Socialization Training “Learning the Ropes”

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					Socialization & Training
 “Learning the Ropes”
 1.   Training: Basic „To Do‟ List
 2.   Training vs. Socialization
 3.   Training “Menu”
 4.   Socialization “Menu”
 5.   Psychology of Socialization


                        Pratt (2006)   1
                    Training
• While training is most obvious with new hires,
  training occurs throughout one‟s career.
  Assessment here is very similar to job
  assessments for selection:
  – Assess the organization (what does the
    organization need?)
  – Assess the job (what skills or proficiencies are
    needed?)
  – Assess the person (what is the person‟s current
    performance level)

                         Pratt (2006)                  2
       Training vs. Socialization
• Training typically involves teaching skills.

• Socialization is more about fitting in with the culture
  and organizational role. (Some use the terms
  synonymously – but socialization is often broader).

• Orientations are often about both training and
  socialization. (Most organizations have these, but many
  fail to do them well or to follow-up).

                           Pratt (2006)                     3
             Training „Menu‟
                (Cascio, 2006, Dessler, 2005; Noe, et al., 2006)



1. OTJ (On the job training)
  –   apprenticeships & coaching (& shadowing)
  –   “near the job training” (same equipment)
  –   job rotation*
  –   special assignments




                                  Pratt (2006)                     4
                             Job Rotation
http://www.workforce.com/archive/feature/22/18/32/223371.php?ht=job%20rotation%20job%20rotation



• When implementing a job rotation program:
     –

     – each “leg” of the rotation should explicitly address a
       developmental need
     – be careful not to rotate people in too slow (or too
       fast). Workers in early career stage tend to get
       rotated too quickly. Those at later stages – too
       slowly.*

                                           Pratt (2006)                                       5
                             Job Rotation
http://www.workforce.com/archive/feature/22/18/32/223371.php?ht=job%20rotation%20job%20rotation


•      Important both for training and career development. Can be
       especially useful as a motivator if company requires firm-
       specific knowledge.

•      Use job rotation to target skills not developed via other
       methods (e.g., coaching).

•      Job rotation can be used for positions at many levels of the
       organization; and at various times in a person‟s career (e.g., if
       someone has „plateaued‟).

•

                                           Pratt (2006)                                       6
                 Training „Menu‟
                     (Cascio, 2006, Dessler, 2005; Noe, et al., 2006)



2. Information Presentation
  –   lecture / conferences / games (e.g., Trivial Pursuit at Disney & Trilogy)
      • face-to-face
      • synchronous distance learning (teleconferencing, videoconferencing)
      • asynchronous self-guided (DVD, computer)
          / e-learning (e.g., Nike‟s sports knowledge underground)




                                       Pratt (2006)                           7
                Training „Menu‟
                  (Cascio, 2006, Dessler, 2005; Noe, et al., 2006)


3.    Simulation
     – case method
     – in-basket
     – role playing




                                    Pratt (2006)                     8
            Training Paradox
• Investing in training simultaneously increases an
  employee‟s employability while also increasing
  his or her motivation to stay with the
  organization




                       Pratt (2006)                   9
        Socialization “Menu”
        (Van Maanen, 1978; Van Maanen & Schein, 1979; Jones, 1986)


1. COLLECTIVE VS. INDIVIDUAL

2. FORMAL VS. INFORMAL

3. SEQUENTIAL VS. RANDOM

4. FIXED VS. VARIABLE

5. SERIAL VS. DISJUNCTIVE

6. DIVESTITURE VS. INVESTITURE


• TOURNAMENT VS. CONTEST
                                 Pratt (2006)                        10
Socialization “Menu”
 (Van Maanen, 1978; Van Maanen & Schein, 1979)




                    Pratt (2006)                 11
Training and Socialization
    in Quad Graphics




           Pratt (2006)      12
Socialization and Innovation




            Pratt (2006)       13
    Psychology of Socialization
                            (Pratt, 2000)



• SENSEBREAKING – Devalue the self; convince
members that they are not as good as they can be (e.g., goal
setting / „dream-building‟)




• SENSEGIVING – Control flow of information to
members / encapsulate (e.g., blur lines between work and
family)
                              Pratt (2006)                     14
               Psychology of Socialization

                                  Sensebreaking
                        Success                   Failure
              Success
Sensegiving

              Failure




                                  Pratt (2006)              15
       Socialization Paradoxes
• The more you try to bind individuals to the
  organization, the more expendable they may
  become over time (e.g., due to groupthink,
  during mergers -- see Quad for exception)

•




                      Pratt (2006)              16
                         Wrap-Up
• Organizations pick and choose from training and socialization
  “menus”

• Training critical in “knowledge economy” (and can lead to
  “training paradox”)

• Training assessment is very practical – does it work (did right
  changes occur and were they linked to the training)?

• Socialization is key to maintaining culture and binding
  individuals to organizations (and can lead to “socialization
  paradoxes”)

                               Pratt (2006)                         17
Questions?




   Pratt (2006)   18