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					Public Policy Digest
Research Grants Council of Hong Kong, China                                                                         www.ugc.edu.hk/eng/rgc                    Issue 3: September 2010




Who Gets Ahead (or Stays Behind):
Life Chances and Social Mobility in
Hong Kong
Topic
There witnessed a change in the popular mood in the so-called Four Little Dragons of Asia in the past decade. The sense of
optimism that was once a distinctive feature of these newly industrialized economies evaporated. Because of changes in the
economic environment, there are discussions of a major transformation of the social structures there.

Current fears of a major shift in the opportunity structure of Hong Kong are based upon three perceived changes. First, there is
a decrease in the size of the middle class. This refers to a drop in the relative size of the middle class in the economically active
population. Second, there is a stronger thesis suggesting a disappearance of the middle class. Third, because of such drastic
changes, opportunities for upward mobility have been significantly reduced.

Methods Used
A survey (the 2006 Survey thereafter) was carried out by means of questionnaire interviews for gathering data on mobility
experience and the respondents’ subjective perception. Its sample covered randomly selected respondents, except full-time
students, who were between 18 and 64 years old. Fieldwork was carried out in May 2006 – January 2007. Altogether 1,779
questionnaires were collected. The response rate was 40.88%.

Summary of Findings
To address the above concerns, we look at Hong Kong’s changing class structure. Compared to survey findings in 1989 and 1992, all
of them (the 2006 Survey inclusive) adopting a classification informed by the work of Goldthorpe, it is observed that changes in the
class structure are rather slow. Similar to previous observations, the proportion of the middle class remains roughly one fifth of the
sample. Economic restructuring has not brought about a disappearance of the middle class. The middle class has not disappeared; it
was only growing slowly. Also, there has not been a decrease in the relative share of the middle class among all social classes. In this
regard, neither the weak thesis of a shrinkage of the middle class nor the strong thesis of a disappearance of the middle class stand
up to an empirical test.

The aforementioned warnings also suggest that changes in the opportunity structure would force people to experience downward
social mobility. The findings of the 2006 Survey suggest that 44.4% of the respondents experienced upward mobility, 23.1%
immobility, and 18.6% downward mobility. Such descriptive statistics should be interpreted with caution. But simple statistics as
such does warn us not to jump too quickly to the conclusion that it is now commonplace to observe downward social mobility.

Policy Implications and Recommendations
Further statistical modeling confirms the above observations. Generally speaking, Hong Kong in 2006 remained open in terms of
opportunity for mobility. This is particularly so for those coming from families of non-manual employment and small business.

Our observation is not that different from the description of mobility pattern in previous studies. There are both chances of
mobility and barriers to social advancement. The suggestion of a complete reversal in mobility experience is not supported by our
analysis of social mobility in 2006.

Selected Publications Related to the Studies
“金融風暴後的香港中產階級.’ 中國研究 ,總第7-8期,2008.

“Hong Kong’s changing opportunity structures: political concerns and
sociological observations.” Social Transformations in Chinese Societies,
Vol.5, 2009.

“教育是上向流動的金鑰匙?” 張炳良等, 香港經驗 . 香港:商務印書館,2009.




Biography of Principal Investigator
Lui Tai-lok, Professor at Department of Sociology, The University of Hong Kong. He is the co-author of “Hong Kong: Becoming a Chinese Global City
and Hong Kong, China: Learning to Belong to a Nation.

                           The views expressed in the articles are those of the contributors and not necessarily those of the RGC unless explicitly stated.
Assessment of Suitability of Existing
Air Quality Objectives (AQO) and Air
Pollution Index (API) Used in Hong Kong
Topic
Air pollution is one of the major environmental problems in Hong Kong. Hong Kong has experienced increasing and acute street
level pollution, mainly from the high density of vehicles in an extremely compact environment. Air quality has been deteriorated
in Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta (PRD) over the past 5 years. This is having an impact on the quality of life and economic
well-being of Hong Kong. Industry, stationary power sources and vehicles in Hong Kong and the Pearl River Region are the sources
of air pollution. In response to this problem, the Hong Kong and Guangdong governments have drawn up the Regional Air
Quality Management Plan commiting to reduce the levels of VOCs by 55%, SO2 by 40%, NOx by 20% and RSP by 55%, based on
1997 levels, by 2010. In Hong Kong, local initiatives are mainly focused on vehicle emissions, VOCs and power station emissions.
Meanwhile, people start to question the suitability of current air quality objective (AQOs) and air pollution index (API) used in HK.
The project proposed here aims to investigate/assess the appropriateness and the possible revision of existing AQO/API stipulations
by: a) collecting/reviewing available backward tracing air pollutant database of Hong Kong territory; b) evaluating the risk levels
of interactive patterns within principal pollutants; c) analyzing the potential varying trends of major air pollutants in Hong Kong
urban air; and d) providing guiding information for critical pollutant emission control and AQO/API revisions.

Methods Used
The methods used include a) Surveying and data collection; b) Statistical analyses of collected data to reveal weekly, monthly, and
annually trends of principal air pollutants in Hong Kong; c) Model development to predict cross-transfer patterns between air
pollutants, e.g., artificial neural network (ANN) model, system dynamic model, etc.; d) Generalization and analysis of outputs.

Summary of Findings
Urban air quality has significant impact on residents and city image, especially to a metropolitan city like Hong Kong, which is
characterized by high population density and shortage of land resource. The formulation of an appropriate air pollution indexes
(APIs) and air quality objective (AQOs) guideline can provide useful information for various parties for further prevention and
action. The proposed study on the rationale of existing APIs and AQOs can establish solid base and provide reliable suggestions to
the operation and control of these criterions. The study can also help policy makers to justify and revise relevant regulations in due
course.

Policy Implications and Recommendations
•	 The	calculation	system	of	API	indexes	used	by	HKEPD	should	be	open	to	public	in	terms	of	definition	and	formation;
•	 Particulate	matters	smaller	than	2.5	microns,	i.e.,	PM2.5, should be adopted in the existing AQO criterion. PM2.5 is defined as
   particulate matter having an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5μm (micrometer) or less in cubic meter of ambient air. PM2.5 level
   represents the fine particulate pollution in the urban air and also contributes to the smog phenomena. As a new air quality
   indicator, PM2.5 has been used in most developed countries. Table 1 indicates that the existing HKAQOs are relatively loosen
   compared to relevant items implemented in other countries.

                                             Table 1 Comparison of Air Quality Objectives (AQOs) within different regions
                                 CO                    SO2              NO2              PM10             PM2.5              O3                Lead
            Items              (µg/m3)               (µg/m3)          (µg/m3)          (µg/m3)           (µg/m3)           (µg/m3)           (µg/m3)
          Hong Kong          30000 (1hr)            800 (1 hr)       300 (1 hr)      180 (24 hrs)           –             240 (1 hr)       1.5 (3 mths)
                             10000 (8hrs)          350 (24 hrs)     150 (24 hrs)       55 (1 yr)
            Europe           10000 (8hrs)           350 (1 hr)       200 (1 hr)       50 (24 hrs)      40 (24 hrs)        180 (1 hr)            –
                                                   125 (24 hrs)       40 (1 yr)        40 (1 yr)        20 (1 yr)         120 (8 hrs)
                                                     20 (1 yr)
             PRC             10000 (1 hr)           500 (1 hr)       240 (1 hr)      150 (24 hrs)          –              200 (1 hr)            –
                             4000 (24 hrs)         150 (24 hrs)     120 (24 hrs)      100 (1 yr)
                                                     60 (1 yr)        80 (1 yr)
             UK              10000 (8 hrs)          350 (1 hr)       200 (1 hr)       50 (24 hrs)       25 (1 yr)         100 (8 hrs)       0.25 (1 yr)
                                                   125 (24 hrs)                        40 (1 yr)
             USA             30000 (1 hr)           800 (1 hr)       300 (1 hr)      150 (24 hrs)      35 (24 hrs)        235 (1 hr)       1.5 (3 mths)
                             10000 (8 hrs)         350 (24 hrs)     150 (24 hrs)                        15 (1 yr)


It is suggested that the government should provide more resources to support the continuous study on those air pollutants, which
present increasing trends in Hong Kong, especially on roadsides air pollution. In addition, investigation on particulate matters
smaller than 2.5 microns, i.e., PM2.5 below, should be encouraged and extended. This is an important approach to further improve
air quality in Hong Kong in future.

Selected Publications Related to the Study
Lu, WZ, Wang, XK, 2008, ‘Investigation of respirable suspended particulate trend and relevant environmental factors in Hong Kong
downtown areas’, Chemosphere, 71(3), 561-567.

Lu, WZ, Wang, D, 2008, ‘Ground-level ozone prediction by support vector machine approach with a cost-sensitive classification
scheme’, Science of the Total Environment, 395, 109-116.

Wang, D, Lu, WZ, 2006, ‘Forecasting ozone levels and analyzing their dynamics by a Bayesian multilayer perception model for two
air-monitoring sites in Hong Kong’, Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 12(2), 313-327.


Biography of Principal Investigator
Jane WZ Lu, Associate Professor in the Department of Building and Construction at the City University of Hong Kong. Her main research interests
include air pollution in urban environment, air quality in buildings, air pollution impact on health and built environment using different approaches like
Computational Fluid Dynamics, soft computing, and measurement, etc.

E2
Development of Music Education in the
21st Century: Cultural and Policy Issues
Topic
This project included two major objectives:
1. To look at the extent to which participation in music has a clear and significant relationship to social well-being.
2. To justify music as a part of every child’s education, and as key means for developing communities.

Methods Used
Multiple research methods were employed, including two questionnaire surveys to Hong Kong primary and secondary school
students and individual interview surveys to school authorities, school heads, music teachers, music educators, music practitioners,
policy makers and parents.

Summary of Findings
(I)     Major findings of the first questionnaire survey
        Data were drawn from a questionnaire conducted in Hong Kong between November 2006 and December 2006 with
        3,243 students attending in 22 primary and secondary schools. School music teachers, private instrumental coaches and
        parents were rated as the three most important sources of musical knowledge by primary school students; whilst school
        general music teachers and instrumental teachers and the mass media were ranked as the three most significant sources
        by secondary school students. The three preferred musical styles among students were popular songs, traditional Western
        music and music of other countries; whilst the least preferred were Chinese folk songs, Cantonese opera, and Beijing opera.
        The greater issues are how and to what extent music education in Hong Kong can take broader educational and socio-
        political concerns into account. In this respect, the authorities can take steps to organize more cultural activities to promote
        their various music traditions.

(II)    Major findings of the second questionnaire survey
        This survey was prepared for the follow-up student questionnaire survey on the relationship between parental support
        for their children’s formal and informal music learning, and those children’s musical experiences, both inside and outside
        school. Data were drawn from a questionnaire conducted in Hong Kong between October 2007 and November 2007 with
        1,493 students, who were attending Form one to Form seven (i.e. grades seven – thirteen) in ten secondary schools. When
        asked about which people were most dedicated to listening to their music practice, mothers were thought to be the best
        audience after instrumental teachers. Compared with their fathers, mothers were also more likely to provide their children
        with financial assistance for music activities, support for their progress, and they had more positive attitudes towards their
        children’s musical interests.

(III)   Major findings of qualitative inquiry: semi-structured interviews
        Semi-structured interviews were conducted between December 2006 and September 2007. Findings focused on the role of
        music education in mediating between the multiple identities that arise from the shared policy of combining traditional
        Chinese music with that of other cultures. They also revealed a number of complex and interconnected themes that both
        aid and hinder students’ musical participation and learning.

Policy Implications and Recommendations
The most significant policy implication of this study is that schools must assume responsibility for designing and producing a
standard music curriculum, and become better-informed consumers of music programmes. Such efforts will boost the presence of
music in our schools and give music educators, arts administrators, policy makers and other interested parties a clearer vision of
music education as a lifelong learning process. Making this a reality will require commitment from the Hong Kong government,
educators, music teachers, parents, the public and cultural organisations. Collaboration between parents, music teachers and
practitioners can lend powerful support for music programmes in schools. Parental involvement and encouragement is an integral
part of, not only encouraging decision makers to include music education as part of the basic curriculum, but also to guarantee the
best possible education for all students.

Selected Publications Related to the Study
Ho, W. C., & Law, W. W. (2009). Sociopolitical culture and school music education in
Hong Kong. British Journal of Music Education, 26(1), 71-84.

Ho, W. C., & Law, W. W. (2009). The struggle between globalisation, nationalism and
music education in Hong Kong. Music Education Research, 11(4), 439-456.

Ho, W. C. (2009). The perception of music learning among parents and students in Hong
Kong. Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, 181, 71-93.

Law, W. W., & Ho, W. C. (2008). Social change and political-cultural struggle in Hong
Kong’s school music. Education & Society, 26(1), 47-63.


Biography of Principal Investigator
Wai-Chung Ho, Professor of the Department of Music of the Hong Kong Baptist University. Her main
research areas are the sociology of music, the music education curriculum, and the comparative study of music education. She is particularly interested
in the role of music education as an agent or instrument of social change and social development.

                                                                                                                                                    E3
Is There a Need to Promote Family
Medicine Concept in Hong Kong? –
Meeting the Need for Recognition and
Treatment of Depression as a Model
Topic
Previous and recent consultative papers on the healthcare system of Hong Kong point out the need and importance of the practice
of family medicine if our healthcare services are to be cost-effective. To implement a successful family medicine-based system, we
need to know if Hong Kong’s public is ready to have continuing relationship with the doctor of their choice; if the family doctors
have the mindset and training of managing patients’ problems in a holistic way; and if the family doctor’s gatekeeping function is
widely accepted. This study aims to provide useful information on the views of the general public and doctors towards the role of
family doctor/medicine in providing healthcare services, with specific reference to the treatment of depression and the one-citizen-
one-family-doctor model.

Methods Used
Small group discussions were conducted to collect information from the general public and doctors regarding their concept
of family medicine and its application in the Hong Kong context. Based on the data collected, questionnaires were designed
for a territory-wide telephone survey carried out among the public (1,647 respondents) and mail survey among doctors (2,310
respondents) respectively.

Summary of Findings
Concept of family medicine
This study shows that the Hong Kong public had only vague ideas about the terms “family medicine/doctor”. Their expectations
of a doctor whom they wish to see continuously were however compatible with many of the roles of a family doctor. Elements
like skilled and unhurried communication, friendly relationship and advice on all health matters were also rated by doctors as the
top qualities of a family doctor. The role of the family doctor in prevention and early detection of disease as well as providing
comprehensive care was nevertheless misconceived by the public and required further education and promotion.

The family doctor
Only 29% of the public agreed there were enough family doctors in Hong Kong while 46% did not. The majority of doctors
supported the need and importance of structured training for family doctors though they were divided on the type and length of
training required. A number of concerns regarding the practice of family medicine were raised during the small group discussions:
short consultation time, restricted drug formulary in HMOs, low esteem from the public and competition from specialists.

One-citizen-one-family-doctor healthcare model
Opinions on the captioned model differed between the public and the doctors. While 95% of the public accepted the model, only
65% of the doctors supported it. Despite the freedom to choose their doctors under the present system, 40% of the public accepted
mandatory referral for specialist care which could be a main feature of the new model. The fact that near 70% of the public had
regular doctors, in which 49% would go to them if mildly depressed illustrates that these doctors could become the family doctors
whom the public expect to have.

Policy Implications and Recommendations
The study supports the need to promote a clear concept of family medicine in Hong Kong which will not only meet the public
expectation of having a regular doctor whom they can trust and continuously see when in need, but also enhance the family
doctor’s role especially in providing preventive and comprehensive care. The achievement of which will help lower medical cost and
expenses, avoid unnecessary investigations and achieve better health outcomes.

The study also informs policy makers about the feasibility of developing the one-citizen-one-family-doctor healthcare model
although opinions on mandatory referral for specialist care are equally divided. It reflects the need to strengthen the family
doctor’s role as gatekeeper of our healthcare system. There is also the need to train more doctors
on family medicine, and to optimize current primary care settings to facilitate doctors in both
private and public sector to practice family medicine. The incentive for training and the structure
of training programme are important issues for further study and discussion.

Selected Publications Related to the Study
Wun YT, Lam TP, Lam KF, Goldberg D, Li DKT, Yip KC. “How do patients choose their doctors for
primary care in a free market? Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice.” In press.

Wun YT, Lam TP, Lam KF, Li DKT, Yip KC. “Family medicine training in Hong Kong: similarities and
differences between family and non-family doctors.” The Hong Kong Medical Journal. In press.

Biography of Principal Investigator
Lam Tai Pong, Assistant Dean of LKS Faculty of Medicine and Clinical Professor of Family Medicine Unit, The
University of Hong Kong. His research interest, in addition to medical education research, is broad-based, reflecting the diversity of clinical activities
occur in primary care setting. He is particularly interested in applying both qualitative and quantitative methods in his research work.
E4
Integration of New Immigrants in Hong
Kong: A Longitudinal Investigation
Topic
As a result of the low fertility rate, new immigrants from Mainland China have become the most important source for population
growth in Hong Kong. However, there is considerable doubt about how these new immigrants integrated into the Hong Kong’s
society as Hong Kong is turning into a knowledge-based economy, with an employment structure emphasizing education and skills.
The objective of this study is to examine how these new immigrants from Mainland China integrate into the Hong Kong society
with the human and social capitals that they possess and then to come up with suggestions on how to prevent and combat poverty,
relative deprivation and social exclusion that now exist among the new immigrants and measures that would help promote a more
harmonious society in Hong Kong.

Methods Used
The target respondents in this study were new immigrants aged between 18 and 50, who have come to Hong Kong on a One-way
Permit and have resided in Hong Kong for at least three months but less than one year. All of these respondents were recruited at
the Registration of Persons Office (Kowloon) where new immigrants apply for their Hong Kong Identity Card.

In 2007, a sample of 449 immigrants were interviewed in a face-to-face format. Afterward, 1-year and 2-year follow up assessments
were conducted and 347 and 296 immigrants were successfully interviewed respectively. At these three interviews, respondents’
socio-demographic characteristics, economic integration, social integration, and socio-emotional resources were obtained.

Summary of Findings
In the early stage of immigration, the unemployment rate was found to be 26.9% among those who were economically active and
the unemployment rate decreased after the new immigrants have settled in Hong Kong for more than two years. The study also
found that education, working experiences or social network have little contribution to their employment. However, the 2-year
follow up interview found that education, working experiences and positive personality characteristic contribute strongly to their
amount of earnings.

The study found that 26.5% of new immigrants have significant depression in their first six months in Hong Kong which means
that the social integration during their early stage of immigration is extremely difficult. However, depressive symptoms dropped
significantly after one year of stay in Hong Kong. The study found that the depression among new immigrants is associated with
poor migration planning, acculutration stress and quality of life. Lastly, social support received can reduce the detrimental effect of
poor migration planning on psychological well-being among new arrivals.

Policy Implications and Recommendations
The integration of new immigrants is affected by government policies which include programs and services to assist their immigrant
settlement and integration, such as language training, counselling, adaptation courses and equal right provisions in employment,
housing and other areas of community activities.

This study helps to find out factors that contribute toward the successful integration of the new immigrants. This study has
identified which groups of new immigrants find it more difficult to integrate into the society and what kinds of intervention would
be effective in helping their integration. The information obtained in the study provides valuable reference for policy makers.

The findings come up with suggestions on how to prevent poverty and to improve the economic resources, how new immigrants
can better access social facilities and measures that would help to promote a more harmonious society in Hong Kong. The findings
of this study greatly contribute towards the formulation of a population policy in Hong Kong since the increase in our population
depends primarily on new immigrants.

Selected Publications Related to the Study
Chou, K.L. (2009). “Pre-migration planning and depression in Hong
Kong new immigrants: The moderating role of social support.” Journal
of Affective Disorders, 114, 85-93.

Chou, K.L., & Chow, N.W.S. (2009). “The roles of human capital and
social capital in the economic integration of new arrivals from mainland
China to Hong Kong.” Habitat International, 33, 463-471.




Biography of Principal Investigator
Kee-Lee Chou, Associate Professor of Department of Social Work and Social Administration, The University of Hong Kong. The fields of interest are the
policies for an aging society and mental health in older persons as well as policies and mental health issues of new migrants.
                                                                                                                                                  E5
A study of the domestic violence costs
and service utilization in Hong Kong
Topic
The research aimed at bridging the existing research and information gaps with regard to the cost analysis of domestic violence
and violence prevention/intervention programmes in Hong Kong.

Objectives:
1. To identify the service utilization pattern of the perpetrators and victims of spousal violence in Hong Kong.
2. To assess the impact of service utilization on spousal violence in terms of severity, types and chronicity.
3. To identify the factors associated with help-seeking or the service utilization pattern of spousal violence perpetrators and
   victim.
4. To develop a cost model of service utilization for the assessment of the costs and benefits of prevention and intervention
   programmes to inform policy-making, especially with regard to the design and implementation of publicly funded programmes
   in Hong Kong.

Methods Used
The study made the best use of the existing information available on domestic violence. In particular, it built on a comprehensive,
territory-wide study of domestic violence in Hong Kong, by conducting follow-up interviews with over 1,000 victims, perpetrators,
or both, of spousal violence. The study also covered a special target group of pregnant women who have been subjected to
spousal violence. The study was conducted in the form of a panel design on two target groups, namely (a) a representative sample
of the general population who have been identified as either victims or perpetrators, or both, of spouse battering; and (b) a
representative sample of pregnant women who are victims of domestic violence. Information was collected from the sampled
respondents at two time points at least 36 months apart:

Summary of Findings
The findings of the study facilitate better understanding of the costs and benefits of various prevention and intervention
programmes, and the service utilization pattern of the perpetrators and victims of spousal violence in Hong Kong, its impact and
the factors associated with help-seeking or the service utilization pattern of spousal violence perpetrators and victim have been
identified. Examples include finding the factors prohibiting help-seeking behavior among the perpetrators and victim of spousal
violence, for instance, face is not necessary a factor for non-disclosure but normalization or personalization of problems do. Lack of
knowledge regarding services is a barrier but previous contact with services makes a big difference in help-seeking. An integrated
framework that brings together the various approaches was developed.

Policy Implications and Recommendations
The findings of this study provide findings for the government, policymakers and the whole society to evaluate the cost-
effectiveness and benefits of intervention, and will evolve into high-impact, leading intervention research with multi-disciplinary
input. The information gathered will provide the benchmark and dataset for the calculation of the costs of spousal violence and
will facilitate better understanding of the costs and benefits of various prevention and intervention programmes, funded publicly
or privately, in Hong Kong (e.g. the costs and benefits of a batterers intervention programme). The study also reveals factors
affecting help-seeking and service utilization by victims or perpetrators of spousal violence.

Selected Publications Related to the Study
Chan, K.L. “A Review of Cost Measures for the Economic Impact of Domestic Violence.” Manuscript under review by the Journal
“Trauma, Violence, & Abuse”.

Chan, K.L., (2009) “The relationship between financial problem
and family problems”, invited speaker at the Workshop on Support
Measures for Families under Stress in the Financial Tsunami, organized
by the Central Policy Unit, Government of the HKSAR, 5 March 2009.

Chan, K.L., (2009) “New projects on domestic violence: Issues,
challenges and future directions”, Invited speaker at the Conference on
“Multidisciplinary Approach to the Prevention of Domestic Violence:
Social, legal and health perspectives”, organized by the University of
Hong Kong, May 27, 2009.




Biography of Principal Investigator
Ko Ling Chan, Assistant Professor of Social Work at the University of Hong Kong. He has conducted researches including pregnancy violence;
international dating violence; spousal and child abuse in Hong Kong, and validation of risk assessment tools. He is directing a study of child sexual
abuse in China.
E6
Making Cultural Clusters: New Strategies
for Culture-led Urban Redevelopment
Topic
Through ethnographical fieldwork, our objective was to study and understand the strengths and weaknesses of the selected
existing “cultural spaces” (clusters-in-the-making) in Hong Kong, namely Tsimshatsui, Wanchai, Central and the Cattle Depot. We
proposed policies that could strengthen them towards becoming dynamic and creative hubs that nurture talents and cultural/
creative industries.

Methods Used
Apart from the usual desktop and archival research, our main method was to interview key actors involved in the formation and
transformation of the four selected cultural clusters.

Summary of Findings
1. The main indicator of a dynamic and productive cultural cluster depends on the nature and intensity of interaction among key
   actors. From the responses of the key informants, we found that the interactions among the artists/cultural practitioners are
   usually weak. Even if there is partnership, the partners are more often from outside the cluster. Therefore, the assumption that
   artists/cultural workers residing close to each other have stronger collaborations (or even synergy) is invalid at this moment.
   Strictly speaking, without much interaction between the resident artists, the four cultural clusters are but “cultural clusters-in-
   the-making”. But given time and improved conditions, the interactions among art and cultural workers should grow gradually
   within each cluster.

2. In general, the major reason for the lack of close interaction and collaboration among the art and cultural workers is due to the
   relatively small art and cultural markets in Hong Kong. Only when the domestic market is large enough can we expect to see
   high specialization and division of labor. The reasons for the small markets have less to do with small city population than with
   the art audience. With long working hours, how can the average person find time to develop an interest in art? Secondly, there
   is a lack of a pro-active cultural bureau in Hong Kong to promote art education, audience building and support for artist-run
   cultural facilities, thus restricting the growth of local audiences and buyers.

3. The second reason for the lack of interaction and collaboration is the lack of trust among the cultural practitioners within the
   clusters. Trust is the founding stone of cultural clusters. Without trust, it is difficult to build common goods which are essential
   to the upgrading of the cultural cluster.

4. There is also a lack of interaction between the artists/cultural practitioners and the neighbourhoods in which they reside.
   A strong cluster is often supported by a nearby devoted community. However, the lack of resources among artists/cultural
   practitioners and the lack of vision among the policy-makers hinder the collaborative exchanges between the artists/cultural
   practitioners and the surrounding community.

Policy Implications and Recommendations
1. Hong Kong needs a cultural bureau with a consistent cultural policy if it wants to develop its cultural and creative industries.
   To avoid further fragmentation, we urgently need a cultural bureau headed by respected and professional artists and art
   administrators to organize expenditures and set policies to integrate the fragmented jurisdictions over cultural venues, funding,
   education, creative industries, city branding and promotion.

2. Standard working hours and minimum wage ordinances should be established to enlarge the domestic market for art and
   cultural appreciation. If people are tied to long hours of work and low pay, they will not have the spare time nor money
   to create an effective demand for the domestic art and cultural markets. The proposed ordinances should, hopefully, allow
   average Hong Kong people to have more leisure time and income to go to cultural and art events.

3. A cultural impact assessment should be conducted for every new development and redevelopment project. Old districts are
   essential co-habitats for artists, traditional craft-based creative industries, and the old neighborhoods. These are also popular
   destinations for travellers who come to Hong Kong for the ambience and cultural atmosphere of old Hong Kong. The drastic
   approach of urban redevelopment has irreversibly destroyed the sustainable co-habitation of artists and long-time residents.
   We propose a cultural impact assessment as a new policy for the Urban Renewal Authority and the Development Bureau
   because the existing social and environmental impact assessments are inadequate.

4. A strategic cultural cluster policy should be part of the West Kowloon Cultural District (WKCD) to avoid repeating the mistake
   of the museum clusters and the Cultural Center in Tsimshatsui. This policy should avoid turning the WKCD into an art colony
   where foreign art groups perform for foreign visitors. Instead, the policy should link the WKCD cluster with the existing cultural
   clusters in Hong Kong, inviting all local art groups to participate in creative work and cultural exchange. This is critical to the
   success of the WKCD.

Selected Publications Related to the Study
“Making Cultural Clusters in Hong Kong: The co-development of the cultural industries & urban spaces” (expected to be published
in 2011).

Biography of Principal Investigator
CHEN Yun Chung, Assistant Professor at the Division of Social Science, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. His research interests
include global innovation networks, culture-creative industries and urban redevelopment.
                                                                                                                                              E7
Social Inequality and Mobility in
Hong Kong: a Benchmark Study
Introduction
This project analyzed empirically the social process through which inequalities are generated and maintained across generations
in Hong Kong. A city-wide household survey was conducted in 2006 and 4,013 adults were interviewed. A two-stage stratified
replicated sampling design was adopted. In the first stage, a random sample of addresses was selected, stratified by the type of
housing and residential district. In the second stage, a person aged between 18 and 60 in a sampled household was randomly
selected for the interview using the last birthday method. All sample data were weighted based on the 2006 Hong Kong by-census
population distribution. The survey questions focused on job and career, family and living conditions, socioeconomic status and
perception, and social identity and political participation.
Summary of Findings
Wu (2007) shows that family economic resources played a significant role in determining full-time school enrolment for those aged
15 to 19, and attainment of university education among those aged 20 to 24. The effects of family economic, social and cultural
resources declined (or became insignificant) in transitions to higher levels of education beyond the compulsory level in the 1980s
and the 1990s, but became even more important in progression to higher levels of education (particularly to university) in 2001.
The effect of family backgrounds on educational stratification doesn’t seem to decline monotonically with the rapid expansion of
education. It also reveals a higher degree of tolerance of income inequality and perceived fairness of income distribution in Hong
Kong than in Mainland. The subjective evaluation of distributive justice also affects Hong Kong people’s political participation and
voting behaviour.
Zhang (2008) found that mainland immigrants had a lower likelihood of employment, were usually trapped in unskilled
occupations, and earned much less than the natives. However, as immigrants stayed longer, the inequality gap tended to decrease,
and their offsprings tended to do better than natives in educational achievement and occupational and earnings attainment.
Also, the gap in tertiary school enrolment between the offsprings of mainland immigrants and those of natives decreased as the
immigrants’ socioeconomic status increased. The research compares social mobility and class voting in Hong Kong and Taiwan and
finds that social mobility reduced the (current) class-based political cleavage in Hong Kong.
Wu’s research report (2010) shows that (1) the young post-80s generation is the major beneficiary of the higher education
expansion in the 1990s. They have enjoyed more educational opportunities than those in the same age group in earlier years; (2)
improved education does not necessarily lead to more employment opportunities. Unemployment rates have been increasing in the
past decade for young people, particularly for the post-80s generation, even among those with tertiary education; (3) among those
who are employed, the highly educated ones have a much less chance of obtaining a managerial or professional job than before,
although they are still more likely to find such a job than those who do not have higher education; (4) the earnings of young
people relative to the general working population have been declining over time, although they seem to be able to catch up later;
(5) no evidence suggests any decline in either intergenerational or intra-generational mobility for the post-80s, although their
transitions from school to work have become more precarious and unstable than before; (6) the post-80s are less likely to identify
themselves as being in the higher social strata than older people, but their level of job and life satisfaction do not differ from other
groups; (7) the post-80s seems to be a heterogeneous group. No evidence suggests that they have developed distinctive values or
political orientations as a group.
Policy Implications and Recommendations
1) Research on how family backgrounds affect the chances in life and socioeconomic achievement provides a unique case to test
   the theory about the effect of economic and political development on social stratification and mobility.
2) Study of the mechanism of social stratification and the process of social mobility provide the basis for policy intervention on
   education, poverty, social welfare, and immigration.
3) The data collected for the project will be made available to other social science researchers, and findings will be incorporated
   into teaching to train students and raise public awareness about inequality issues in Hong Kong.
Selected Publications Related to the Study
Wu Xiaogang. 2010 “Inequality and Equity in Income Distribution: Hong Kong and Mainland China in Comparative Perspective” in
a book edited by Stephen Chiu, MK Lee. Chinese University Press.
Wu Xiaogang. 2009a. “Income Inequality and Distributive Justice: A Comparative Analysis of Mainland China and Hong Kong.” The
China Quarterly 200 (December): 1-20
Wu, Xiaogang. 2007 “Family Resources and Educational Stratification: The Case of Hong Kong, 1981-2001” Social Transformations
in Chinese Societies Volume 3: 173-201.
(http://caser.ust.hk/publication.html)

                                                        Wong, Tze Wai 2008 “Class voting in Hong Kong and Taiwan: a comparative
                                                        study” M Phil Thesis, Division of Social Science, HKUST

                                                        Zhang, Zhuoni, 2008 “Chinese immigrants and their offspring in Hong Kong,
                                                        1991-2006,” M Phil Thesis, Division of Social Science, HKUST




                                                        Biography of Principal Investigator
                                                        WU Xiaogang, Associate Professor of Social Science and the Director of the Center
                                                        for Applied Social and Economic Research, The Hong Kong University of Science and
                                                        Technology. His research interests include social stratification and mobility, labour
                                                        markets and economic sociology, and quantitative methodology.
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