Newton's Laws That's the Way the Apple Falls by juanagui

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									             Newton’s Laws: That’s the Way the Apple Falls
                       Teaching High Schoolers the Wonder of Physics

                                        Float’n Illini

Academic Institution:                                    Team contact:
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign               Adam Jaslikowski
306 Talbot Laboratory                          
104 South Wright Street                                  (217) 365-8103
Urbana, IL 61801

Faculty Advisor:
Eric Loth
(217) 244-5581

Team Members:

*Byrne, Emily – (
       / Senior / Astronomy / April ’03 (Ground Crew)
*Eberle, Steven – (
        / Sophomore / Aerospace Engineering / April ’03 (Ground Crew)
Huffman, Heather – (
       / Freshman / Aerospace Engineering
*Jaslikowski, Adam – (
       / Junior / Aerospace Engineering / April ’03 (Flight Crew)
Kabureck, Christopher – (
       / Junior / Aerospace Engineering
Kathrein, Scott – (
       / Sophomore / General Curriculum LAS
Kuang, Robert – (
       / Sophomore / Civil Engineering
Maldonado, Robert – (
       / Senior / Aerospace Engineering
*Milczarek, Stephanie – (
       / Sophomore / Aerospace Engineering / April ’03 (Ground Crew)
Navarro, Jonathan – (
       / Junior / Aerospace Engineering
Ngan, Chung – (
       / Freshman / Aerospace Engineering
Ragheb, Adam – (
       / Junior / Aerospace Engineering
Wallace, Carlisle – (
       / Freshman / Aerospace Engineering
Zhou, Kevin – (
       / Sophomore / Aerospace Engineering

Advisor Signature:


       The Float’n Illini would like to thank several people who have made our research
possible. First, we would like to express our appreciation to Professor Loth, our head
advisor, for all his help this year and in years past. Also, we send a thousand thank
you’s to Leo Linares and Suhail Barot who have contributed much time, effort, and
support to our team this year. Thank you all! We couldn’t do this without you!

                                   Table of Contents

Flight Week Preference and Mentor Request                                4
   I.     Synopsis                                                       5
   II.    Test Objectives                                                6
   III.   Test Description                                               6
   IV.    Justification for Follow-Up Flight                             8
   V.     References                                                     9
Experiment Safety Evaluation
   I.     Flight Manifest                                                11
   II.    Experiment Background / Description                            11
   III.   Equipment Description                                          11
   IV.    Structural Design                                              15
   V.     Electrical System                                              15
   VI.    Pressure / Vacuum System                                       16
   VII. Laser System                                                     16
   VIII. Crew Assistance Requirements                                    16
   IX.    Institutional Review Board (IRB)                               16
   X.     Hazard Analysis                                                17
   XI.    Tool Requirements                                              21
   XII. Ground Support Requirements                                      22
   XIII. Hazardous Materials                                             22
   XIV. Procedures                                                       22
Outreach Plan
   I.     Objective                                                      24
   II.    Website                                                        24
   III.   Audience                                                       25
   IV.    Educational Outreach Activities                                26
   V.     Recent Educational Efforts                                     29
   VI.    Educational Outreach Contacts                                  36
   I.     Institution Letter of Endorsement                              38
   II.    Statement of Supervising Faculty                               39
   III.   Funding/Budget Statement                                       40
   IV.    Institutional Review Board (IRB)                               40
   V.     NASA/JSC Human Research Subject Consent Form                   40
   VI.    Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC)            40
   VII. Parental Consent Forms                                           40
Appendix                                                                 41
   I.     Photo Identification Copies (original copy only)
   II.    Proof/Statement of Undergraduate Status (original copy only)
   III.   Material Safety Data Sheets
   IV.    Sample Education Outreach Presentation

Flight Week Preference:

      Primary:     March 18, 2004
      Secondary:   April 1, 2004
      Tertiary:    March 4, 2004

Mentor Request: Not Applicable


I. Synopsis

        Physics education can be greatly enhanced if experiments could be performed in
environments like that of the KC-135. Many principles can be demonstrated in unique and
insightful ways, such as angular momentum conservation, weight and mass, and pendulum
systems. We plan on video taping experiments and demos which teach these concepts on the KC-
135 and then later traveling to several junior high and high schools, in both this and future years,
to give an interactive presentation on the material.
        One of the most troublesome concepts for beginning students to understand is the
difference between weight and mass. We intend to demonstrate this difference by showing how
mass is constant in the KC-135 but weight is not, and in doing so, demonstrate several other
concepts as well. For example, we will illustrate that weight is a force by showing how weight is
actually measured, and how the flight path of the KC-135 can affect this measurement. To
measure mass we will invoke the concepts of stored energy in springs, conservation of energy,
and the relation between kinetic energy and mass.
        The rest of our experiment will use two physical systems that demonstrate a wide array of
physical concepts. First, we will use demonstrate the conservation of angular momentum using
gyroscopes. This aspect of gyroscopic motion is used by spacecraft to ascertain their bearings as
we will demonstrate with our own model of the system. Second, we will conduct an experiment
involving a simple pendulum system. At first, we will impart to the students how a basic
pendulum system works in 1-g. Then we will extend this idea to a pendulum in an environment
with a non-constant g force. This will yield interesting results that are unmatched by classroom
        As a part of everyone's education, they are required to learn elementary physics.
However, Earth’s gravity places a heavy limitation on the amount of demonstration that can be
accomplished in the classroom. Therefore, we propose to give the students a look into some of
the possibilities that are available outside the classroom.

II. Test Objective

        The objective of our experiment is to demonstrate to advanced junior high and high
school students basic concepts of physics such as the conservation of angular momentum, the
conservation of energy and demonstrate the fundamental differences between mass and weight.
We plan to demonstrate these principles by performing several simple experiments using
gyroscopes, pendulums, masses, springs and scales to prove that despite the absence of gravity,
the basics of Newtonian Law still hold true.
        It is our intention to video tape our experiments and produce interactive lessons that can
give junior high and underclassman high school students their first introduction into the basics of
Newtonian physics as well as give them an idea of practical applications. We have had several
high schools express interest in our program.

III. Test Description

       Our experiment can be broken down into three related demos: mass v. weight, gyroscope,
and pendulum.

A. Mass v. Weight

        For students first learning physics concepts it is sometimes very difficult to understand
the difference between mass and weight. In order to demonstrate this difference we will measure
weight and mass of certain objects using two separate tests. To measure weight, a conventional
scale will be used, the results of which will vary depending on the current perceived gravity
inside the plane.

 Figure 1: Spring tube.

        To measure mass, we will need a more sophisticated experiment. The mass will be
measured indirectly using conservation of energy principles. The energy will start in a
compressed spring of known spring constant and compression distance. This energy will be
imparted to a projectile which will move along a closed clear cylindrical tube (see figure 1). A
thin wire will run down the center of the tube, along which the projectile will be constrained. So
as to facilitate testing in the presence of gravity, the friction between this projectile and the wire
will be kept low so that the final velocity will not be significantly affected. The compressed
spring will be held by a latch. When the latch is released, the spring will release its energy and
accelerate the projectile along the wire. The tube will be marked off in equal length increments.
There will be a video camera mounted directly above the tube recording the motion of the
projectile. We will use the videotape of the spring’s motion to calculate its velocity by dividing
distance by time. Using the conservation of energy as follows the mass can be calculated:
                                       1 2 1 2                  Kx 2
                                         Kx  mv  m  2
                                       2       2                v
To reset the experiment, a plunger device will be used to push the projectile back against the
compressed spring (see figure 2).

 Figure 2: The plunger is inserted to push the ball back
 towards the spring.

B. Gyroscopes

        Our experiment will also illustrate how gyroscopes are used to provide bearings for
spacecraft, such as the space shuttle. This will be demonstrated by attaching a scale model of the
NASA space shuttle to two gyroscopes. The gyroscopes will be mounted at right angles to each
other, providing stabilization for the shuttle in all three axes. The gyroscopes will be mounted on
poles protruding from the body of the shuttle (see figure 3). This model will be free floating
                                                       during the zero g portions of the flight, and
                                                       will only be used at these times. As the KC-
                                                       135 rotates along its parabolic path, the shuttle
                                                       model's orientation will remain constant due
                                                       to the gyroscopes. The shuttle model will
                                                       appear to rotate as seen from the cabin while
                                                       the KC-135 completes its parabolas. This will
                                                       not only demonstrate the usefulness of
                                                       gyroscopes in providing orientation, but also
                                                       will give the students an opportunity to see
                                                       visually the changing angle of the KC-135
                                                       aircraft. We will use this fact as an aid to
                                                       accomplish another of our goals: to teach
                                                       students how the KC-135 "creates"
  Figure 3: Space shuttle with gyroscopes
        mounted to demonstrate how
  spacecraft can maintain their bearings.

                                                              In similar fashion to the shuttle
                                                      model, we will attach a video camera to two
                                                      gyroscopes (see figure 4). The camera's
                                                      orientation will be constant due to the
                                                      gyroscopes. And using this fact, students
                                                      will see, from the viewpoint of the camera,
                                                      that the plane is rotating around the camera.
                                                      This allows them to visualize the camera
                                                      and the plane as disparate systems, which is
                                                      essential to understanding how microgravity
                                                      is created. The video will aid in the
                                                      understanding that the camera is actually
                                                      moving like a rock through air, and the
                                                      aircraft is just flying “around" the camera.
                                                      This approach gives us the ability to show
                                                      the rotation of the plane from a different
 Figure 4: A representation of the camera
 with gyroscopes attached.

                                            C. Pendulum

                                                    The last component of the experiment will be
                                            a pendulum system. This apparatus will be a
                                            pendulum hanging from a frame which is mounted on
                                            the experiment body (see figure 5). The period of the
                                            pendulum will be affected by the gravity constant g.
                                            The motion in the pendulum will be initiated by hand.
                                            The pendulum will be unobstructed so that it can
                                            make full rotations as the plane goes from positive
                                            gravity to microgravity. The transition between
                                            gravities will be of special interest and represents a
                                            unique opportunity for study; it is a situation which is
                                            not feasible to experiment with in the classroom. We
                                            expect to see some interesting results as the gravity
                                            changes from strong to weak. For example, if the
  Figure 5: Pendulum assembly               gravity reaches microgravity while the kinetic energy
of the pendulum is zero, then the pendulum will stop at this time; however, if it happens when
the kinetic energy of the system is at a maximum, then it will continue to swing, making full

D. Lesson Plan

       1. Mass v Weight

        Our experiment with the spring tube demonstrates the concept of conservation of energy
as well as the difference between mass and weight. Even though the mass v. weight concept
may be more appropriate for junior high school students, this demonstration can be geared
towards older students as well. We will assist the students in calculating the mass given the
energy in the spring beforehand. They will use and understand the following equations:
                                     1 2 1 2                Kx 2
                                       Kx  mv  m  2
                                     2        2             v
Where the actual values from the experiment are given, and they calculate the mass. From this
the students will see that the mass is not dependent on the gravity at all.
        The weight discussion will proceed with the exposition of the equation F = ma. We will
show the students how the acceleration of the KC-135 impacts the weight of the objects; from
this, we will teach them how the KC-135 manipulates the perceived g force in the cabin. They
will be able to check their previous weight calculations by viewing the measurement being
conducted on the KC-135. This will lead into a discussion about the gravitational constant.

       2. Gyroscope

        For our gyroscope lesson, we will use the data and video obtained in the experiment to
supplement several of our current educational outreach activities. These activities include Lunar
Colony, Drop Tower, and other special interest activities. Our lesson plan will introduce the
basic ideas behind the gyroscope such as conservation of angular momentum and inertial
reference frame. From these concepts we will transition into a discussion of our experiment,
during which we will explore the students’ previous knowledge of the subject matter. Upon
showing the video of our experiment, we intend to expand their knowledge of gyroscopes by
showing several applications of gyroscopes. Such topics include, but are not limited to, the
balance system used in the Segway and Space Shuttle/satellite stabilization systems. This will
provide students with a clear understanding of real-life applications of the conservation of
angular momentum.

       3. Pendulum

         The pendulum apparatus will demonstrate a system which behaves differently in
changing gravitational environments than it does on Earth. The concepts that will be taught are
the period of the pendulum and how it is affected by the gravitational constant g. We will also
show students how, in a system such as the KC-135, the kinetic energy is always conserved, but
potential energy does not appear to be conserved. For example, we will have the students predict
what will happen as gravity goes from 2g to microgravity, and then have them view the actual
results. They will also learn what happens when in microgravity and the pendulum makes full
                                     Experiment Safety Evaluation

I. Flight Manifest

       Flight Crew:
       Day One                                              Day Two

II. Experiment Background / Description

         This experiment is intended to demonstrate Newton’s Laws in the unique environment of
zero-gravity aboard the KC-135. Our experiments will include attaching gyroscopes to a camera
and to a space shuttle model to demonstrate conservation of angular momentum, using a scale to
measure the varying weight of a billiard ball, using a spring and tube track to measure the mass
of another billiard ball of comparable mass, and using a pendulum as a system to demonstrate
results that cannot be illustrated in an 1-g environment.

III. Equipment Description

The experiment consists of the following components:

1. Space Shuttle model with gyroscopes
2. Video camcorder with gyroscopes
3. Stand-alone video camcorder
4. Main structure
       i. Spring/tube assembly and billiard ball
       ii. Pendulum
       iii. Scale and billiard ball

       1. Space Shuttle Model with Gyroscopes

               A scale model of the Space Shuttle will be attached to two gyroscopes and
               allowed to float during periods of zero-gravity. The model will be composed of
               plastic and all small parts that could possibly break off will be omitted during
               construction. The gyroscopes will be hand powered, via a pull string, and
               attached to the model with small poles. The model/gyroscope system will be
               stowed in the storage bin (described below) during takeoff and landing.

               Similar to the shuttle, a camcorder will be attached to two gyroscopes and allowed
               to float during periods of microgravity. The gyroscopes will be attached to the
               camcorder using small poles. It will be stowed in the storage bins during takeoff
               and landing.

               A second video camcorder will be stored in the bins during takeoff and landing
               and used throughout the flight to video tape the space shuttle model, the
               pendulum and the scale, as described below


The main structure is composed of a ½” thick 6061-T6 Aluminum base plate with
dimensions 24” X 24” on which multiple fourteen gauge, zinc-plated steel angle
beams will form a frame. 16” above the base plate, a ¼” thick 6061-T6
Aluminum plate will serve as a shelve on which the other experiments will rest.
The frame will extend a total of 48” above the base plate, allowing for the
mounting of downward looking camcorder. The camcorder will be attached with
quick connect devices and cargo straps to a small aluminum plate mounted on the
upper framework. The plastic bin used to store the camcorders, gyroscopes, and
shuttle model will be placed in between the lower framework and secured to the
base plate with cargo straps (see Figure 6 ).

i.     An acrylic tube will serve as a track for the motion of the billiard ball. At
       one end of the tube, a small spring of known spring constant will be
       mounted. Running down the length of the tube will be a taut wire on
       which the billiard ball will be constrained to move. An end cap opposite
       the spring will prevent the billiard ball from flying off into the cabin. The
       end cap will have a hole in which a plunger will be inserted to reset the
       system. The plunger will be mounted next to the tube using Velcro and
       tied at one end with a string. The tube will be approximately 20” in length
       and will be attached to the shelve plate using brackets.

ii.    A pendulum will be mounted on the shelve plate. The pendulum length is
       6” and the total height of the swing mount is 7”. The pendulum will be a
       rigid rod with a small mass at the end, as oppose to string, thus
       constraining the pendulum to planar motion.

iii.   A small scale will be mounted to the shelve with a billiard ball (of
       comparable size to the ball used on track) permanently attached for the
       entire flight.

                                 Figure 6 : Experiment structure.

IV. Structural Design

        The main framework is comprised of ASTM-A36 steel angle beams. The beams have an
L-shaped cross-section that is 1/16" thick and 1½" wide. This gives a total cross sectional area of
0.184 in2.     One-quarter inch diameter steel bolts will connect each angle beam to its adjacent
beams. Similar structures have been safely flown on the KC-135 by this team in prior flights,
and a rigorous structural analysis will follow in the Test Equipment Data Package. All ASTM-
A36 steel components have a yield stress of 3.63104 psi.
        As described above, the base plate is made of ½” thick 6061-T6 Aluminum and the
shelve ¼” thick 6061-T6 Aluminum. All of the 6061-T6 Aluminum plates possess a yield
strength of 3.99x104 psi.
        The video camera will be mounted to a small Aluminum plate at the top of the
framework. The female end of quick connect device will be bolted to the plate and the male end
will be screwed into the camcorder bottom. The camcorder will further be secured to the plate
via a cargo strap. Similar mounting systems have successfully been used by this team in the

V. Electrical System

       The only electrical equipment will be in the form of three video camcorder. Two of the
camcorders will be stand alone, in that they will be run off their own batteries and not be
mounted to the equipment frame. The last one will retain its battery as a backup; however, it will
draw its primary power from the KC-135. It will require a 115 VAC single phase power outlet.
The camera draws a maximum of .2 Amps. A UL certified power strip will be used to distribute
power to the camera and serve as a kill switch.

Component                    Quantity Current Draw per component (A)          Total (A)
Camcorder                    1        .2                                      .2
                                      Total Current Draw                      .2 Amps


                                       Power Strip



                               Figure 7 : Electrical schematic

VI. Pressure / Vacuum System

       Not Applicable. No pressure or vacuum system is used.

VII. Laser System

Not Applicable. No laser is used.

VIII. Crew Assistance Requirements

Not Applicable. No special assistance will be necessary.

IX. Institutional Review Board (IRB)

Not Applicable. No human or other living organism is involved.

X. Hazard Analysis

Enumerate or mark N/A
 N/A Flammable/combustible material, fluid (liquid, vapor, or gas)
 N/A Toxic/noxious/corrosive/hot/cold material, fluid (liquid, vapor, or gas)
 N/A High pressure system (static or dynamic)
 N/A Evacuated container (implosion)
   1 Frangible material
 N/A Stress corrosion susceptible material
 N/A Inadequate structural design (i.e., low safety factor)
 N/A High intensity light source (including laser)
 N/A Ionizing/electromagnetic radiation
  1 Rotating device
 N/A Extendible/deployable/articulating experiment element (collision)
  1 Stowage restraint failure
  1 Stored energy device (i.e., mechanical spring under compression)
 N/A Vacuum vent failure (i.e., loss of pressure/atmosphere)
 N/A Heat transfer (habitable area over-temperature)
  3 Over-temperature explosive rupture (including electrical battery)
 N/A High/Low touch temperature
 N/A Hardware cooling/heating loss (i.e., loss of thermal control)
 N/A Pyrotechnic/explosive device
 N/A Propulsion system (pressurized gas or liquid/solid propellant)
 N/A High acoustic noise level
 N/A Toxic off-gassing material
 N/A Mercury/mercury compound
 N/A Other JSC 11123, Section 3.8 hazardous material
 N/A Organic/microbiological (pathogenic) contamination source
  8+ Sharp corner/edge/protrusion/protuberance
 N/A High voltage (electrical shock)
 N/A High static electrical discharge producer
 N/A Software error
 N/A Carcinogenic material

Flammable/Combustive Material

       N/A - The equipment does not incorporate any materials that pose a
             Flammable/Combustive Material hazard.         The hardware is composed of
             aluminum, steel, plastic and other non-flammable materials.

Toxic/Noxious/Corrosive/Hot/Cold Material or Fluid

       N/A - No such materials for fluids are used.

High Pressure System

       N/A – No part of the equipment will be pressurized in any manner

Evacuated Container

       N/A - The equipment does not involve any evacuated containers.

Frangible Material

         1-   The only breakable material is the acrylic tube track. Acrylic has a yield strength
              in excess of 9,500 psi and there will be no pressure difference between the inside
              and outside of the tube. Furthermore, the tube will be situated within the
              framework of the experiment, making accidental contact unlikely. The risk of the
              tube shattering is minimal.

Stress Corrosion Susceptible Material

       N/A - No part of the experiment is susceptible to stress corrosion within the timeframe
             of the two flights.

Inadequate Structural Design

       N/A - The structure of the experiment has been designed to meet and surpass all safety
             requirements. The structural concept being used has flown two consecutive years
             and performed outstandingly. A rigorous structural analysis will follow in the
             Test Equipment Data Package.

High Intensity Light Source

       N/A - The experiment does not include any high intensity light source.

Ionizing/Electromagnetic Radiation

       N/A - The experiment does not involve any sources of ionization or electromagnetic

Rotating Device

       N/A – A pendulum will be used as part of this experiment. The mass and size of the
             pendulum will be small to prevent any hazard. Furthermore, the pendulum will
             be situated within the experiment frame, preventing inadvertent contact.

Extendible/Deployable/Articulating Experiment Element

       N/A - The experiment does not contain a hazard of this type.

Stowage Restraint Failure

       1-       The experiment will consist of one plastic containers used to store the stand-alone
                cameras, scale, and shuttle model. The containers will be restrained to the base
                plate using cargo straps. The frame of the apparatus will serve to further restrain
                the containers.

Stored Energy Device

       1–       The experiment requires one spring. The spring will be small, large enough only
                to impart a moderate momentum to a billiard ball. The stored potential energy
                will be small and will only be held for a short amount of time.

Vacuum Vent Failure

       N/A - The experiment contains no vacuums or evacuated chambers.

Heat Transfer

       N/A - The experiment does not contain a heat transfer safety hazard.

Over-Temperature Explosive Rupture

       3-       The experiment contains three batteries for the camcorders. All batteries are UL
                certified and will be used in the correct manner. They do not pose a significant
                threat of rupture.

High/Low Touch Temperature

       N/A - There are no high or low temperature parts in this experiment.

Hardware Cooling/Heating Loss

       N/A - Thermal control is not required in any part of the experiment.

Pyrotechnic/Explosive Device

       N/A - The experiment has no pyrotechnic or explosive devices.

Propulsion System

       N/A - The experiment contains no propellant of any sort, and does not have a propulsion

High Acoustic Noise Level

       N/A - There are no acoustic devices in use on this experiment.

Toxic Off-Gassing Material

       N/A - There are no toxic materials within the experiment.

Mercury/Mercury Compound

       N/A - The experiment contains no mercury compounds of any sort.

Other JSC 11123, Section 3.8 Hazardous Materials

       N/A - There are no hazardous materials in the experiment whatsoever.

Organic/Microbiological Contaminants

       N/A - No organic material is included as part of the experiment.

Sharp Corner/Edge/Protrusion

       8+ -      The edges of the frame are very hard, and pose a threat to the safety of the crew if
                 appropriate precautions are not taken.

                 During freefall, crewmembers could accidentally run into a corner with
                 considerable force, risking personal injury.

                 To prevent this from happening, all sharp edges, corners, and protrusions will be
                 covered in protective foam padding. The padding will be secured with tape, and
                 will protect the crew from injury.

High Voltage

       N/A - There are no high voltage sources on the experiment.

High Static Electrical Discharge Producer

       N/A - No such device is onboard the experiment.

Software Error

       N/A - No software is in use on this experiment.

Carcinogenic Material

       N/A - No carcinogenic material of any sort is part of the experiment.

XI. Tool Requirements

       An inventory of tools to be brought to the Reduced Gravity Facility will be limited to the
following list:

              1 set of 8 Standard English hex wrenches
              1 Philips screwdriver
              1 Standard screwdriver
              3 Crescent Wrenches
              2 ½" Ratchet
              Duct Tape

       The remainder of the tools inventory will consist of a small variety of accessories that
will include set screws, bolts, nuts, washers, wires, and wire connectors. All tools and
accessories will be stored in a toolbox. No tools will be necessary for in-flight use.

XII. Ground Support Requirements

        No special arrangements are required for this experiment, except for a 115 VAC power
source in the hangar to charge the camera batteries.

XIII. Hazardous Materials

       The experiment does not involve any hazardous materials.

XIV. Procedures

        The team has developed a strict set of procedures to be used in ground, pre-flight,
takeoff/landing, in-flight, and post-flight operations. They are enumerated below.

   Ground Operations

          For ease of transport, the experiment is designed to be quickly disassembled, stowed,
   and then reassembled. The experiment will be shipped in a near complete assembled state.
   Upon arrival in Houston, all components including the pendulum, tube track, camera, and
   scale will be mounted in their proper places. We will require a 115 VAC power source to
   charge the camcorder batteries.

   Pre-Flight Operations

         All equipment will be properly stowed and/or attached if not done so already. The
   equipment will need to be loaded onto the KC-135 via a forklift and bolted to the floor.


          Prior to the first parabola, the cameras will be turned on and set to begin recording.
   Before landing, all cameras will be deactivated and all equipment stowed in their proper

   In-Flight Operations

           During the parabolas, the crew will be required to run each of the experiments
   multiple times. This involved starting the pendulum, pulling the spring back to shoot the
   billiard ball down the tube track, and videotaping of the plane and the shuttle
   model/gyroscope system. While this will require a great deal of crew interaction, the
   significant number of parabolas flown will allow the collection of useful footage and data
   even in the event of some crew being incapacitated.

   Post-Flight Operations

           The data tapes from all video cameras will be extensively scrutinized to determine the
   best footage for use. This footage will then be compiled and made into VHS and Video CD’s
   for use as part of our interactive lesson plans. Those lessons will then be incorporate into the
   Float’n Illini’s Educational Outreach program presented to numerous middle and high
   schools. A final report detailing our presentations and the content of our lessons will be

                                  Educational Outreach Plan

I. Objective

        The Float’n Illini Educational Outreach programs have two general focuses. The first is
to fuel the interest of space among people of all ages and use it to further encourage academic
excellence. The second is to spread the knowledge gain through the experiments and to promote
NASA sponsored events and competitions.

         Considering that there is a general interest in NASA and space exploration, the Float’n
Illini team also recognizes the need for more specific focuses within each audience tiers. For the
K-8 audience (tier one), the team will try to spark curiosity and general fascination in space
exploration and development. For presentations on a high school level (tier two), the team will
explain abstract physical concepts and the research done by the team to the students and promote
NASA sponsored events to the teachers. Outreach concerning adults (tier three), will serve as a
platform for the team to promote experiments and also other opportunities put forth by NASA.
Details of these tiers and the focus will be given in Section III.

         During any outreach presentation, Float’n Illini’s objectives are to educate the audience
about NASA and its programs, whether it involves teaching a kindergarten class how to build
paper airplanes, or presenting information about our research to fellow university students.
Float’n Illini also strives to show that in order to fulfill our dreams of researching with NASA,
we need hard work and dedication above all else. Although one outreach presentation, or even
an entire yearlong outreach activity, is too short to teach a substantial amount, it is enough for
Float’n Illini to engage and influence younger students. At every outreach presentation, Float’n
Illini fuels and encourages students’ interest in space and science.

II. Website:

       The Float’n Illini website was created and maintained by the team webmaster. The
Float’n Illini educational outreach website is publicly accessible from that site.
( The educational outreach website is comprehensive
and informative, highlighting several aspects of the organization’s projects, both past and
present, and the team’s involvement in the RGSFOP. Our website also provides teachers and
other educators a means of obtaining more detailed information about the organization's
Educational Outreach Program. One feature allows teachers to fill out an online presentation
request form. The aim of the website is to aid students, teachers, and community members in
finding information about NASA, space, and the team’s research and experiences.

a. Educational Outreach:

   The outreach page is set up to provide detailed information about the Educational Outreach
Program. This is further divided into the following sections: Recent News, Our Mission,
Framework, Presentations, Teachers, Awards, Contacts, and Press.

    Two significant sections include the Mission Statement and Framework. These two detail
the program’s focused objectives, and the means of accomplishing them. Another key section is
the presentations section, which details upcoming outreach activities. The links page, available

on the homepage, provides access to several exceptional space and science related educational

    The Awards page details the team’s honors for both educational outreach and campus
leadership. These awards recognize the contributions the team has made in the campus and in
the community. Float’n Illini's earlier outreach activities and work are described in the Past
Presentations section.

b. Acknowledgements:

    Float’n Illini’s activities would not be possible without the generous support of University
Departments, local business, industry, and individuals. The acknowledgment page recognizes
those who have assisted in the development of the team’s projects and outreach program. This
page is divided into individual sections for each year of the organization's existence.

III. Audience Tiers

        Float’n Illini has developed a three-tier program aimed at actively engaging audiences
composed of all ages. The program presents space exploration and microgravity research in a
way that is exciting and educational for all. The program includes presentations at local schools,
scouting groups, university groups, and at park service activities. The three-tier program is
detailed below.

a. Tier One: Grades K-8 at Local Schools

        Students in kindergarten through eighth grade comprise Tier One. Fast-paced, interactive
and visually stimulating demonstrations are used to capture and hold students’ attention. Float'n
Illini has developed lesson plans based on NASA and National Air and Space Museum
educational materials. Highlights of the lesson plans include a video presentation featuring in-
flight outreach experiments from previous flights by the Float’n Illini, experiments with a
portable drop tower that demonstrate concepts of gravity, and video clips from NASA’s
Astrosmiles. Paper airplanes demonstrate simple aerodynamic principles such as lift, drag, and
the center of gravity. Film canister rockets propelled by antacid tablets and water teach students
about rates of reaction and Newton's three laws of motion. The goal of outreach is to help young
students see the wonder, excitement, and fascination found in the exploration of space and
science as a whole.
b. Tier Two: Young Adults at High Schools

       Tier Two is made up of high school students, who are seriously considering their future
education and career options for the first time. This presents an excellent opportunity for
demonstrating the merits and rewards of pursuing a career in sciences, math, or engineering.
Rarely do professors present their research to high school students; therefore, Float’n Illini’s
presentations offer a unique opportunity for students to learn both about the research process and
the results. Also, college students are wonderful advisors for high school students trying to
decide on a major or career path. Float’n Illini plans the presentation with the teacher so that the
presentation will supplement the regular instruction. The use of NASA’s publication,

Microgravity - A Teacher’s Guide with Activities in Science, Mathematics, and Technologies,
helps ensure that all major aspects are covered.

c. Tier Three: Adults such as Professors, Community Members, and University Students

        Adults of all ages comprise Tier Three. The adults in the community have a positive
impact on NASA by their support of and interest in space programs. Presentations to fellow
college students are an opportunity to explain our research process and to learn about other
research opportunities. Tier Three presentations highlight current and future research in
microgravity, along with an overview of NASA’s advancements in space exploration. The goal
is to showcase NASA’s efforts, and how Float’n Illini students, who represent the future of space
exploration, are involving themselves in those efforts.

IV. Educational Outreach Activities

        A core tenet of Float’n Illini’s Educational Outreach program is to provide innovative
resources to teachers and other educators. In addressing this, the program has developed a
versatile array of media and activities that suit students’ level of understanding and stimulate
further interest. The presentations introduce students to challenging scientific problems.
Described below are some of the interactive presentations the team has developed to engage the
students during the presentation.

a. Drop-Tower

        Float’n Illini’s primary purpose is to conduct microgravity research. It is important,
therefore, that outreach presentations highlight concepts of gravity, using demonstration tools
that simulate microgravity in a way that is “physically real.” The Float’n Illini Drop Tower will
bring microgravity into the classroom. The drop tower stands a maximum height of eleven feet,
six inches tall, yielding up to 0.86 seconds of microgravity in the payload’s reference frame. A
miniature video camera is mounted inside the payload box with the video feed set to a frame
advance VCR. Using the frame advance feature, the relatively brief 0.86 seconds is slowed for
easy visualization of the experiments. Fully portable, the drop tower can be taken anywhere and
assembled in minutes. The drop tower has been a popular and effective presentation because it
helps students to understand the concept of microgravity through direct observation.

b. Newton's Rockets

        Newton’s Laws and rates of reaction will be demonstrated through the use of film
canister rockets. Antacid tablets and water propel these small rockets. Smaller children will
learn about propulsion and gravity. Older children will learn about rocket motion and rates of
reaction. With a given initial velocity, students will have to calculate how high their rocket will

c. Einstein’s Relativity, and Gravity Probe B

        This presentation is given to high school students in advanced physics. It integrates the
ideas of space-time and gravity into an explanation of the concepts behind Gravity Probe B.
Gravity Probe B is a system consisting of a gyroscope, a telescope, and a satellite. From within a
polar orbit, the telescope will remain fixed on a specific star while the axis of the gyroscope
remains constant with respect to the Earth’s space-time field. The theoretical system will
measure the angle between where the telescope and gyroscope are pointing at the end of one
year. Although the telescope and gyroscope are initially aligned, the drag of Earth’s localized
space-time field is predicted to cause the two to become misaligned by 42 milliarc-seconds over
the course of one year.

        After a brief discussion of gravity, the students will calculate the time it takes light to
travel from the sun to various planets. Students will then be led in a discussion regarding the
space-time field. To illustrate the concept of space-time curvature caused by gravity, a large
rubber sheet is held taut and heavy objects are placed upon it. When much lighter balls are
rolled on the sheet, their path curves around the indentations caused by the more massive objects.
This is an approximate two-dimensional representation of the four-dimensional space-time field.
To demonstrate frame dragging in space-time, the students will perform the following
experiment: a large marble will be placed in the middle of a paper plate in a large puddle of
molasses or honey. A few drops of food coloring and some small peppercorns will be sprinkled
throughout the liquid. The students will spin the marble and observe that the objects near the
marble will experience a drag force, but objects farther away will not be affected by the rotation.
This presentation is based on outreach material provided by the Gravity Probe B research group
at Stanford University.

 d. Paper Airplanes
        Many of the Float’n Illini team members are Aeronautical and Astronautical Engineering
majors and enjoy sharing their knowledge about flight mechanics with younger students. In this
activity Float’n Illini members will explain the four principles of flight, which include lift,
weight, thrust, and drag, using paper airplanes. Building the paper airplanes gives the students
practice in following instructions. The students experiment with different airplane designs and
with paper clip placement, which teaches center of mass. Seeing paper airplanes used as an
educational tool amazes many teachers.

e. Lunar Colony
       This activity combines social studies and science. The entire class discusses what is
necessary for a community (food production, housing, waste management, etc.) and then divides
into small groups. Each group designs one component of the community out of recycled
materials such as Styrofoam balls, Popsicle sticks, pipe cleaners, and clay. As the students
combine the modules to create the lunar colony, they talk about the needs their module fulfills
and their design process.

f. Moon rock
       Float’n Illini was quite honored to have been loaned a moon rock obtained by the
astronauts of the Apollo 15 mission from Glenn Research Center last year and hopes to borrow
the same rock again this year. This artifact introduces school children, fellow college students,
and community members to planetary science and geology. The audience members at

Engineering Open House were able to examine terrestrial rocks of similar composition as the
moon rock. Based on observation, they could then guess the composition of the lunar sample.
The explanation that the moon likely formed from terrene debris as a result of a comet impact
three million years ago introduces planetary science concepts.

h. In-flight Experiments

        This year Float’n Illini will try to demonstrate controlled rotation in microgravity. First,
two tennis balls will be connected by a rubber band and carefully spun around in microgravity.
This will show how the center of mass is conserved. The same demonstration will be done with
balls of different masses to prove that the center of mass is not equidistant from balls of different

        Float’n Illini plans to use the lunar and Martian parabolas for educational outreach. We
will spin a small tornado tube during the different gravities and see how tornados look in
different gravities.

V. Recent Educational Outreach Efforts (2002-2003)

         The Float’n Illini has a strong tradition of excellence in its educational outreach program.
In addition to visiting local schools, Float’n Illini gives to local scouting groups, serves as
mentors for younger students participating in Space Day, and participates in the University of
Illinois’ Engineering Open House.

Film Canister Rockets
September 9th, 2002

        Float’n Illini members Laura Butler and Melonee Wise joined three undergraduates from
the UIUC Aeronautical and Astronautical Engineering Department to give a presentation to Boy
Scout Packs 25 and 94 at the Mahomet School District’s Sagamon building. The 100 cub scouts
about their research clubs and to help them build and launch alka-seltzer pop rockets. Team
journalist Todd Gleason made a guest appearance and told the boys what they really wanted to
learn, how to vomit in microgravity.

Mrs. Burgess’s 4th Grade Class
Booker T. Washington Elementary School
October 28th, 2002

       Float'n Illini members Laura Butler, Emily Byrne and Robert Kuang visited Mrs. Izona
Burgess's 4th grade class at Booker T. Washington Elementary School. They were currently
studying the moon, so the presentation included fun moon facts, information about the Saturn V
rockets, and a chance for the students to build and launch their own alka-seltzer pop rockets.
This was a repeat visit; Mrs’s Burgess’s 4th grade class last year had really enjoyed the
presentation, so she invited Float’n Illini back.

Lincoln Square Mall Halloween
Funfest Champaign Park District and Urbana Park District
October 30th, 2002

        Float'n Illini members Emily Byrne, Nick Ilchena, Kristyn Nesteikis, Scott Tagge, Sean
Warrenburg, and Melonee Wise visited Lincoln Square Mall to participate in Halloween Funfest,
a trick-or-treat opportunity for children. Float'n Illini had a paper airplane booth modeled after
the Paper Airplane contest at the How Things Fly gallery at the National Air and Space Museum.
The children threw paper airplanes through a cut-out hole in a Halloween themed box. Float’n
Illini members also publicized the upcoming film canister rockets with the Champaign-Urbana
Astronomical Society.

Mrs. Jones’s Kindergarten Class
Carrie Busey Elementary School
November 15th, 2002

        Float'n Illini members Adam Jaslikowski, Nick Ilchena, and Sean Warrenburg visited
Mrs. Jones's kindergarten class at Carrie Busey Elementary School. They had a fun time teaching
the kids how to build pop-rockets. The kids were so excited some of them had calm down in
time outs. But in the end, everyone was amazed to see his or her rocket launch into the air. The
event was such a success that Mrs. Jones asked us if we could come back. Thanks to her and her
wonderful class for all the fun.

Space Day Kids
Forces of Flight
November 16th, 2002

        Float’n Illini members Laura Butler, Steve Eberle, and Melonee Wise along with Illini
Space Development Society member Eric Biedermann visited a group of enthusiastic sixth
graders participating in the Space Day design challenge, “Celebrating the Future of Flight.”
About 20 students represented four of the teams from Franklin Middle School. The students’
projects involved designing aircraft of the future and building working models. The presenters
talked about the forces of flight, wing and tail design, engines, and alternative power sources.
The students then built paper airplanes and held a paper airplane contest. Everyone involved had
a great time.

Junior Girl Scouts
Holy Cross School
November 18th, 2002

       Float’n Illini members Laura Butler and Stephanie Milczarek helped a group of 13 4th
grade Junior Girl Scouts earn their aerospace badge. The girls enjoyed learning about Laura and
Stephanie’s majors and hobbies. They were especially interested in hearing Stephanie’s stories

about Space Camp. The girls examined astronaut menus while hearing about taste testing
astronaut food. Then the girls experimented with building three different airplane types. For the
first two, the girls followed instructions and build typical gliders. For the last one, the girls had a
few supplies and experimented with their own ideas. The girls, leaders, and Float’n members all
enjoyed the presentation.

Space Day Kids
Franklin Middle School
February 6th, 2003

        Float’n Illini members Emily Byrne, Adam Jaslikowski, Stephanie Milczarek, and
Kristyn Nesteikis visited the Space Day Kids at the their weekly meeting. The two-dozen sixth
graders were excited to show and explain their projects: building model airplanes, researching
planetary bodies, and writing reports. The four Float’n Illini members were greatly impressed by
the students’ team work, intelligence, creativity, and determination.

Boy Scout Merit Badge Seminar
Holy Cross School
Saturday, March 8th, 1-5 pm

        Float’n Illini members Emily Byrne, Steve Eberle, Robert Kuang, and Sean Warrenburg
taught a group of thirty Boy Scouts about aerospace. The boys learned about the purpose of
space exploration, aerospace pioneers, and careers in space exploration. Float’n members
explained the law of action-reaction, how rocket engines work, and how satellites stay in orbit.
After discussing Mir and ISS, the boys designed and built a space station out of paper tubes,
cellophane wrap, pipe cleaners, and other odds and ends.

Engineering Open House
March 21st and 22nd, 2003

    Over 30,000 visitors from around the country attend the University of Illinois Engineering
Open House each year. Visitors to the Float’n Illini booth learned about the RGSFOP, attended
research talks about granular flow and flame balls, saw a short drop tower in action, celebrated
the 100th anniversary of flight by designing and flying paper airplanes, and became rocket
scientist by building alka-seltzer film canister rockets. Float’n Illini members enjoyed sitting
back and watching visitors teach each other how to make their favorite airplanes. The film
cannister rockets reached new heights; some reached the ceiling of the 40-ft lecture hall
    Float’n Illini probably attracted more than 1000 visitors; the team members were too busy
leading activities to count. Visitors made over 300 film canister rockets and over 150 paper
airplanes. Schoolchildren, undergraduate and graduate students, primary and secondary school
teachers, parents, professors, and alumni all enjoyed the presentations and, hopefully, learned
some interesting new science facts or ways to teach science.

Carrie Busey Elementary School
Rocket Scientists
April 4th, 2003

        Twenty-two first grade students in Mrs. Davis’s class listened excitedly as Float’n Illini
members Laura Butler, Dawn Cole, and Adam Jaslikowski taught the students about propulsion
and led them in building film canister rockets. The students had just completed a unit on the
solar system and enthusiastically told the Float’n Illini members about their roles as planets and
astronauts in the upcoming class play about the solar system. Quite a few of the students
counted “astronaut” as one of their future careers.

Ms. Johnson’s 4th and 5th Grade Class
Robeson Elementary School
October 7th, 2003

       Float’n Illini members Robert Kuang, John Navarro, Adam Jaslikowski, and Adam
Raghev split up into two teams to teach Ms. Johnson’s class about rockets and Martian habitat.
While Adam Jaslikowski and Adam Raghev went outside to show a rocket demonstration,
Robert Kuang and John Navarro played an interactive game that led students to learn about the
building a Martian habitat. They expressed interest in competing in NASA’s Martian habitat
building contest.

Mr. Wilson’s 4th Grade Class
Bottenfield Elementary School
October, 2003

        Team members gave an interactive presentation on what life would be like on a Mars
colony. Afterwards, the class was broken up into four groups and given the task of designing an
entire Mars colonization mission. It ranged from Mars colony designing to hand picking the
crew that will be manning the colony. The presentation was wrapped up by talking about the X-
prize competition and the Martian colony competition.

VI. Educational Outreach Contacts

       The following schools have been contacted earlier this year and expressed interest in
having the Float’n Illini giving a presentation.

Vernon Barkstall Elementary
Bottenfield Elementary
Carrie Busey Elementary
Dr. Howard Elementary
Garden Hills Accelerated School
Kenwood Elementary
Marquette School

Robeson Elementary
South Side Elementary
Kenneth Stratton Elementary
Martin Luther King Elementary
Leal Elementary
Prairie Elementary
Thomas Paine Elementary
Booker T. Washington Elementary
Westview Elementary
Wiley Elementary
Yankee Ridge Elementary
Edison Middle
Franklin Middle
Jefferson Middle
Urbana Middle
Centennial High
Central High
Urbana High
University Lab High
Unity High
Oakwood High

VII. Media

        In order to publicize our educational outreach program, we intend on contacting several
media outlets in the community. Some of these media resources will include but not limited to
the community newspapers (The News Gazette), local school publications, and perhaps articles in
a scientific magazine.


   The Float'n Illini are willing and able to comply with all of the program requirements. This
team will pay close attention to the program timeline and deadlines and will comply with all
requests to provide information to any of the Program Coordinators.

   I.     Institution Letter of Endorsement

          Please see next page (original copy only)

   II.    Statement of Supervising Faculty

          Please see page following next (original copy only)

   III.      Funding Budget Statement

   Estimated Expenses
        Experiment Equipment
             (Aluminum for frame ~ $500
              Miscellaneous ~ $200 )                   Equipment Total   $ 700
        Office Supplies                                                 $ 200
        Travel (Vans, Food, Lodging)                                    $15,000
        Educational Outreach                                            $ 500
        Flight Physicals                                                $ 480

Total Expenses                                                           $16,880

   Expected Resources
       Department of Aerospace Engineering                              $   1,500
       Student Organization Resource Fund (SORF)                        $   6,000
       Corporate Sponsorship                                            $   1,000
       University of Illinois Engineering Design Council                $   6,000
       Float’n Illini Account                                           $   7,200

Total Resources                                                         $21,700

   IV.      Institutional Review Board (IRB)

                Not Applicable.

   V.       NASA/JSC Human Research Subject Consent Form

                Not Applicable.

   VI.      JSC Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC)

                Not Applicable.

   VII.     Parental Consent Forms
               N.A. All team members are age 18 or over.

I. Photo Identification Copies

         Photo Identification Copies are attached to this document.

II. Proof/Statement of Undergraduate Status

         Proof/Statements of Undergraduate Status are attached to this document.

III. Material Safety Data Sheets

         N.A. No hazardous materials will be used.

IV. Sample Education Outreach Presentation

       This handout gives instructions and plans for kids to build pop rockets at home, explain
some underlying scientific principles, suggests ideas for further experimentation, and lists
educational, space-related websites for kids.

V. Letters of Interest

       Several high schools have expressed an interest in this experiment. Letters from these
high schools are attached.

                  Build a Pop Rocket at Home

    Here are instructions so that you can build another
pop rocket and try to launch it even higher.

First, gather the materials you will need
              Fugi film canister1
              Rocket pattern
              Scissors
              Cellophane tape (scotch tape)
              Colors (markers, crayons, or colored pencils)
              Effervescing antacid tablets2
              Water

1) The film canister must have a lid that snaps to the inside of the rim of the canister. If you
need a Fugi film canister, try asking photo shops for empty canisters. If they have any, they will
usually give them to you for free.

2) Only the fizzing antacid tablets, like Alka-Seltzer work. The chewable calcium antacid tablets
don’t release the gas needed to propel the rocket.

Second, learn the parts of a rocket                                              nose
        The pointed tip of the rocket is the nose cone. The streamlined          cone
shape of the nose cone helps reduce drag. Drag is air resistance, which          tube
slows down the rocket. The nose cone attaches to the cylindrical tube               fin
called the body tube. The engine is inside the body tube. The fins
attach to the outside of the body tube and help stabilize the rocket.
The engine in your pop rocket is the film canister and the fuel is
antacid and water.

Third, understand how a rocket flies
        The rockets that launched astronauts to the moon work the same as the pop rocket you
will build. An un-tied balloon can be a very simple rocket. When you untie the end of the
balloon and let it go, the balloon will fly until all of its fuel (the air inside) is used up. The air
inside pushes out on the sides of the balloon in all directions, but can only escape through the
open end.

   Air moves to the left                        push            The balloon moves to the right

        The law of action and reaction describes the movement of the balloon and other rockets.
For the balloon, the action is the air escaping and the reaction is the balloon moving to the right.
For pop rockets and real rockets, the action is the gas being pushed out of the engine and the
reaction is the rocket launching into the air. When the fuel (antacid and water) in your rocket
reacts, a lot of gas is produced. The gas presses out on the canister on all sides until it pushes the
lid off of the canister and the rocket into the air. The rocket continues to be pushed upwards
until the all the fuel is used up or falls out.

Fourth, assemble the pop rocket
Now that you know the parts of a rocket and how it flies, you are ready to build your own:
    1) Cut out and color all the pieces of the rocket pattern.
    2) Wrap the rectangular piece for the rocket body around the film canister. Tape the paper
        to itself, not to the film canister. Make sure that the lid of the film canister is showing.
    3) Form the circular nose cone piece into a cone and tape it together. Bring the two ends
        together and overlap them.
    4) Tape the nose cone to the top of the rocket.
    5) Choose how many fins you want and tape them to the rocket body.

                                             Form the nose cone.
     Wrap the rocket body
Fifth, launch the pop
     around the film canister.   rocket                                  Your rocket should look
                                                                   similar to this or sunglasses
    Be safe, have an adult help you launch your pop rocket. Wear safety gogglesdesign.
when launching the pop rockets to protect your eyes. The pop rockets can fly up to 15 feet high
and are a little messy, so launch them outside on a flat, hard surface like a sidewalk. You will
need two people to launch a pop rocket.
    1) Put the film canister engine inside the rocket body with the lid end sticking out.
    2) Test to make sure that you can quickly put the lid on tight. An adult might have to help
        you with this step.
    3) Crush one antacid tablet into a fine powder.
    4) Turn your rocket upside down, take off the lid, and pour the antacid into the film canister.

   5) Have your partner fill the film canister 1/4th of the way with water.
   6) Quickly, snap on the lid. Make sure it fits on securely.
   7) Stand your rocket up on the ground and step back. Begin the countdown sequence. 10,
           9, 8, . . . The rocket will take between 10 seconds and 1 minute to launch.
   8) Watch and see how high your rocket flies and how long it stays in the air.

Sixth, Further experimentation ideas
           If you want to be a real rocket scientist, experiment with your
rocket design to see how many different rockets you can build. Here
are a few ideas to get you started.
           Try a different number of fins or different shaped fins
           Vary the amounts of water and antacid
           Change the water temperature
           Try using a whole antacid tablet instead of a crushed one
           Use a different container for your rocket body. Try one of the
            miniature m&m containers. Use your imagination

Seventh, more resources
    - the Float’n Illini website.
    - make and do spacey things
    - more project ideas
    - learn more about rockets.


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