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					MORPHOLOGY
 “Word Classes
  and Affixes”


                 Deny A. Kwary
                 www.kwary.net
   Main Divisions of Word Classes
         (Parts of Speech):
                    •   Nouns
                    •   Verbs
• Content Words
                    •   Adjectives
                    •   Adverbs

                    •   Conjunctions
                    •   Prepositions
• Function Words
                    •   Articles
                    •   Pronouns
Exercise: Determine the word class
  of each of the following words
     a.   canine          a.   Noun
     b.   the             b.   Article
     c.   him             c.   Pronoun
     d.   elegant         d.   Adjective
     e.   inconvenience   e.   Noun
     f.   eloquently      f.   Adverb
     g.   comply          g.   Verb
     h.   inasmuch as     h.   Conjunction
     i.   over            i.   Preposition
         Morpheme:
 The minimal unit of meaning

Free morpheme: a single
 morpheme that constitutes
 a word and can stand alone.
Bound morpheme: a morpheme
 that must be attached to
 another morpheme.
        Question #2
       a, b, i, j, k, l, m
Example:
• Retroactive = retro + act + ive
   Free morpheme = act
   Bound morphemes = retro-, -ive
     English Affixes
  (based on the position)

Prefix: An affix   Suffix: An affix
  that occurs       that occurs
  before a          after a
  morpheme          morpheme
     English Prefixes
Examples of Negative Prefixes:
 un-    non-      dis-     a-

Examples of size and degree prefixes:
 mini- sub-        over-    super-
        English Suffixes
Class preserving     Class changing suffixation:
  suffixation:          Verb  Noun
  -er  lecturer         perform performance
  -ian librarian       Adjective  Adverb
  -ist  scientist       nice  nicely
  -let  piglet         Adjective  Noun
                         active  activity
       Affixes
(based on the function)

Inflections vs. Derivations
Definition
     • Derivational
       morpheme: deriving
       (creating) a new word
       with a new meaning.
     • Inflectional
       morpheme: changing
       the form of a word
       because of the rules
       of syntax.
English Inflectional Morphemes

  Nouns
     –s          plural
     –’s         possessive
  Verbs
     –s          third person singular present
     –ed         past tense
     –en         past participle
     –ing        progressive
  Adjectives
     –er         comparative
     –est        superlative
    Some examples of English
     Derivational Morpheme
•   -ic     : Noun  Adj    ; alcohol  alcoholic
•   -ance   : Verb  Noun   ; clear  clearance
•   -ly     : Adj  Adv     ; exact  exactly
•   -ity    : Adj  Noun    ; active  activity
•   -able    : Verb  Adj   ; read  readable
• -ship : Noun  Noun ; friend  friendship
• re-       : Verb  Verb ; cover  recover
• in-       : Adj  Adj     ; definite  indefinite
     Describe the italic affixes:
1)    impossible   1) Derivational prefix
2)   terrorized    2) Inflectional suffix
3)   terrorize     3) Derivational suffix
4)   desks         4) Inflectional suffix
5)    dislike      5) Derivational prefix
6)   humanity      6) Derivational suffix
7)   fastest       7) Inflectional suffix
 Describe the italic affixes:
8)    premature   8) Derivational prefix
9)    untie       9) Derivational prefix
10)   darken      10) Derivational suffix
11)   fallen      11) Inflectional suffix
12)   oxen        12) Inflectional suffix
13)   faster      13) Inflectional suffix
14)   lecturer    14) Derivational suffix
That’s All For Today
   See You Next Week



                       Deny A. Kwary
                       www.kwary.net

				
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