Cognitive Development Cognitive Development Jean

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Cognitive Development Cognitive Development Jean Powered By Docstoc
    Jean Piaget
Constructivism Theory
      Kinds of Knowledge
• physical knowledge

• logico-mathematical knowledge

• social knowledge
•children are active learners, not
 passive observers
•organize their knowledge into schemes
•schemes change through
Stages of Cognitive Development
•children’s schemes change over time
•cognition develops in stages, not
•each stage builds on accomplishments
 of prior stage
  Sensori-motor Stage
• ages birth – 2 years old
• infant uses senses and motor
  abilities to explore
• first explorations are innate reflexes
• goal-directed behaviors
• object permanence
 Substages of Sensori-motor Stage
• 1st: (birth - 1 mo)
   – innate reflexes,
   – circular reactions
• 2nd: (1-4 mo)
   – primary circular reactions
• 3rd: (4-8 mo)
   – secondary circular
 Substages of Sensori-motor Stage
• 4th: (8-12 mo)
   – goal directed behavior
   – object permanence
• 5th: (12-18 mo)
   – tertiary circular
• 6th: (18-24 mo)
   – Symbolic
   Preoperational Stage
•ages 2-7
•child uses mental representations
 of objects
•play moves from using real objects
 to more complex play
•child’s thinking is perception-
 bound, egocentric, irreversible,
 centrated, intuitive, animistic
      Concrete operations
•ages 7-11
•child uses logical operations
•ability to
  –think flexibly
  –classify with more than 1 attribute and with
   hierarchical thinking
Conservation Tasks
      Formal operations
• ages 12 and up
• child uses logical operations in a
  systematic fashion
• can think abstractly
• hypothetico-deductive thinking
• propositional thinking
    Contributions of Piaget's
   Theories to Current Practice
•focus on active, hands-on learning
•play is important
•sensitivity to a child's current level of
•acceptance of individual differences
     Criticisms of Piaget's Ideas
•research methods
•underestimated/overestimated the
 abilities of children
•didn't adequately consider the role of
 culture and experience in children’s
 undertaking of his tasks
•stage theory
   Lev Vygotsky
Socio-cultural Theory
•Importance of culture and society on a child’s
   –knowledge is socially constructed
   –culturally determined
•Importance of interactions with more-abled
 members of the society
   –zone of proximal development
•Language is the foundation of all higher
 cognitive processes
  –private speech
  –inner speech
•Development is continuous, not
 occurring in stages
    Contributions of Vygotsky's
    Theories to Current Practice

•opportunities for discovery and
•opportunities social interactions for
•use of language to enhance
 conceptual development