitions




   The Sum of the Parts: Turning Digital Library Initiatives in a Great Whole

      JOINT CONFERENCE ON DIGITAL LIBRARIES – JUNE 2005
A Comprehensive Digital Library?
  American Memory Digital Collections
  Global Gateway International
   Collections
  Prints and Photographs Catalog
  Veterans History Project Collections
  Online Exhibitions and Wise Guide
  “Born Digital” Collections
     911 Digital Archive
     StoryCorps Oral Histories
     Mali Manuscripts

    The Sum of the Parts: Turning Digital Library Initiatives in a Great Whole

       JOINT CONFERENCE ON DIGITAL LIBRARIES – JUNE 2005
Same Trends in Research Libraries
  Grant driven project development
  Projects proliferated in library, IT shop, and
   “in the wild”
  Virtual education and scholarly communication
  DSpace at MIT… a newly developed digital
   repository created to capture, distribute and
   preserve the intellectual output of MIT.




    The Sum of the Parts: Turning Digital Library Initiatives in a Great Whole

       JOINT CONFERENCE ON DIGITAL LIBRARIES – JUNE 2005
Research Library Digital Projects




   The Sum of the Parts: Turning Digital Library Initiatives in a Great Whole

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More than 600 “public access collections”
  Yale’s database for Biblical scholars
  U. of Washington’s 19th- century actors collection
  U. of Chicago’s dictionary of Urdu, classical Hindi,
   and English
  U. of Southern California’s East Asian maps
  U. of Minnesota’s stereoscopic views of India

       More digital projects are continuously
         added by research libraries here
              and around the world.
    The Sum of the Parts: Turning Digital Library Initiatives in a Great Whole

       JOINT CONFERENCE ON DIGITAL LIBRARIES – JUNE 2005
European Efforts to Coordinate
  Conference of European National Librarians
   TEL -- The European Library
  Launched March 17 by 9 participating libraries
  11 million digitized items from 150 collections

                                            “The European Library
                                         exists to open up the universe
                                          of knowledge, information,
                                          and cultures of all Europe’s
                                              national libraries.”

    The Sum of the Parts: Turning Digital Library Initiatives in a Great Whole

       JOINT CONFERENCE ON DIGITAL LIBRARIES – JUNE 2005
Project Aquifer: Digital Library Federation




    The Sum of the Parts: Turning Digital Library Initiatives in a Great Whole

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Project Aquifer: 3 Phases
 1. Access to digital collections of participating
    institutions through a collaborative portal
 2. Develop or enhance special services for users
 3. Make “deep sharing” possible
     Access to contents of multiple digital libraries’ collections
     Ability to modify and redeposit collections for local purposes




    The Sum of the Parts: Turning Digital Library Initiatives in a Great Whole

       JOINT CONFERENCE ON DIGITAL LIBRARIES – JUNE 2005
Summing up the Decade
 Digital library work began a decade ago
 There was much experimentation, from which
  libraries have learned a great deal
 Libraries have produced many unconnected
  products and projects
 New initiatives are beginning to bring individual
  digital libraries together through portals
 Special services are making it possible to reuse
  digital library content in new and exciting ways



   The Sum of the Parts: Turning Digital Library Initiatives in a Great Whole

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Is Something More Ambitious Possible?
  Could The European Library and the Digital
   Library Federation successfully come together in
   coordinated access systems?
  Can the dream of a universal collection become a
   reality?
  Does digital technology make a universally
   accessible collection possible?

    A library of all the world’s resources,
          accessible to all the world!

    The Sum of the Parts: Turning Digital Library Initiatives in a Great Whole

       JOINT CONFERENCE ON DIGITAL LIBRARIES – JUNE 2005
Making the Dream a Reality
  Is the “universal digital library” achievable?
  How could we create universal access to the
   libraries of the world?
  What would it take to provide electronic access
   to library resources for all from everywhere?


            We can make the dream a
                reality if we do
              four major things…
    The Sum of the Parts: Turning Digital Library Initiatives in a Great Whole

       JOINT CONFERENCE ON DIGITAL LIBRARIES – JUNE 2005
1: Update Copyright Regulations
  Legal restrictions to access are “fencing the
   commons of the mind”
  Contents of digital libraries are largely “public
   domain” materials
  Author’s lifetime + 70 years was upheld by the
   Supreme Court in 2003

 “…contractual licenses are supplanting copyright laws,
 with content owners mandating more restrictions on
 who uses resources and how these resources may be
 used.”             -- Association of Research Libraries


    The Sum of the Parts: Turning Digital Library Initiatives in a Great Whole

       JOINT CONFERENCE ON DIGITAL LIBRARIES – JUNE 2005
1: Update Copyright Regulations
  Library consortia can hold down costs of
   licensing digital commercial databases
  ALA and others are trying to prevent further
   expansion of intellectual property rights and
   further erosion of “fair use”
  Librarians and scholars are developing new
   “open access” resources




    The Sum of the Parts: Turning Digital Library Initiatives in a Great Whole

       JOINT CONFERENCE ON DIGITAL LIBRARIES – JUNE 2005
1: Update Copyright Regulations




   The Sum of the Parts: Turning Digital Library Initiatives in a Great Whole

      JOINT CONFERENCE ON DIGITAL LIBRARIES – JUNE 2005
2: Ensure Long-Term Preservation
  Digital media may deteriorate substantially
   within five to thirty years
  Digital media can be rendered unreadable due to
   obsolescence of hardware and software
  Migration of data to new media and systems can
   prolong the life of digital library resources
  We must be able to make online access perpetual
   in order to achieve more than a short-term payoff
   for the substantial investment made in digitizing
   the world’s libraries


    The Sum of the Parts: Turning Digital Library Initiatives in a Great Whole

       JOINT CONFERENCE ON DIGITAL LIBRARIES – JUNE 2005
2: Ensure Long-Term Preservation
  National Digital Information Infrastructure and
   Preservation Program (NDIIPP) created in 2002
    Architectural model for federated digital preservation
    Plan for preservation research and development
  Research grants totaling $3 million awarded:
    University of California San Diego (2 grants)
    University of Maryland
    Drexel University
    University of Arizona
    University of Michigan
    Old Dominion University
    University of Tennessee at Knoxville
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
    Johns Hopkins University
    The Sum of the Parts: Turning Digital Library Initiatives in a Great Whole

       JOINT CONFERENCE ON DIGITAL LIBRARIES – JUNE 2005
3: Link Libraries and Digital Collections
  Activities of the Digital Library Federation:
     Collection-planning framework - activities required to plan and
      build specific collections for online use
     Tools for data mining, metadata enrichment, and other
      technical activities to help “curators” develop focused collections
      for specialized user groups
     Semantic analysis, thesaurus representation, protocols for
      interrogation
     Digital filestores, repository options, access controls, and rights
      management approaches




     The Sum of the Parts: Turning Digital Library Initiatives in a Great Whole

        JOINT CONFERENCE ON DIGITAL LIBRARIES – JUNE 2005
3: Link Libraries and Digital Collections




    The Sum of the Parts: Turning Digital Library Initiatives in a Great Whole

       JOINT CONFERENCE ON DIGITAL LIBRARIES – JUNE 2005
4: Find More Funding




   The Sum of the Parts: Turning Digital Library Initiatives in a Great Whole

      JOINT CONFERENCE ON DIGITAL LIBRARIES – JUNE 2005
4: Find More Funding
  Funding is needed for mass digitization
  Google “print” will pay for digitizing
   and provide access through search

    “most librarians and archivists are ecstatic
   about the announcement, saying it will likely
  be remembered as the moment in history when
     society finally got serious about making
              knowledge ubiquitous.”
        Wade Roush, “The Infinite Library,” MIT Technology Review (May 2005):
     http://www.technologyreview.com/articles/05/05/issue/feature_library.asp?p=1

    The Sum of the Parts: Turning Digital Library Initiatives in a Great Whole

       JOINT CONFERENCE ON DIGITAL LIBRARIES – JUNE 2005
If society can “make
knowledge ubiquitous” the
benefits will be enormous!




  The Sum of the Parts: Turning Digital Library Initiatives in a Great Whole

     JOINT CONFERENCE ON DIGITAL LIBRARIES – JUNE 2005