National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority by tdt18397

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									National Indicators for Local Authorities
and Local Authority Partnerships:
Handbook of Definitions

Annex 2: Children and Young People
2 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions
                                                                                 Annex 2: Children and Young People 3




Introduction
On 11 October 2007 the Secretary of State for Communities and Local
Government announced a new set of 198 national indicators for English
local authorities and local authority partnerships. The set underpins the new
performance framework for local government and meets the Government’s
commitment, as set out in the local Government White Paper Strong and
Prosperous Communities, to introduce a clear set of national outcomes and a
single set of national indicators by which to measure them.

A consultation exercise on the Government’s proposed technical definitions for
the 198 indicators ran from 8 November to 21 December 2007. Communities
and Local Government worked with other Government Departments and
stakeholders to agree final definitions for inclusion in the handbook, taking into
account the many helpful and informed comments received from consultees on
individual indicators.

This handbook contains the final full definitions for all indicators to be introduced
for 2008/09 and an outline of plans for introduction of those indicators delayed
until 2009/10. Methodology from the Place Survey will be published shortly.

In line with the consultation document the indicator definitions are split into four
annexes as follows.

Annex 1: Stronger and Safer Communities

Annex 2: Children and Young People

Annex 3: Adult Health & Well-being and Tackling Exclusion & Promoting
         Equality

Annex 4: Local Economy and Environmental Sustainability

This document is Annex 2 to the document National indicators for Local
Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions.
4 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




                               List of Templates for Children and Young People (NI 50 –118)

                                 Title of national indicator                                            Page

                                 Outcome: Children & Young People
                                 Be Healthy
                                 NI 50 Emotional health of children PSA 12                               8
                                 NI 51 Effectiveness of child and adolescent mental health
                                 (CAMHS) services DCSF DSO                                               10
                                 NI 52 Take up of school lunches PSA 12                                  12
                                 NI 53 Prevalence of breastfeeding at 6 – 8 weeks from birth
                                 PSA 12                                                                  14
                                 NI 54 Services for disabled children PSA 121                            17
                                 NI 55 Obesity in primary school age children in Reception
                                 PSA 12                                                                  18
                                 NI 56 Obesity in primary school age children in Year 6
                                 DCSF DSO                                                                21
                                 NI 57 Children and young people’s participation in high-
                                 quality PE and sport DCSF DSO                                           24
                                 NI 58 Emotional and behavioural health of looked after
                                 children DCSF DSO                                                       25

                                 Stay Safe
                                 NI 59 Percentage of initial assessments for children’s social
                                 care carried out within 7 working days of referral DCSF DSO             28
                                 NI 60 Percentage of core assessments for children’s social
                                 care that were carried out within 35 working days of their
                                 commencement DCSF DSO                                                   30
                                 NI 61 Timeliness of placements of looked after children for
                                 adoption following an agency decision that the child should
                                 be placed for adoption DCSF DSO                                         32
                                 NI 62 Stability of placements of looked after children:
                                 number of placements DCSF DSO                                           34
                                 NI 63 Stability of placements of looked after children:
                                 length of placement DCSF DSO                                            36
                                 NI 64 Child Protection Plans lasting 2 years or more
                                 DCSF DSO                                                                38
                                 NI 65 Percentage of children becoming the subject of a Child
                                 Protection Plan for a second or subsequent time DCSF DSO                41
                                 NI 66 Looked after children cases which were reviewed
                                 within required timescales DCSF DSO                                     44
                                 NI 67 Percentage of child protection cases which were
                                 reviewed within required timescales DCSF DSO                            46
                                 NI 68 Percentage of referrals to children’s social care going
                                 on to initial assessment DCSF DSO                                       49
                                                             Annex 2: Children and Young People 5




Title of national indicator                                  Page

Outcome: Children & Young People (continued)
NI 69 Children who have experienced bullying DCSF DSO         51
NI 70 Hospital admissions caused by unintentional and
deliberate injuries to children and young people PSA 13       54
NI 71 Children who have run away from home/care
overnight DCSF DSO                                            55

Enjoy and Achieve
NI 72 Achievement of at least 78 points across the Early
Years Foundation Stage with at least 6 in each of the
scales in Personal Social and Emotional Development and
Communication, Language and Literacy PSA 10                   57
NI 73 Achievement at level 4 or above in both English and
Maths at Key Stage 2 PSA 10                                   59
NI 74 Achievement at level 5 or above in both English and
Maths at Key Stage 3 PSA 10                                   61
NI 75 Achievement of 5 or more A*-C grades at GCSE or
equivalent including English and Maths PSA 10                 63
NI 76 Reduction in number of schools where fewer than
65% of pupils achieve level 4 or above in both English and
Maths at KS2 DCSF DSO                                         65
NI 77 Reduction in number of schools where fewer than
50% of pupils achieve level 5 or above in both English and
Maths at KS3 DCSF DSO                                         67
NI 78 Reduction in number of schools where fewer than
30% of pupils achieve 5 or more A*-C grades at GCSE and
equivalent including GCSEs in English and Maths PSA 10        69
NI 79 Achievement of a Level 2 qualification by the age of
19 PSA 10                                                     71
NI 80 Achievement of a Level 3 qualification by the age of
19 PSA 10                                                     75
NI 81 Inequality gap in the achievement of a Level 3
qualification by the age of 19 DCSF DSO                       79
NI 82 Inequality gap in the achievement of a Level 2
qualification by the age of 19 DCSF DSO                       83
NI 83 Achievement at level 5 or above in Science at Key
Stage 3 DCSF DSO                                              87
NI 84 Achievement of 2 or more A*-C grades in Science
GCSEs or equivalent DCSF DSO                                  89
NI 85 Post-16 participation in physical sciences (A Level
Physics, Chemistry and Maths) DCSF DSO                        91
NI 86 Secondary schools judged as having good or
outstanding standards of behaviour DCSF DSO                   93
NI 87 Secondary school persistent absence rate DCSF DSO       95
6 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




                                 Title of national indicator                                            Page

                                 Outcome: Children & Young People (continued)
                                 NI 88 Percentage of schools providing access to extended
                                 services DCSF DSO                                                       98
                                 NI 89 Reduction in number of schools judged as requiring
                                 special measures and improvement in time taken to come
                                 out of the category DCSF DSO                                           100
                                 NI 90 Take up of 14-19 learning diplomas DCSF DSO                      102
                                 NI 91 Participation of 17 year-olds in education or training
                                 DCSF DSO                                                               104
                                 NI 92 Narrowing the gap between the lowest achieving
                                 20% in the Early Years Foundation Stage Profile and the
                                 rest PSA 11                                                            107
                                 NI 93 Progression by 2 levels in English between Key Stage
                                 1 and Key Stage 2 PSA 11                                               109
                                 NI 94 Progression by 2 levels in Maths between Key Stage 1
                                 and Key Stage 2 PSA 11                                                 112
                                 NI 95 Progression by 2 levels in English between Key Stage
                                 2 and Key Stage 3 PSA 11                                               114
                                 NI 96 Progression by 2 levels in Maths between Key Stage 2
                                 and Key Stage 3 PSA 11                                                 117
                                 NI 97 Progression by 2 levels in English between Key Stage
                                 3 and Key Stage 4 PSA 11                                               120
                                 NI 98 Progression by 2 levels in Maths between Key Stage 3
                                 and Key Stage 4 PSA 11                                                 122
                                 NI 99 Looked after children reaching level 4 in English at Key
                                 Stage 2 PSA 11                                                         124
                                 NI 100 Looked after children reaching level 4 in Maths at Key
                                 Stage 2 PSA 11                                                         127
                                 NI 101 Looked after children achieving 5 A*-C GCSEs (or
                                 equivalent) at Key Stage 4 (including English and Maths)
                                 PSA 11                                                                 130
                                 NI 102 Achievement gap between pupils eligible for free
                                 school meals and their peers achieving the expected level at
                                 Key Stages 2 and 4 PSA 11                                              133
                                 NI 103 Special Educational Needs – statements issued within
                                 26 weeks DCSF DSO                                                      136
                                 NI 104 The Special Educational Needs (SEN)/non-SEN
                                 gap – achieving Key Stage 2 English and Maths threshold
                                 DCSF DSO                                                               139
                                 NI 105 The Special Educational Needs (SEN)/non-SEN gap
                                 – achieving 5 A*-C GCSEs including English and Maths
                                 DCSF DSO                                                               142
                                 NI 106 Young people from low income backgrounds
                                 progressing to higher education PSA 11                                 146
                                                              Annex 2: Children and Young People 7




Title of national indicator                                   Page

Outcome: Children & Young People (continued)
NI 107 Key Stage 2 attainment for Black and minority ethnic
groups DCSF DSO                                               149
NI 108 Key Stage 4 attainment for Black and minority ethnic
groups DCSF DSO                                               151
NI 109 Number of Sure Start Children’s Centres DCSF DSO       153
NI 199 Children and young people’s satisfaction with parks
and play areas DCSF DSO                                       155

Make a positive contribution
NI 110 Young people’s participation in positive activities
PSA 14                                                        156
NI 111 First time entrants to the Youth Justice System
aged 10–17 PSA 14                                             159
NI 112 Under 18 conception rate PSA 14                        161
NI 113 Prevalence of Chlamydia in under 25 year olds
DCSF DSO                                                      163
NI 114 Rate of permanent exclusions from school DCSF DSO      166
NI 115 Substance misuse by young people PSA 14                167

Economic Wellbeing
NI 116 Proportion of children in poverty PSA 9                170
NI 117 16 to 18 year olds who are not in education,
employment or training (NEET) PSA 14                          172
NI 118 Take up of formal childcare by low-income working
families DWP DSO                                              176
8 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




Definitions for Children and Young People

 NI 50: Emotional health of children
 Is the data provided by the LA or                                  Y         Is this an existing indicator?   N
 a local partner?
 Rationale                   The Every Child Matters outcome framework has highlighted the importance of a
                             rounded approach to, and measurement of, children’s health and well being. The
                             aim of this indicator is to capture one of the key elements of children’s emotional
                             health: the quality of their relationships with family and friends.
                             The DCSF child well being expert group felt the indicator needed to focus in more
                             depth on a particular aspect of well being, rather than trying to address a broad
                             theme in an over simplified way. Parents are the single most important influence
                             on young people’s development, with peers of increasing importance to older
                             adolescents. The quality of relationships young people enjoy is a key risk factor for
                             their emotional well-being.
                             Four question items have been developed to capture the quality of children’s
                             relationships. These will be included in the annual TellUs surveys. The question
                             items have been cognitively tested and will be included in the 2008 TellUs survey
                             for the first time.
 Definition                  This measure will be the percentage of children who enjoy good relationships
                             with their family and friends. The definition of ‘good’ will need to be determined
                             after an initial analysis of the 4 questions included in the TellUs 3 Survey: this
                             will include consideration of the distribution of responses to each item and the
                             distribution of responses to combinations of the items.
                             The four items are that will be used to form the indicator are:
                             I have one or more good friends
                             When I’m worried about something I can talk to my mum or dad
                             When I’m worried about something I can talk to my friends
                             When I’m worried about something I can talk to an adult other than my mum or
                             dad
                             The TellUs survey also includes questions around happiness, bullying and child
                             safety. Responses to these questions will offer useful context. The TellUs survey
                             is based on a representative sample of pupils in School Years 6, 8 and 10 in
                             maintained schools, including Academies and PRUs, in a local area.
                                                                            Annex 2: Children and Young People 9




NI 50: Emotional health of children (continued)
Formula           This is a new indicator and a programme of development is ongoing to finalise
                  the method of calculation. At this stage it is proposed that answers of young
                  people will be combined into a single performance measure based on the
                  proportion of young people responding positively to each item.
                  Each item will be equally weighted. The TellUs survey data are weighted and
                  grossed up to match local area profiles based on PLASC data.
                  The local authority indicator will be the percentage of children who enjoy good
                  relationships with their family and friends. The definition of ‘good’ will need to be
                  determined after an initial analysis of the TellUs 3 Survey data.
Worked            In a given Local Authority      Good               A high and increasing
example           (based on PLASC data)           performance        proportion of children and
                  there are 12,000 young                             young people in a local area
                  people in school years 6, 8                        giving responses which indicate
                  and 10. The TellUs survey                          good relationships.
                  estimates that, based
                  on combining responses
                  to the four items, 9,797
                  young people have good
                  relations with their family
                  and friends This gives a
                  local indicator of 82%.
Collection        Annual (academic year)          Data Source        Annual TellUs survey
interval
Return Format     Percentage                      Decimal Places     None
Reporting         Ofsted
organisation
Spatial level     Single tier or county council
Further           The TellUs survey is voluntary and the data are weighted to match local area
Guidance          profiles based on PLASC data.
10 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 51: Effectiveness of child and adolescent mental health (CAMHS) services
 Is the data provided by the LA or                                  Y        Is this an existing indicator?   N
 a local partner?
 Rationale                   To have a measure of how effectively mental health services meet children’s
                             mental health needs for 2008-09.
                             DCSF are currently working to develop an outcome measure for CAMHS
                             from 2009 onwards. However, until a robust outcome measure for CAMHS
                             can be implemented, it is important to have in place a measure which will
                             ensure services retain a focus on maintaining developments in CAMHS. We
                             are therefore proposing, as an interim measure, to use four proxy measures
                             related to key aspects of service, which when taken together, will continue
                             to identify those PCTs and LAs which are together delivering comprehensive
                             CAMHS.
 Definition                  A self assessment of how effectively mental health services meet children’s
                             mental health needs for 2008/09. This is an aggregated score of 1 to 4 for
                             each of the four questions below, where a total of 4 is the lowest possible
                             score and 16 is the highest.
                             For the period 2008-9 we are proposing the following four questions:
                             1. At January 31 2009, has a full range of CAMH services for children and
                                young people with learning disabilities been commissioned for the Local
                                Authority/PCT area?
                             2. As at January 31 2009, do 16 and 17 year olds from the Local Authority/
                                PCT area who require mental health services have access to services and
                                accommodation appropriate to their age and level of maturity?
                             3. As at 31 January 2009, are arrangements in place for the Local Authority/
                                PCT area to ensure that 24 hour cover is available to meet urgent mental
                                health needs of children and young people and for a specialist mental
                                health assessment to be undertaken within 24 hours or the next working
                                day where indicated?
                             4. As at 31 January 2009 was a full range of early intervention support
                                services delivered in universal settings and through targeted services for
                                children experiencing mental health problems commissioned by the Local
                                Authority and PCT in partnership’?
                             LAs and PCTs are asked to rate the service under each indicator on a scale of
                             1 to 4 as follows:
                             1 for no aspects or service or strategic plans in place
                             2 for protocols and plans are in place, services have yet to be put in place
                             3 for protocols and plans are in place but are only partially implemented
                             4 for protocols and plans are in place and are fully implemented.
 Formula                     Aggregate the self assessed scores of 1 to 4 for each of the four questions,
                             where a total of 4 is the lowest possible score and 16 is the highest.
                                                                        Annex 2: Children and Young People 11




NI 51: Effectiveness of child and adolescent mental health (CAMHS) services (continued)
Worked            If a council assesses           Good              Good performance is
example           performance against the         performance       typified by higher numbers.
                  three questions as being
                  respectively 3, 4, 3, 2, then
                  a score of 12.
Collection        Annual                          Data Source       CAMHS Mapping
interval
Return            Number between 4 and 16         Decimal Places    None
Format
Reporting         Ofsted based on information collated and reported across all Local
organisation      authorities and Primary Care Trusts CAMHS mapping exercise.
Spatial level     Primary Care Trust, single tier and county councils
Further           The definition of ‘Comprehensive CAMHS’ is based on Appendix 2 of the
Guidance          Mental Health and Psychological Well being of Children and Young People
                  Standard of the National Service Framework for Children Young People and
                  Maternity Services. This is available at www.dh.gov.uk
                  Guidance on the CAMHS mapping, including on the rating scale, will be
                  available at www.camhsmapping.org.uk
12 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 52: Take up of school lunches
 Is the data provided by the LA or a                               Y        Is this an existing indicator?       N
 local partner?
 Rationale                   To assess the increase in healthy eating among children and young people by
                             measuring school lunch take-up, particularly those children entitled to a Free
                             School Meal. Nationally, 41% of primary and 38% of secondary pupils have
                             a school lunch. 16% of primary and 13% of secondary pupils have known
                             entitlement to FSM and 13% of primary and 9.5% of secondary pupils take up
                             that entitlement. All school lunches are now required to meet tough nutritional
                             standards that ensure that all the food provided by schools and local authorities in
                             a school lunch is healthy and of good quality. Packed lunches provided by parents
                             are not regulated and there are no mechanisms for establishing whether packed
                             lunches meet the nutritional standards required for school lunches.
 Definition                  School lunch take-up refers to the number or percentage of full-time pupils
                             attending maintained primary, secondary or special schools who have a lunch
                             at school that is provided either by the school or the local authority during the
                             previous financial year.
                             In primary schools, the percentage take up is calculated using the formula:
                                                     Reported number of meals served (paid plus free)
                                                      Number of pupils attending the school full time
                             where the ‘Reported number of meals served (paid plus free)’ is based on the
                             numbers reported by catering staff in the school.
                             In secondary schools, the percentage take up is calculated using the formula:
                                               Total income from lunchtime sales + total FSM provided
                                                          FSM equivalent price
                                                      Number of pupils attending the school full-time
                             where the ‘Total income for lunchtime sales’ is based on the till receipts for all sales
                             of food during the period to which school lunch standards (including nutrient-
                             based standards from 2009) have been applied, and ‘FSM equivalent price’ is the
                             monetary value in the dining room of a free school meal.
                             Free school meals are available to all children in non-working families, i.e. those
                             where the adults do not work, or work for less than 16 hours per week. These
                             families are reliant on ‘welfare support payments’ and are not able to claim the
                             additional ‘Working Tax Credit’ that is available to low income working families
                             (adults working 16+ hours per week).
                             The average for the year will be calculated as follows:
                             Primary – divide the number of meals served over the period by the number of
                             trading days in the period
                             Secondary – divide the result of the numerator calculation by the number of
                             trading days in the period.
                                                                          Annex 2: Children and Young People 13




NI 52: Take up of school lunches (continued)
Formula           Average percentage point figures are calculated from returns made by all local
                  authorities in an annual survey carried out by the School Food Trust. The data
                  relate to one financial year, from April to March.
                  Take the percentage take up in each of the schools in the authority which are
                  subject to the nutritional standards for school food (all maintained schools,
                  academies and city technology colleges) provided to one decimal place, and
                  calculated the weighted average to one decimal place.
                  Figures for primary and secondary school take up of lunches are reported on
                  separately.
Worked            Evidence will be        Good                Higher numbers
example           provided in written     performance
                  and electronic
                  guidance from the
                  School Food Trust
Collection        Annual (Financial       Data Source         An annual survey of local authorities
interval          year)                                       carried out by the School Food Trust.
                                                              To include information on catering
                                                              provision from local authority, private
                                                              and in-house (school) catering providers
Return            Percentage              Decimal Places      One
Format
Reporting         The School Food Trust
organisation
Spatial level     School and single tier and county council
Further           School Food Trust Annual Survey
Guidance          http://www.schoolfoodtrust.org.uk/content.asp?ContentId=381
                  The Trust will also be providing detailed guidance which will be sent out with this
                  year’s survey.
14 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 53: Prevalence of breast-feeding at 6-8 wks from birth
 Is data provided by the LA or a                                 Yes –       Is this an existing indicator?   N
 local partner?                                                   PCT
 Rationale                   To provide an impetus to enhance health and children’s support services to
                             mothers to sustain breastfeeding and thus give children a good start early
                             in life.
 Definition                  This is a new data collection. Four data lines will be collected
                             a. The number of infants due for a 6-8 week check.
                             b. The number of infants recorded as being totally breastfed at 6-8 weeks.
                             c. The number of children recorded as being partially breastfed (receiving
                                both breast milk and infant formula) at 6-8 weeks.
                             d. The number of children recorded as not at all breastfed at 6–8 weeks.
                             Where:
                             a. Infants due for a 6-8 week check is defined as those registered with the
                                Primary Care Trust (PCT)
                             b. Totally breastfed is defined as babies who are exclusively receiving breast
                                milk at 6-8 weeks of age – that is, they are NOT receiving formula milk,
                                any other liquids or food.
                             c. Partially breastfed is defined as babies who are currently receiving breast
                                milk at 6-8 weeks of age and who are also receiving formula milk or any
                                other liquids or food.
                             d. Not at all breastfed is defined as babies who are not currently receiving
                                any breast milk at 6-8 weeks of age.
                             From this, two percentages are derived:
                             1. Percentage of infants being breastfed at 6-8 weeks
                             2. Percentage of infants for whom breastfeeding status is recorded
                             All infants due for a 6-8 week check are included in the denominator for this
                             indicator. This includes those who did not attend their 6-8 week check, and
                             those where the breastfeeding status was not recorded even though they
                             attended their 6 week review.
                                                                        Annex 2: Children and Young People 15




NI 53: Prevalence of breast-feeding at 6-8 wks from birth (continued)
Formula           1. Percentage of infants being breastfed at 6-8 weeks (breastfeeding
                     prevalence)
                    b+c
                    x y
                        *100 %
                     a
                     z
                  Where:
                  a = Total number of infants due for 6-8 weeks check that quarter.
                  b = Number of children recorded as being totally breastfed at 6-8 weeks that
                      quarter.
                  c = Number of children recorded as being partially breastfed at 6-8 weeks
                      that quarter.
                  2. Percentage of infants for whom breastfeeding status is recorded
                     (breastfeeding coverage)
                  ⎛b+ c + d ⎞
                  ⎜          ⎟ * 100%
                  ⎝    a     ⎠

                  Where:
                  a = Total number of infants due for 6-8 weeks check that quarter.
                  b = Number of children recorded as being totally breastfed at 6-8 weeks that
                      quarter.
                  c = Number of children recorded as being partially breastfed at 6-8 weeks
                      that quarter.
                  d = Number of children recorded as not at all breastfed at 6-8 weeks that
                      quarter.
Worked            If 500 children         Good               Good performance is typified by an
example           were due for 6-8        performance        increase in the percentage coverage
                  week checks in the                         and prevalence year on year.
                  quarter. 350 are                           For sufficient confidence to be
                  recorded as being                          placed on the figures, coverage
                  totally breastfed.                         should be at least 85% and ideally
                  50 are recorded                            95% more. DH will be applying the
                  as being partially                         following standards when using the
                  breastfed and 75                           data for it’s own purposes:
                  not breastfed at all,
                  then:                                      85% coverage required by 2008/09
                                                             quarter 4
                  Breastfeeding                              90% coverage required by 2009/10
                  prevalence equals                          quarter 4
                  ((350 + 50)/500) *                         95% coverage required by 2010/11
                  100% = 80.0%.                              quarter 4
                  Breastfeeding
                  coverage equals
                  ((350 + 50 + 75)
                  /500) * 100% =
                  95.0%.
16 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 53: Prevalence of breast-feeding at 6-8 wks from birth (continued)
 Collection                  Quarterly                         Data Source                   Mandatory PCT Child health
 interval                    Quarter 1 = 1 April                                             Information records reported to DH
                             to 30 June                                                      at quarterly intervals
                             Quarter 2 = 1 July
                             to 30 September
                             Quarter 3 =
                             1 October to
                             30 December
                             Quarter 4 =
                             1 January to
                             31 March
 Return                      1. Percentage                     Decimal Places                One
 Format                      2. Percentage
 Reporting                   Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) report data quarterly to Department of Health
 organisation                (DH)
 Spatial level               Strategic Health Authority, Primary Care Trust, and single tier and county
                             council
 Further                     Equalities
 Guidance                    Data on inequalities is not required as part of the national dataset for this return.
                             If interested parties require analysis by Gender, Religion, Age or any of the other
                             inequalities indicators they should contact the information department of the
                             local Primary Care Trust to find out if this information is held by the their child
                             health system.
                                                                              Annex 2: Children and Young People 17




NI 54: Services for disabled children
For introduction in 2009/10
Rationale          The Aiming High For Disabled Children (AHDC) report (published by the then
                   Department for Education and Skills and HM Treasury in May 2007) made a
                   commitment to introduce an indicator on the provision of services for disabled
                   children as part of the comprehensive spending review.
                   The new indicator will be a core part of performance management arrangements
                   aimed at improving the quality of services for disabled children. This is a key
                   priority of the Child Health and Well-Being Public Service Agreement.
Background         This indicator will assess parents’ general experience of services for disabled
and update         children (aged 0 – 19) and the extent to which services for disabled children are
on indicator       delivered according to the ‘core offer’ standards:
development        •	 good	provision	of	information;
                   •	 transparency	in	how	the	available	levels	of	support	are	determined;
                   •	 integrated	assessment;
                   •	 participation	of	disabled	children	and	their	families	in	local	services,	and;
                   •	 accessible	feedback	and	complaints	procedures.	
                   The definition of disability used here is as defined by the Disability Discrimination
                   Act 1995 “a physical or mental impairment which has a substantial and long-
                   term adverse effect on his or her ability to carry out normal day to day activities”.
                   A questionnaire and survey methodology to provide information on experience
                   of services are currently being developed, and it is anticipated that these will be
                   available from Autumn 2008.
                   Due to the development work taking place, data for this indicator will not be
                   available in the first year of the LAA process (2008-09) to enable it to be included
                   in the set of up to 35 targets. Instead, areas that wish to include disability as one
                   of the local priority targets ( i.e. not one of the up to 35 designated targets) in
                   their LAA are encouraged to use the questionnaire currently being developed
                   by DCSF to self-assess parental experience of services for disabled children
                   towards the end of 2008. See http://www.everychildmatters.gov.uk/socialcare/
                   disabledchildren/ for further details.
Expected           It is anticipated that this will be an annual DCSF survey of parents of disabled
collection         children. It is expected that the indicator will be available at single tier, county
arrangements       council and primary care trust level.
and spatial
level
Timetable for      By Autumn 2008, to have developed and made available a questionnaire and
development        survey methodology to provide information on experience of services.
18 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 55: Obesity in primary school age children in Reception
 Is data provided by the LA or a                                    Y        Is this an existing indicator?   Y
 local partner?
 Rationale                   The Government’s new ambition on excess weight, announced in the
                             Comprehensive Spending Review 2007, is to be the first major country: to
                             reverse the rising tide of obesity and overweight in the population,
                             by ensuring that all individuals are able to maintain a healthy
                             weight. Our initial focus is on children: by 2020, we will have
                             reduced the proportion of overweight and obese children to 2000
                             levels. The Department of Heath is responsible for overall policy on obesity
                             and is jointly responsible with the Department for Children, Schools and
                             Families for tackling child obesity.
                             The Government has sent a clear signal that enabling individuals to maintain
                             a healthy weight is important through the inclusion of obesity as a national
                             priority within the NHS Operating Framework and the Children’s Plan. The
                             NHS Operating Framework requires all PCTs to develop plans to tackle
                             child obesity, and to agree local plans with SHAs. It is the Government’s
                             expectation that PCTs will seek to work with local authorities to develop
                             these plans, using the Joint Strategic Needs Assessment process that will
                             become a requirement from April 2008. If the PCT and local authority
                             agree that there is a sufficient local need to promote maintaining a healthy
                             weight then they can seek to jointly develop a target within their Local Area
                             Agreement that sets out what they will do to achieve this goal.
 Definition                  The percentage of children in Reception who are obese, as shown by
                             the National Child Measurement Programme (NCMP).
                             For the NCMP, PCTs coordinate with schools to weigh and measure all
                             eligible children in Year 6 and Reception. PCTs must record height, weight,
                             sex, date of birth, date of measurement, home postcode and ethnicity as
                             well as school name for each child measured.
                             PCTs then send these data to the NHS Information Centre (the IC). The IC
                             checks the data and provides local authorities and PCTs with a final dataset
                             of their results, and publishes a national report of key findings.
                             To enable meaningful comparisons over time and between local areas,
                             high participation rates by eligible children are essential and PCTs and local
                             authorities should work together to maximise participation by eligible
                             children in their areas. Caution should be exercised when interpreting
                             prevalence data where coverage is low.
                             The population base is all eligible children in Reception (regardless of
                             their age at the time of measurement) in maintained primary and middle
                             schools located within a PCT area. These data will then be mapped to the
                             corresponding local authority. The NCMP guidance for PCTs
                             (http://www.dh.gov.uk/healthyliving) provides more information about which
                             children are eligible for inclusion.
                                                                         Annex 2: Children and Young People 19




NI 55: Obesity in primary school age children in Reception (continued)
Definition        Children are defined as obese if their body-mass index (BMI) is above the
(continued)       95th centile of the reference curve for their age and sex according to the UK
                  BMI centile classification (Cole TJ, Freeman JV, Preece MA. Body mass index
                  reference curves for the UK, 1990. Arch Dis Child	1995;	73: 25–29). A child’s
                  height (in metres), weight (in kilograms), date of birth and sex are needed to
                  calculate their BMI.
Formula           Line 1: Total number of primary school age children in Reception recorded as
                  obese for their age in the past school year.
                  Line 2: Total number of primary school age children in Reception with height
                  and weight recorded in the past school year.
                  Line 3: Total number of primary school age children in Reception.
                  Line 4: Percentage of children in Reception with height and weight recorded
                  who are obese. This is a calculated field using [Line 1]/[Line 2]*100
                  Line 5: Percentage of children in Reception with height and weight recorded.
                  This is a calculated field using [Line 2]/[Line 3]*100
Worked            Line 1 = 500                   Good                Good performance is:
example           Line 2 = 2000                  performance         •	 A	minimum	of	85%	
                  Line 3 = 2300                                         of eligible pupils being
                  Line 4 = Line1/Line2*100                              measured.
                  = 500/ 2000 * 100                                  •	 A	reduction	in	the	
                  = 25%                                                 proportion of obese
                  Line 5 = Line2/Line3*100                              children over time, initially
                  = 2000/ 2300 * 100                                    showing a reduction in
                  = 87%                                                 the rate of increase in
                                                                        the proportion of obese
                                                                        children.
Collection        Annual (with a                 Data Source         Data collected by the
interval          requirement to collect the                         Primary Care Trust and sent
                  data during the school                             to the NHS Information
                  year)                                              Centre. Cleaned dataset
                                                                     provided to local authorities
                                                                     by the IC.
Return            Whole number for               Decimal Places      Line 1-3: None. The
Format            Lines 1-3. Lines 4-5 are                           numbers returned will be
                  a calculated field and                             whole.
                  returned as a percentage.                          Line 4-5: None
Reporting         NHS Information Centre
organisation
Spatial level     Single tier and county council, and Primary Care Trust
20 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 55: Obesity in primary school age children in Reception (continued)
 Further                     In January 2008, the Government published Healthy Weight, Healthy
 Guidance                    lives: A Cross-Government strategy for England (http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/
                             Publichealth/Healthimprovement/Obesity/DH_082383) to deliver the new
                             ambition on excess weight. This strategy sets out clear roles and actions for
                             all members of society to contribute to delivering the ambition in both the
                             short-term and over a 2020 horizon. Actions will fall into five main areas: 1)
                             Children:	healthy	growth	and	healthy	weight;	2)	Promoting	healthier	food	
                             choices;	3)	Building	physical	activity	into	our	lives;	4)	Creating	incentives	for	
                             better	health;	and	5)	Personalised	advice	and	support.
                             For information about the NCMP see www.dh.gov.uk/healthyliving.
                             The NHS in England: operating Framework for 2007–08 can be found
                             at http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/
                             PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_063267.
                                                                        Annex 2: Children and Young People 21




NI 56: Obesity in primary school age children in Year 6
Is data provided by the LA or a              Y     Is this an existing indicator?                     Y
local partner?
Rationale         The Government’s new ambition on excess weight, announced in the
                  Comprehensive Spending Review 2007, is to be the first major country: to
                  reverse the rising tide of obesity and overweight in the population,
                  by ensuring that all individuals are able to maintain a healthy
                  weight. Our initial focus is on children: by 2020, we will have reduced
                  the proportion of overweight and obese children to 2000 levels. The
                  Department of Heath is responsible for overall policy on obesity and is jointly
                  responsible with the Department for Children, Schools and Families for
                  tackling child obesity.
                  The Government has sent a clear signal that enabling individuals to maintain
                  a healthy weight is important through the inclusion of obesity as a national
                  priority within the NHS Operating Framework and the Children’s Plan. The
                  NHS Operating Framework requires all PCTs to develop plans to tackle
                  child obesity, and to agree local plans with SHAs. It is the Government’s
                  expectation that PCTs will seek to work with local authorities to develop
                  these plans, using the Joint Strategic Needs Assessment process that will
                  become a requirement from April 2008. If the PCT and local authority
                  agree that there is a sufficient local need to promote maintaining a healthy
                  weight then they can seek to jointly develop a target within their Local Area
                  Agreement that sets out what they will do to achieve this goal.
Definition        The Percentage of children in Year 6 who are obese, as shown by the
                  National Child Measurement Programme (NCMP).
                  For the NCMP, PCTs coordinate with schools to weigh and measure all
                  eligible children in Year 6 and Reception. PCTs must record height, weight,
                  sex, date of birth, date of measurement, home postcode and ethnicity as
                  well as school name for each child measured.
                  PCTs then send these data to the NHS Information Centre (the IC). The IC
                  checks the data and provides local authorities and PCTs with a final dataset
                  of their results, and publishes a national report of key findings.
                  To enable meaningful comparisons over time and between local areas,
                  high participation rates by eligible children are essential and PCTs and local
                  authorities should work together to maximise participation by eligible
                  children in their areas. Caution should be exercised when interpreting
                  prevalence data where coverage is low.
                  The population base is all eligible children in Year 6 (regardless of their age at
                  the time of measurement) in maintained primary and middle schools located
                  within a PCT area. These data will then be mapped to the corresponding
                  local authority. The NCMP guidance for PCTs (http://www.dh.gov.uk/
                  healthyliving) provides more information about which children are eligible for
                  inclusion.
22 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 56: Obesity in primary school age children in Year 6 (continued)
 Definition                  Children are defined as obese if their body-mass index (BMI) is above the
 (continued)                 95th centile of the reference curve for their age and sex according to the UK
                             BMI centile classification (Cole TJ, Freeman JV, Preece MA. Body mass index
                             reference curves for the UK, 1990. Arch Dis Child	1995;	73:	25–29).	A	child’s	
                             height (in metres), weight (in kilograms), date of birth and sex are needed to
                             calculate their BMI.
 Formula                     Line 6: Total number of primary school age children in Year 6 recorded as
                             obese for their age in the past school year.
                             Line 7: Total number of primary school age children in Year 6 with height
                             and weight recorded in the past school year.
                             Line 8: Total number of primary school age children in Year 6.
                             Line 9: Percentage of children in Year 6 with height and weight recorded
                             who are obese. This is a calculated field using [Line 6]/[Line 7]*100
                             Line 10: Percentage of children in Year 6 with height and weight recorded.
                             This is a calculated field using [Line 7]/[Line 8]*100
 Worked                      Line 6 = 500                                  Good                          Good performance is:
 example                     Line 7 = 2000                                 performance                   •	 A	minimum	of	85%	
                             Line 8 = 2300                                                                  of eligible pupils being
                             Line 9 = Line6/Line7*100                                                       measured.
                             = 500/2000 * 100                                                            •	 A	reduction	in	the	
                             = 25%                                                                          proportion of obese
                             Line 10=Line7/Line8*100                                                        children over time, initially
                             = 2000/2300 * 100                                                              showing a reduction in
                             = 87%                                                                          the rate of increase in
                                                                                                            the proportion of obese
                                                                                                            children.
 Collection                  Annual (with a                                Data Source                   Data collected by the
 interval                    requirement to collect the                                                  Primary Care Trust and sent
                             data during the school                                                      to the NHS Information
                             year)                                                                       Centre. Cleaned dataset
                                                                                                         provided to local authorities
                                                                                                         by the IC.
 Return                      Whole number for Lines                        Decimal Places                Line 6-8: None. The
 Format                      6-8. Lines 9-10 are a                                                       numbers returned will be
                             calculated field and                                                        whole.
                             returned as a percentage.                                                   Line 9-10: None
 Reporting                   NHS Information Centre
 organisation
 Spatial level               Single tier and county council, and Primary Care Trust
                                                                         Annex 2: Children and Young People 23




NI 56: Obesity in primary school age children in Year 6 (continued)
Further           In January 2008, the Government published Healthy Weight, Healthy
Guidance          lives: A Cross-Government strategy for England (http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/
                  Publichealth/Healthimprovement/Obesity/DH_082383) to deliver the new
                  ambition on excess weight. This strategy sets out clear roles and actions for
                  all members of society to contribute to delivering the ambition in both the
                  short-term and over a 2020 horizon. Actions will fall into five main areas: 1)
                  Children:	healthy	growth	and	healthy	weight;	2)	Promoting	healthier	food	
                  choices;	3)	Building	physical	activity	into	our	lives;	4)	Creating	incentives	for	
                  better	health;	and	5)	Personalised	advice	and	support.
                  For information about the NCMP see www.dh.gov.uk/healthyliving.
                  The NHS in England: operating Framework for 2007–08 can be found
                  at http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/
                  PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_063267.
24 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 57: Children and young people’s participation in high-quality PE and sport
 For introduction in 2009/10
 Rationale                   To encourage all young people to increase participation in sport.
 Background                  ‘Young people’ are all those aged 5-19. All 5-16 year olds will have the chance to
 and update                  do 2 hours of high quality Physical Education (PE) and Sport within the school day
 on indicator                and up to 3 additional hours of sport beyond the school day. In addition all 16-19
 development                 year olds will be offered more opportunities to participate in 3 hours of sport.
                             For young people in schools ‘sport’ will include any activity that requires physical
                             skilfulness and is part of a school’s planned formal, semi-formal, supervised or led
                             provision. It will also include PE lessons and activities based in community sport
                             and dance clubs. For young people not in schools sporting activities will be based
                             in community sport and sport clubs.
                             Schools and School Sport Partnerships report school data through an annual
                             School Sport Survey. Community provision for 16-19 year olds will be collected by
                             a separate survey.
 Expected                    It is anticipated that this will be collected through an annual DCSF survey and will
 collection                  be available at single tier, county council level.
 arrangements
 and spatial
 level
 Timetable for               The consultation responses generated some concerns about the ability to
 development                 measure the indicator. Taking these concerns into account, the survey to
                             provide the data and the basis of calculation for this indicator are currently being
                             developed.
                                                                              Annex 2: Children and Young People 25




NI 58: Emotional and behavioural health of looked after children
Is data provided by the LA or a              Y      Is this an existing indicator?                         N
local partner?
Rationale         Looked after children experience significantly worse mental health than
                  all children. An estimated 45% of looked after children aged 5 to 17 have
                  mental health problems, over 4 times higher than for all children. This
                  measure will assess progress in improving the emotional and behavioural
                  health of looked after children.
Definition        The local authority score recorded through the National Indicator Set will be the
                  mean value of the child level SDQ scores for each child or young person aged 4 to
                  16 who has been looked after for a year.
                  Looked After Children
                  The term of looked after children has a specific legal meaning deriving from the
                  Children Act 1989. Under the Children Act 1989, a child is looked after by a local
                  authority if he or she:
                  •	 is	provided	with	accommodation,	for	a	continuous	period	of	more	than	
                     24 hours, [Children Act 1989 Section 20 and 21];	or
                  •	 is	subject	to	a	care	order	[Children Act 1989 Part IV]
                  For further information on the definition of looked after children for the
                  purposes of DCSF data collection please see: http://www.dfes.gov.uk/datastats1/
                  guidelines/children/pdf/GuidanceNotes_2007-%2008_final_version%20
                  1%200.pdf (page 6).
                  The emotional and behavioural health of looked after children will be assessed
                  through the use of a ‘primary carer’ Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire
                  (SDQ). The SDQ is a short behavioural screening questionnaire. It has five sections
                  that	cover	details	of	emotional	difficulties;	conduct	problems;	hyperactivity	
                  or	inattention;	friendships	and	peer	groups;	and	also	positive	behaviour.	The	
                  SDQ has been internationally validated and is appropriate for all BME groups.
                  More information on the SDQ can be found on www.sdqinfo.com. Guidance
                  on completion of questionnaire and the data collection can be found as part of
                  the SSDA 903 data collection guidance at: http://www.dfes.gov.uk/datastats1/
                  guidelines/children/returns.shtml
                  Local authorities were informed on 28 September 2007 of a new data collection
                  based on the use of a ‘primary carer’ SDQ for all looked after children aged 4 – 16
                  (inclusive) who have been in care for at least twelve months by 31st March, i.e.
                  all children who on 31 March have been looked after continuously since at least
                  1 April of the previous year. The questionnaire will be completed by the child or
                  young person’s primary carer and results collated by the local authority.
26 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 58: Emotional and behavioural health of looked after children (continued)
 Definition                  Data collection by local authorities will start from 1 April 2008. From this date the
 (continued)                 SSDA903 data collection will include a single “Total Difficulties Score”, which
                             has a numerical value from 0 – 40 for each relevant child, who has been in care
                             continuously for at least 12 months. Local authorities will first be required to
                             report data to the DCSF through the SSDA903 data collection from 31 March
                             2009. Guidance for local authorities can be found at:
                             http://www.dcsf.gov.uk/datastats1/guidelines/children/returns.shtml
                             The local authority score recorded through the National Indicator Set will be the
                             mean value of the child level SDQ scores for each child or young person aged 4
                             to 16 who has been in care for a year. Further work will be necessary pending the
                             first year of data collection to assess the impact of any nil responses in the data
                             collection.
                             The indicator is a clear outcome measure – it is not about service provision.
                             Therefore, the indicator and associated targets provide a good holistic
                             measure of efforts to improve the emotional and behavioural health of
                             looked after children. Baselines can be set by comparison to statistically
                             equivalent local authorities or using trend data over time.
 Formula                     Local authority score = X/Y
                             Where:
                             X = sum of all individual SDQ ‘total difficulties scores’ for looked after children
                             aged 4 to 16 (inclusive), who have been in care continuously for 12 months at
                             31 March, and
                             Y = number of valid primary carer SDQs that have been completed for looked
                             after children aged 4 to 16 (inclusive), who have been in care continuously for
                             12 months at 31 March
 Worked                      The sum of the total difficulties score Good                                Good performance
 example                     for an authorities population of looked performance                         is indicated by a low
                             after aged 4 to 16 (inclusive), who                                         number.
                             have been in care continuously for                                          95% Confidence
                             12 months at 31 March = 3,850                                               intervals will give
                             Number of valid primary carer SDQs                                          an indication of
                             that have been completed for looked                                         the proportion of
                             after children aged 4 to 16 (inclusive),                                    SDQs completed.
                             who have been in care continuously
                             for 12 months at 31 March = 350
                             Mean value of the total difficulties
                             score: 3850/350 = 11.0
 Collection                  Annual (Financial year)                                      Data Source    Statutory SSDA903
 interval                                                                                                return which local
                                                                                                         authorities provide
                                                                                                         to DCSF
                                                                        Annex 2: Children and Young People 27




NI 58: Emotional and behavioural health of looked after children (continued)
Return            Number                                   Decimal Places       One
Format
Reporting         DCSF
organisation
Spatial level     Single tier and county council
Further           Further guidance on data collection is available at:
Guidance          http://www.dcsf.gov.uk/datastats1/guidelines/children/returns.shtml
28 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 59: Percentage of initial assessments for children’s social care carried out within 7 working days
 of referral
 Is data provided by the LA or a                                    Y        Is this an existing indicator?   Y
 local partner?
 Rationale                   This process indicator is included as a proxy as robust data is not available
                             for outcomes of improved child safety. Initial assessments are an important
                             indicator of how quickly services can respond when a child is thought to
                             be at risk of serious harm. As the assessments involve a range of local
                             agencies, this indicator would also show how well multi-agency working
                             arrangements are established in local authority areas.
 Definition                  The number of initial assessments completed in the period between 1 April
                             and 31 March, within seven working days of referral, as a percentage of the
                             number of initial assessments completed in the period between 1 April and
                             31 March.
                             A referral is defined as a request for services to be provided. The response
                             may include no action, but that in itself is a decision, and should be made
                             promptly and recorded
                             An ‘initial assessment’ is defined as a brief assessment of any child who has
                             been referred to social services with a request that services be provided. An
                             initial assessment is deemed to have started either at the point of referral
                             to a social services department, or when new information on an open case
                             indicates that an initial assessment should be repeated. Initial assessments
                             may lead to three types of outcome:
                             i.	no	further	action;
                             ii.	the	immediate	provision	of	services;
                             iii. a more detailed type of assessment (known as a ‘core assessment’) being
                             carried out. This may be carried out even where there is immediate provision
                             of services.
                             The expected timescale for the completion of an initial assessment is a
                             maximum of 7 working days from the start of a referral.
                             The indicator is based on data collected through CPR3 (Child Protection and
                             Referrals – England item 2, line 1 (initial assessments completed within 7
                             working days of referral) and line 2 (other initial assessments completed in
                             the year)
                             The worked example for England shown below uses actual data derived
                             from the CPR3 return in 2006/07. Refer to the equivalent cells for other
                             years.
                                                                           Annex 2: Children and Young People 29




NI 59: Percentage of initial assessments for children’s social care carried out within 7 working days
of referral (continued)
Formula
                     x
                       * 100
                     y
                   Where:
                   x = The number of initial assessments completed, in the period between
                   1 April and 31 March, within seven working days of referral.
                   (Source – CPR3, Part A – Item 2, line 1 Initial assessments completed in 7 days)
                   y = The overall of initial assessments completed in the period between
                   1 April and 31 March.
                   (Source – CPR3, Part A – Initial assessments, Item 2, line 1 ‘Initial
                   assessments completed in 7 days’ + line 2 ‘Other initial assessments’)
Worked             If in the year to         Good                Good performance is typified by
example            31 March 2007,            performance         higher percentages.
                   305,000 initial
                   assessments are
                   undertaken, of
                   which 208,700
                   are completed
                   within 7 days of
                   the referral, then
                   (208,700/305,000) *
                   100 = 68.0%.
Collection         Annual for year to        Data Source         CPR3 statutory return from local
interval           31 March                                      authorities to the DCSF
Return             Percentage                Decimal Places      One
Format
Reporting          DCSF publish national and LA level data
organisation
Spatial level      Single tier and county council
Further            Statutory guidance: Working Together to Safeguard Children: A guide to
Guidance           inter-agency working to safeguard and promote the welfare of children
                   available at www.ecm.gov.uk/socialcare/safeguarding
                   Data collection guidance for CPR3 available at
                   www.dcsf.gov.uk/datastats1/guidelines/children/returns.shtml
                   This is the same calculation as JAR/APA indicator 2020SC.
30 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 60: Percentage of core assessments for children’s social care that were carried out within
 35 working days of their commencement
 Is data provided by the LA or a                                    Y        Is this an existing indicator?   Y
 local partner?
 Rationale                   The indicator measures the percentage of core assessments which were
                             completed within 35 working days. Core assessments are in-depth
                             assessments of a child, or children, and their family, as defined in the
                             Framework for the Assessment of Children in Need and their Families. They
                             are also the means by which section 47 (child protection) enquiries are
                             undertaken following a strategy discussion.
                             The Assessment Framework specifies that core assessments should be
                             completed within 35 working days. It is important that local authorities
                             should investigate and address concerns in a timely and efficient way, and
                             that those in receipt of an assessment have a clear idea of how quickly this
                             should be completed. Successful meeting of the timescales can also indicate
                             effective joint working where multi-agency assessment is required.
 Definition                  The percentage of core assessments that were completed within 35
                             working days of their commencement.
                             A ‘core assessment’ is defined as an in-depth assessment which addresses
                             the central or most important aspects of the child’s needs. It is required to
                             be carried out after a decision is taken to undertake a s47 enquiry. This is an
                             enquiry carried out under s47 of the Children Act 1989, which sets out the
                             local authority’s duty to investigate where it suspects a child in the area may
                             be suffering, or is likely to suffer, significant harm. A core assessment may
                             also be undertaken under s17 of the Children Act 1989.
                             A ‘core assessment’ is deemed to have commenced at the point at which the
                             initial assessment ended, or strategy discussion decided to initiate enquiries
                             under s47 of the Children Act 1989, or where new information on an open
                             case indicates that a core assessment should be undertaken. The indicator
                             is measured in calendar days using a non-inclusive method i.e. it does not
                             count both the start and the finish date. Hence, the start date for the core
                             assessment is classified as day ‘0’.
                             The expected timescale for the completion of a core assessment is a
                             maximum of 35 working days, recognising that where specialist assessments
                             are required they may not take place within this timescale.
                             The core assessment is normally regarded as complete when the team
                             manager has deemed the assessment findings complete enough to authorise
                             a formal core assessment record.
                             This indicator is based on information collected through CPR3 (Child
                             Protection and Referrals (England)) – Item 3, line 1 (core assessments
                             completed within 35 days of initial assessment) and line 2 (other core
                             assessments completed in the year). The references relate to the CPR3 return
                             in 2006/07. Refer to the equivalent cells for other years.
                                                                          Annex 2: Children and Young People 31




NI 60: Percentage of core assessments for children’s social care that were carried out within
35 working days of their commencement (continued)
Formula            The percentage of core assessments that were completed within 35 working
                   days of their commencement is calculated as follows:
                     x
                       * 100
                     y
                   Where:
                   x = of the number of core assessments in the denominator, the number that
                   had been completed within 35 working days of their commencement.
                   Source: CPR3 Part A Item 3, line 1
                   y = the total number of core assessments completed of children receiving
                   core assessments in the year.
                   Source: CPR3 Part A Item 3, line 1 plus line 2
Worked             If 2500 core               Good              High. The bandings for 2006-07
example            assessments are            performance       described performance as:
                   completed in the year,                       0 < 60 Investigate Urgently,
                   of which 2200 are                            60 < 70 Ask questions about
                   completed within 35                          performance
                   working days of their                        70 < 75 Satisfactory
                   commencement, then                           75 < 80 Good
                     2200                                       80 < 100 Very Good
                          *100     88%
                     2500

Collection         Annual for year to         Data Source       CPR3 statutory return from local
interval           31 March                                     authorities to the DCSF.
                                                                DCSF publish national and LA level
                                                                data.
Return             Percentage                 Decimal           One
Format                                        Places
Reporting          DCSF based on data reported by local authorities.
organisation
Spatial level      Single tier and county council
Further            Statutory guidance: Working Together to Safeguard Children: A guide to
Guidance           inter-agency working to safeguard and promote the welfare of children
                   available at www.ecm.gov.uk/socialcare/safeguarding
                   Data collection guidance for CPR3 available at
                   www.dcsf.gov.uk/datastats1/guidelines/children/returns.shtml
                   Indicator replaces current PI PAF CF/C64 (2007/08)
32 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 61: Timeliness of placements of looked after children for adoption following an agency decision
 that the child should be placed for adoption
 Is data provided by the LA or a                                    Y        Is this an existing indicator?   N
 local partner?
 Rationale                   The safeguarding set should include an indicator on adoption, as this is
                             one of the main options for permanence for children in care, who cannot
                             return to live with their birth parents. One of the main aims of the Adoption
                             and Children Act 2002, which came into force on 30 December 2005, is to
                             improve the process of adoption. This indicator will provide an indication
                             of how quickly children are placed with an approved prospective adopter(s)
                             following the decision that they should be placed for adoption, but will
                             exclude cases where a child was placed for adoption but then adopted in
                             a different placement (i.e. disrupted placements) and so avoid the risk of
                             rewarding poor decision making by a local authority.
 Definition                  The percentage of looked after children adopted during the year who were
                             placed for adoption within 12 months of the decision that they should be
                             placed for adoption, and who remained in that placement on adoption. (This
                             indicator replaces Annual Performance Assessment indicator 2058SC).
                             Looked after children are defined in the Children Act 1989. A child is
                             placed for adoption following the local authorities decision (not the panel’s
                             recommendation) that adoption is the plan for child. The date a child
                             is placed for adoption is the date the child actually begins to live with
                             approved prospective adopters (not the date of the placement order or the
                             date on which the child’s parent(s) gives consent). A child becomes adopted
                             when a court makes an adoption order. This removes parental responsibility
                             from the child’s birth parent(s) (and anyone else who may have acquired it)
                             and gives it to the adopter(s). In law the child is treated as if he or she had
                             been born to the adopter(s), and they become responsible for looking after
                             the child and for making all the key decisions about him/her.
 Formula                        X
                                Y *100
                             Where:
                             X = number of children included in the denominator who were placed for
                             adoption (SSDA903 placement codes A3, A4, A5 and A6) within 12 months
                             (i.e. less than 365 days, inclusive of date child was placed for adoption) of
                             the decision that they should be placed for adoption. This figure excludes
                             children who were placed within 12 months of the decision that they should
                             be placed for adoption, but whose placement for adoption broke down
                             before being adopted.
                             Y = number of children who ceased to be looked after during the year
                             ending 31 March as a result of the granting of an adoption order (SSDA903
                             reason episode ceased codes E11 and E12). Includes only those children who
                             were adopted after having been looked after by the authority immediately
                             prior to adoption. Children placed for adoption or freed for adoption remain
                             looked after until the adoption order is granted.
                                                                        Annex 2: Children and Young People 33




NI 61: Timeliness of placements of looked after children for adoption following an agency decision
that the child should be placed for adoption (continued)
Worked            If 500 children           Good        Good performance is typified by a
example           looked after were         performance higher percentage.
                  adopted in the year
                  ending 31 March
                  2009, of whom
                  191 were placed for
                  adoption (in the same
                  placement that led
                  up to their adoption)
                  within 12 months of
                  the decision that they
                  should be placed for
                  adoption, then the
                  percentage for the
                  indicator is
                  (191/500) * 100 =
                  38.2%.
Collection        Financial Year            Data Source      Statutory SSDA903 data collection
interval                                                     from local authorities to DCSF
Return            Percentage                Decimal          One
Format                                      Places

Reporting         DCSF
organisation
Spatial level     Single tier and county council
Further           The Adoption and Children Act 2002 statutory guidance can be found on
Guidance          the Department’s ECM website:
                  http://www.everychildmatters.gov.uk/resources-and-practice/ig00032/
                  Detailed SSDA903 guidance can be found at www.dcsf.gov.uk/datastats1/
                  guidelines/children/returns.shtml
34 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 62: Stability of placements of looked after children: number of placements
 Is the data provided by the LA or                                  Y        Is this an existing indicator?   Y
 a local partner?
 Rationale                   This indicator is an important measure of the stability of care that a child
                             has experienced. On the whole stability is associated with better outcomes
                             – placement instability was highlighted by the Social Exclusion Unit as a key
                             barrier to improving educational outcomes. Proper assessment of a child’s
                             needs and an adequate choice of placements to meet the varied needs of
                             different children are essential if appropriate stable placements are to be
                             made. Inappropriate placements often break down and lead to frequent
                             moves. The circumstances of some individual children will require 3 or more
                             separate placements during a year if they and others are to be kept safe, but
                             the variation between local authorities’ performance in this area suggests
                             that more can be done in many areas to reduce the number of moves.
 Definition                  The percentage of children looked after at 31 March with three or
                             more placements during the year.
                             Looked after children are defined in the Children Act 1989 (S22 1a)
                             http://www.opsi.gov.uk/Acts/acts1989/ukpga_19890041_en_4#pt3-pb3-
                             l1g22
                             All placements of 24 hours or more are counted, regardless of duration. Any
                             placements that were already open on 1 April at the beginning of the year,
                             and any which were open on 31 March at the end of the year are included.
                             All placements regarded as temporary are included, the only exceptions
                             being the following special cases:
                             •	 temporary	periods	on	holiday	or	in	hospital;
                             •	 where	a	foster	carer	goes	on	holiday	for	21	days	or	less	and	the	child	
                                temporarily stays with another carer during this time (only two such breaks
                                allowed	in	any	one	year);
                             •	 other	temporary	absences	of	seven	consecutive	days	or	less,	where	the	child	
                                then returned as planned to the previous placement.
                             These	exceptional	categories	of	placement	are	likely	to	be	infrequent;	they	
                             are not automatically recorded on the SSDA 903, and for consistency,
                             are not included in this count of looked after children. Where a child had
                             placements during the year separated by periods of not being looked after,
                             each placement is counted, even if they were with the same carer. Any
                             placements that formed part of an agreed series of short term placements
                             (under the provisions of Reg 13 of the Arrangement for Placement of
                             Children (General) Regulations, 1991) are not counted. (See
                             http://www.opsi.gov.uk/SI/si1991/Uksi_19910890_en_2.htm for further
                             information.)
                             This indicator replaces PAF CF/A1, JAR/APA 2043SC, as was collected for
                             2007/08.
                                                                        Annex 2: Children and Young People 35




NI 62: Stability of placements of looked after children: number of moves (continued)
Formula             X
                         *100
                    Y
                  Where:
                  X = Of the children looked after in the denominator, the number who had
                  three or more separate placements during the year.
                  Y = The total number of children who were looked after at 31 March,
                  excluding any children who were looked after on that date under an agreed
                  series of short term-placements (under the provisions of Reg. 13 of the
                  Arrangement for Placement of Children (General) Regulations, 1991).
                  A child being placed for adoption with their existing foster carers is not
                  included as a change of placement for the purposes of this indicator.
Worked            If 450 children            Good             Good performance is typified by a
example           are looked after           performance      lower percentage.
                  at 31 March, 31                             However, Bandings for 2006-07
                  of whom have                                described performance as:
                  experienced 3 or more
                  placements during                           0 < 16.01 – Very Good
                  the year, then the                          16.01 < 20 – Ask questions about
                  percentage is                               performance
                  (31/450) * 100 =
                                                              20 <= 100 – Investigate urgently
                  6.9%.
                                                              As a Key Threshold Indicator
                                                              performance of > 20% has also
                                                              limited overall performance
                                                              judgements.
Collection        Annual, Financial Year     Data Source      Statutory SSDA903 data collection
interval                                                      from local authorities to DCSF
Return            Percentage                 Decimal          One
Format                                       Places
Reporting         DCSF based on data reported by local authorities.
organisation
Spatial level     Single tier and county council
Further           Detailed SSDA903 guidance can be found at
Guidance          www.dfes.gov.uk/datastats1/guidelines/children/returns.shtml
36 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 63: Stability of placements of looked after children: length of placement
 Is data provided by the LA or a                                    Y        Is this an existing indicator?   Y
 local partner?
 Rationale                    To increase the long-term stability of children who remain in care for
                              significant periods of time. Stability is associated with better outcomes.
                              Placement instability was highlighted by the Social Exclusion Unit as a
                              key barrier to improving educational outcomes. Some planned placement
                              changes may be made in a child’s best interests, but placements break
                              down because they are not sufficiently well-matched to children’s needs,
                              or of sufficient quality, or because they are not well supported. Placement
                              breakdown has a significant impact on children’s wellbeing and their
                              friendships, as well as disrupting their education and the continuity of access
                              to other key services.
 Definition                   The percentage of looked after children aged under 16 at 31 March who
                              had been looked after continuously for at least 2.5 years who were living in
                              the same placement for at least 2 years, or are placed for adoption and their
                              adoptive placement together with their previous placement together last for
                              at least 2 years.
                              Looked after children are defined in the Children Act 1989 (S22 1a)
                              http://www.opsi.gov.uk/Acts/acts1989/ukpga_19890041_en_4#pt3-pb3-
                              l1g22
                              Numerator:
                              All children in the denominator who were living in the same placement for
                              at least 2 years, or are placed for adoption and their adoptive placement
                              together with their previous placement together last for at least 2 years.
                              Denominator:
                              All children aged under 16 on 31 March of the year of measurement who
                              had been looked after continuously for 2.5 years or more (i.e. for more than
                              912 days inclusive of 31 March) on 31 March of the year of measurement.
                              Exclude children who had been looked after at any time during the 2.5
                              year period under an agreed series of short term-placements (under the
                              provisions of Reg. 13 of the Arrangement for Placement of Children
                              (General) Regulations, 1991).
                              http://www.opsi.gov.uk/SI/si1991/Uksi_19910890_en_2.htm
                              Source – SSDA903
                              This indicator is based on PAF CF/D78, JAR/APA 2067SC as was collected in
                              2007/08, with an amendment to the numerator to take account of the total
                              time spent in the previous placement and a placement for adoption.
                                                                         Annex 2: Children and Young People 37




NI 63: Stability of placements of looked after children: length of placement (continued)
Formula              x
                       * 100
                     y

                   Where:
                   x = Of y, all who have been living in the same placement for at least two
                   years, i.e. at 31 March they have been in the same placement continuously
                   for more than 729 days inclusive of 31 March. Children who are placed for
                   adoption at 31 March are now only to be included in the numerator if their
                   previous care placement, plus the adoptive placement have together lasted
                   more than 729 days.
                   y = All children aged under 16 on 31 March of the year of measurement
                   who had been looked after for 2.5 years or more (i.e. for more than
                   912 days inclusive of 31 March) on 31 March of the year of measurement.
                   Exclude children who had been looked after at any time during the
                   2.5 year period under an agreed series of short term-placements (under
                   the provisions of Reg. 13 of the Arrangement for Placement of Children
                   (General) Regulations, 1991). See
                   http://www.opsi.gov.uk/SI/si1991/Uksi_19910890_en_2.htm
Worked             Out of 70 children in Good                   Generally high, although
example            care at 31 March for performance             performance should never reach
                   more than 2.5 years                          100% – some placement change
                   (912 days), if 35                            is necessary.
                   have been living in
                   the same placement
                   (or adoptive plus
                   previous placement)
                   for 2 years or more
                   (more than 729 days)
                   then
                   (35/70) * 100
                   = 50.0 %.
Collection         Annual for year to       Data Source         Statutory SSDA903 data collection
interval           31 March                                     from local authorities to DCSF
Return             Unit level placement     Decimal Places      One
Format             history per child
                   from which DCSF
                   CLA data collection
                   system determines
                   percentage.
Reporting          DCSF based on data reported by local authorities
organisation
Spatial level      Single tier and county council
Further            Detailed SSDA903 guidance can be found at
Guidance           www.dfes.gov.uk/datastats1/guidelines/children/returns.shtml
38 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 64: Child Protection Plans lasting 2 years or more
 Is data provided by the LA or a                                    Y         Is this an existing indicator?     Y
 local partner?
 Rationale                   This indicator should measure whether children and their families are
                             receiving the services necessary to bring about the required changes in
                             the family situation and to monitor performance in working towards the
                             outcomes outlined in the child protection plan.
                             This indicator reflects the underlying principle that professionals should be
                             working towards specified outcomes which, if implemented effectively,
                             should lead to all children not needing to be the subject of a Child
                             Protection Plan within a maximum of two years.
 Definition                  The percentage of children ceasing to be the subject of a Child Protection
                             Plan during the year ending 31 March, who had been the subject of a
                             Child Protection Plan continuously for two years or longer.
                             ‘Child Protection Plan’ is a multi-agency plan formulated by children’s social
                             care to ensure that children at continuing risk of harm are protected. Its aim is
                             to facilitate and make explicit a co-ordinated approach to the protection from
                             further harm of each child. Each Child Protection Plan will cover many areas,
                             including:
                             •	 Broad	objectives	for	the	child’s	welfare,	identifying	his/her	specific	needs;
                             •	 Identification	of	risk	factors	and	actions	required	to	protect	the	child	from	
                                significant	harm;
                             •	 Types	of	services	required	by	the	child	to	support	the	family	in	promoting	the	
                                child’s	welfare;
                             •	 Time	limited	short	and	longer	term	objectives;
                             •	 Required	outcomes	linked	to	a	reduction	in	the	risk	to	the	child.
                             •	 ‘Duration’	is	the	length	of	time	that	a	child	has	a	Child	Protection	Plan.
                             The numerator for this indicator is provided through CPR3 (Child Protection and
                             Referrals (England)) Part B, Table 9 item c21 that reflects data derived from Table 8
                             (lines 5 & 6).
                             The denominator for this indicator is provided through CPR3 (Child Protection
                             and Referrals (England)) Part B, Table 9 item c21 that reflects data derived from
                             Table 8 (line 7 total).
                             References relate to the CPR3 return in 2006/07. Please refer to the equivalent
                             cells for other years.
                                                                         Annex 2: Children and Young People 39




NI 64: Child Protection Plans lasting 2 years or more (continued)
Formula              X
                         *100
                     Y
                  Where:
                  X = Of the children in the denominator, the number who had been the
                  subject of a Child Protection Plan continuously for two years or longer (i.e.
                  for more than 729 calendar days including days of cessation).
                  Y = The number of children ceasing to be the subject of a Child Protection
                  Plan during the year ending 31 March. This may count a child more than
                  once if they ceased to be the subject of a Child Protection Plan more than
                  once during the year.
Worked            If of 20 children           Good              Good performance is typified by
example           ceasing to be the           performance       a lower percentage. However
                  subject of child                              we recognise that some children
                  protection plan during                        will need child protection plans
                  the year, 2 had been                          for longer than 2 years and are
                  the subject of the plan                       not necessarily expecting a zero
                  for two years or more                         percentage return.
                  then the percentage of                        This indicator should be looked at
                  children who had been                         alongside NI 65 (re-registrations
                  the subject of a plan                         on the CPR) – a good (low)
                  for 2 years or longer is                      figure for this indicator may be
                  (2/20) * 100 = 10.0%.                         explained by a poor (high) figure
                                                                for re-registrations. Also, a poor
                                                                (high) figure for this indicator
                                                                may be explained by a poor
                                                                (low) figure for reviewing child
                                                                protection cases on time (NI 67).
                                                                The following factors also impact
                                                                on the indicator:
                                                                •	 Number	of	children	subject	to	a	
                                                                   child protection plan
                                                                •	 levels	of	registrations	and	de-
                                                                   registrations
                                                                •	 the	category	of	abuse
                                                                •	 types	of	intervention	and	
                                                                   support
Collection        Annual (Financial Year)     Data Source       CPR3 statutory return from local
interval                                                        authorities to the DCSF
Return            Percentage                  Decimal           One
Format                                        Places
40 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 64: Child Protection Plans lasting 2 years or more (continued)
 Reporting                   DCSF based on data reported by local authorities
 organisation
 Spatial level               Single tier and county council
 Further                     Statutory guidance: Working Together to Safeguard Children: A guide to inter-
 Guidance                    agency working to safeguard and promote the welfare of children available at
                             www.ecm.gov.uk/socialcare/safeguarding
                             Data collection guidance for CPR3 available at
                             www.dcsf.gov.uk/datastats1/guidelines/children/returns.shtml
                             Indicator replaces current PI PAF CF/C21 and JAR/APA 2036SC (2007/08).
                                                                          Annex 2: Children and Young People 41




NI 65: Percentage of children becoming the subject of Child Protection Plan for a second or
subsequent time
Is data provided by the LA or a             Y      Is this an existing indicator?                      Y
local partner?
Rationale         This indicator is a proxy for the level and quality of service a child receives.
                  Its purpose is to monitor whether children’s social care services devise and
                  implement a Child Protection Plan which leads to lasting improvement in a
                  child’s safety and overall well-being.
Definition        The percentage of children who became subject to a Child Protection Plan
                  at any time during the year, who had previously been the subject of a
                  Child Protection Plan, or on the Child Protection Register of that council,
                  regardless of how long ago that was.
                  The ‘Child Protection Plan’ is a multi-agency plan formulated by children’s
                  social care to ensure that children who are at continuing risk of harm are
                  protected. Its aim is to facilitate and make explicit a co-ordinated approach
                  to the protection from further harm of each child. Each Child Protection Plan
                  will cover many areas, including, for example:
                  •	 Broad	objectives	for	the	child’s	welfare,	identifying	his/her	specific	needs;
                  •	 Identification	of	risk	factors	and	actions	required	to	protect	the	child	from	
                     significant	harm;
                  •	 Types	of	services	required	by	the	child	to	support	the	family	in	promoting	the	
                     child’s	welfare;
                  •	 Time	limited	short	and	longer	term	objectives;
                  •	 Required	outcomes	linked	to	a	reduction	in	the	risk	to	the	child.
                  ‘Second or subsequent time’ means where a child had ceased to be the
                  subject of a Child Protection Plan following the Plan’s objectives being met,
                  but where a subsequent plan has become necessary. Some subsequent plans
                  are essential in responding to adverse changes in circumstance, but high
                  levels of subsequent plans may suggest that the professionals responsible for
                  the child’s welfare are not intervening effectively either to bring about the
                  required changes in the child’s family situation, or to make alternative plans
                  for the child’s long term care.
                  The numerator and denominator for this indicator are provided through
                  CPR3 (Child Protection and Referrals (England) Table 9 Item A3: Number of
                  children who became the subject of a Child Protection Plan for a second or
                  subsequent time (re-registrations).
                  The references relate to the CPR3 return in 2006/07. Refer to the equivalent
                  cells for other years.
42 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 65: Percentage of children becoming the subject of Child Protection Plan for a second or
 subsequent time (continued)
 Formula                        X
                                      *100
                                Y
                             Where:
                             X = Of the children in the denominator, the number who had previously
                             been the subject of a Child Protection Plan, or on the Child Protection
                             Register of that council, regardless of how long ago that was.
                             Y = The number of children who became subject to a Child Protection Plan
                             at any time during the year. This is a count of each occasion in the year, and
                             may count the same child more than once.
 Worked                      Of 200 children        Good                                       Good performance is generally
 example                     subject to a Child     performance                                low. The 2006/07 banding for
                             Protection Plan                                                   this indicator describes good
                             during the year, if                                               performance as being between
                             25 are subject to a                                               10% and 15%.
                             Plan for the second                                               However, a very low level may
                             or subsequent time                                                mean that a local authority is
                             then the percentage                                               not submitting some children to
                             of children becoming                                              a Child Protection Plan who are
                             the subject of a Child                                            in need. Conversely, a high level
                             Protection Plan for a                                             may suggest that the professionals
                             second or subsequent                                              responsible for the child’s welfare
                             time is                                                           are not intervening effectively to
                             (25/200)*100 =                                                    bring about the required changes.
                             12.5%.                                                            It is also expected that each child’s
                                                                                               individual circumstances will differ
                                                                                               and therefore a zero percentage
                                                                                               return on this indicator is not
                                                                                               expected.
                                                                                               The measure can also be viewed
                                                                                               alongside NI 67 (reviews of child
                                                                                               protection cases) and NI 64
                                                                                               (durations for Child Protection
                                                                                               plans). For example, a good low
                                                                                               figure for re-registrations may
                                                                                               have been achieved at the expense
                                                                                               of a poor (high) figure for the
                                                                                               percentage of children identified
                                                                                               as having a plan for 2 years or
                                                                                               more.
                                                                                               The number of re-registrations is
                                                                                               also affected by general factors
                                                                                               such as the number of children
                                                                                               subject to a child protection plan,
                                                                                               the mobility of families and the
                                                                                               size of the council areas.
                                                                         Annex 2: Children and Young People 43




NI 65: Percentage of children becoming the subject of Child Protection Plan for a second or
subsequent time (continued)
Collection        Annual (Financial         Data Source        CPR3 statutory return from local
interval          Year)                                        authorities to the DCSF
Return            Percentage                Decimal            One
Format                                      Places
Reporting         DCSF based on data reported by local authorities
organisation
Spatial level     Single tier and county council
Further           Statutory guidance: Working Together to Safeguard Children: A guide to
Guidance          inter-agency working to safeguard and promote the welfare of children
                  available at www.ecm.gov.uk/socialcare/safeguarding
                  Data collection guidance for CPR3 available at
                  www.dcsf.gov.uk/datastats1/guidelines/children/returns.shtml
                  Indicator replaces current PAF CF/A3.
44 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 66: Looked after children cases which were reviewed within required timescales
 Is data provided by the LA or a                                    Y        Is this an existing indicator?   Y
 local partner?
 Rationale                   To improve compliance with local authorities’ legal requirements under the
                             Review of Children’s Cases Regulations 1991. Performance currently varies
                             widely, with several local authorities performing at 100%, but with some as poor
                             as 17%.
                             The review is one of the key components within the core processes of
                             working with children and families. The purpose of the review is to consider
                             the plan for the child’s welfare, to monitor the progress of the plan and
                             amend it as necessary in light of changed information and circumstances.
                             The relevant regulations prescribe the intervals for formal reviews (in
                             addition to ongoing consideration, monitoring and reassessment by the local
                             authority).
 Definition                  The percentage of children looked after cases which should have been
                             reviewed during the year ending 31 March that were reviewed on time
                             during the year.
                             The areas for consideration in children looked after reviews are set out in
                             the	schedules	attached	to	the	Review	regulations;	these	include	general	
                             considerations as well as education and health.
                             ‘Reviewed on time’ means that they were reviewed (in accordance with the
                             Review of Children’s Cases Regulations 1991) so that:
                             •	 the	first	review	of	the	year	was	held	within	183	days	of	the	last	review	in	the	
                                previous year (or within 91 days if the previous review was the child’s initial
                                review, or within four weeks of the child becoming looked after if there was no
                                review	in	the	previous	year);
                             •	 the	maximum	gap	between	‘six	month’	reviews	during	the	year	was	183	days;
                             •	 a	review	was	held	within	183	days	of	the	year	end	(i.e.	on	or	after	1	October).
                             Include all children looked after at 31st March who at that date had been looked
                             after continuously for at least the previous four weeks.
                             Children looked after under a series of short term breaks and children placed for
                             adoption should be excluded.
                             The numerator counts only those children from the denominator, ALL of whose
                             reviews were carried out within the specified time limit. If a child had two reviews
                             within the timescale and one review outside of the timescale, the child would be
                             excluded from the numerator.
                             This indicator replaces PAF CF68 / JAR/APA 2064SC
                                                                        Annex 2: Children and Young People 45




NI 66: Looked after children cases which were reviewed within required timescales (continued)
Formula             X
                        *100
                    Y
                  Where:
                  X = Of the children in the denominator, the number of children whose cases
                  had been reviewed within the required timescales.
                  Y = The number of children looked after at 31st March who at that date had
                  been looked after continuously for at least the previous four weeks.
Worked            If for each of 750    Good                  Good performance is typified by a
example           children looked       performance           higher percentage.
                  after at 31 March all                       It should be noted that the banding
                  reviews during the                          of this indicator for 2006/07
                  year were held on                           describes the best performance
                  time for 675 children                       as 95 <= 100, and the worst
                  then the percentage                         [Investigate Urgently] as 0 < 80.
                  of looked after
                  children whose cases                        The five percentage point width of
                  were reviewed on time                       the highest band allows for the fact
                  during the year is                          that there are occasions where it can
                  (675/750) * 100 =                           be in the best interest of the child to
                  90.0%.                                      delay a scheduled review.
Collection        Financial Year            Data Source       Statutory SSDA903 data collection
interval                                                      from local authorities to DCSF
Return            Percentage                Decimal           One
Format                                      Places
Reporting         DCSF based on Information reported by local authorities.
organisation
Spatial level     Single tier and county council
Further           The	Children	Act	1989	Guidance	on	the	Review	of	Children’s	Cases;	Independent	
Guidance          Reviewing Officer Statutory Guidance ñ Department for Children, Schools and
                  Families statistical returns website.
                  http://www.dfes.gov.uk/datastats1/guidelines/children/returns.shtml
                  Detailed SSDA903 guidance can be found at
                  www.dfes.gov.uk/datastats1/guidelines/children/returns.shtml
46 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 67: Percentage of child protection cases which were reviewed within required timescales
 Is data provided by the LA or a                                   Y         Is this an existing indicator?   Y
 local partner?
 Rationale                   Reviews are a key element in delivering Child Protection Plans and effective
                             reviews should ensure the provision of good quality interventions.
                             This indicator is a proxy for the measurement of the effectiveness of the
                             interventions provided to children with a Child Protection Plan.
                             Working Together to Safeguard Children guidance requires that the first
                             child protection review should have been held within three months of the
                             initial child protection conference and thereafter at intervals of no more than
                             six months.
 Definition                  The percentage of children with a Child Protection Plan at 31 March
                             who at that date had had a Plan continuously for at least the
                             previous three months, whose case was reviewed within the required
                             timescales.
                             The numerator is the number of the children with a Child Protection Plan
                             whose cases had been reviewed during the year ending 31 March 2007. Of
                             the children identified in the denominator, the count includes cases where:
                             •	 the	first	review	of	the	year	was	held	within	6	months	of	the	last	review	in	the	
                                previous year (or within 3 months of the start of the Child Protection Plan, if
                                there	was	no	review	in	the	previous	year);
                             •	 the	maximum	gap	between	reviews	during	the	year	was	6	months;	and
                             •	 a	review	was	held	within	6	months	of	the	end	of	the	year	(i.e.	on	or	after	1	
                                October).
                             (Source – CPR3 2006-07, Part B, Table 9, Review of child protection cases,
                             line 1. For previous years, use equivalent survey reference)
                             The denominator is the number of children with a Child Protection Plan
                             at 31 March who at that date had had a Plan continuously for at least the
                             previous three months.
                             (Source – CPR3 2006-07, Part B, Table 9, Review of child protection cases,
                             line 2. For previous years, use equivalent survey reference)
                             The indicator is measured in calendar days using a non-inclusive method i.e.
                             it does not count both the start and the finish date. Hence, the date of the
                             last review or the date the child was made the subject of a child protection
                             plan will be classified as day ‘0’. If a child has more than one review within
                             the year the child will only be included in the numerator if all relevant
                             reviews for that child are completed on time. This indicator was re-defined
                             in 2003-04 so care should be taken when making comparisons with earlier
                             data.
                                                                          Annex 2: Children and Young People 47




NI 67: Percentage of child protection cases which were reviewed within required timescales
(continued)
Definition        A ‘review’ is a child protection review conference which should take place
(continued)       where a Child Protection Plan is in place. Attendees should include those
                  most involved with the child and family in the same way as at an initial child
                  protection conference, and the Local Safeguarding Children Board protocols
                  for establishing a quorum should apply. The purposes of the review are to:
                  •	 Review	the	safety,	health	and	development	of	the	child	against	planned	
                     outcomes	set	out	in	the	child	protection	plan;
                  •	 Ensure	that	the	child	continues	to	be	safeguarded	from	harm;	and
                  •	 Consider	whether	the	child	protection	plan	should	continue	in	place	or	should	
                     be changed.
                  The ‘Child Protection Plan’ is a plan formulated by children’s social care to
                  ensure that children at continuing immediate risk of harm are protected.
                  Its aim is to facilitate and make explicit a co-ordinated approach to the
                  protection from further harm of each child. Each Child Protection Plan will
                  cover many areas, including, for example:
                  •	 Broad	objectives	for	the	child’s	welfare,	identifying	his/her	specific	needs;
                  •	 Identification	of	risk	factors	and	actions	required	to	protect	the	child	from	
                     significant	harm;
                  •	 Types	of	services	required	by	the	child	to	support	the	family	in	promoting	the	
                     child’s	welfare;
                  •	 Time	limited	short	and	longer	term	objectives;
                  •	 Required	outcomes	linked	to	a	reduction	in	the	risk	to	the	child.
                  This indicator replaces PAF CF/C20 and JAR/APA indicator 2034SC as
                  collected in 2007/08.
Formula             X
                        *100
                    Y
                  Where:
                  X = of the children with a Child Protection Plan at 31 March who at that
                  date had had a Plan continuously for at least the previous three months and
                  whose cases had been reviewed within the required timescales.
                  Y = the number of children with a Child Protection Plan at 31 March who at
                  that date had had a Plan continuously for at least the previous three months.
48 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 67: Percentage of child protection cases which were reviewed within required timescales
 (continued)
 Worked                      From 100 children who                         Good                          A higher value indicates
 example                     were (a) the subject of                       performance                   better performance.
                             a Child Protection Plan                                                     However, the indicator
                             at 31 March and (b)                                                         should be considered in
                             had been continuously                                                       conjunction with NI 65
                             for at least the previous                                                   (children who became
                             3 months, 99 had their                                                      subject to a plan for a 2nd
                             cases reviewed on time:                                                     time) and NI 64 (duration
                             =(99/100) * 100                                                             of Child Protection Plans).
                                                                                                         For example, a high figure
                             = 99.0% cases were                                                          for this indicator would also
                             reviewed on time.                                                           be expected to be linked
                                                                                                         with reasonably low figures
                                                                                                         for NI 64 (duration of Child
                                                                                                         Protection plans), otherwise
                                                                                                         the efficacy of the reviews
                                                                                                         may be questionable.
                                                                                                         The best performance on this
                                                                                                         indicator would be 100%.
 Collection                  Annual for year to                            Data Source                   CPR3 statutory return from
 interval                    31 March                                                                    local authorities to the DCSF
 Return                      Percentage                                    Decimal                       One
 Format                                                                    Places
 Reporting                   DCSF based on data reported by local authorities
 organisation
 Spatial level               Single tier and county council
 Further                     Statutory guidance: Working Together to Safeguard Children: A guide to
 Guidance                    inter-agency working to safeguard and promote the welfare of children
                             available at www.ecm.gov.uk/socialcare/safeguarding
                             Data collection guidance for CPR3 available at
                             www.dcsf.gov.uk/datastats1/guidelines/children/returns.shtml
                                                                            Annex 2: Children and Young People 49




NI 68: Percentage of referrals to children’s social care going on to initial assessment
Is data provided by the LA or a               Y      Is this an existing indicator?                      Y
local partner?
Rationale          It is important that local authorities respond to and address concerns in a
                   timely and efficient way and ensure that all referrals to children’s social care
                   be followed up where appropriate.
                   This indicator is a proxy for several issues: the appropriateness of referrals
                   coming into social care, which can show whether local agencies are working
                   well	together;	and	the	thresholds	which	are	being	applied	in	children’s	social	
                   care at a local level.
Definition         The percentage of children referred to children’s social services
                   departments whose cases go on to initial assessments.
                   The numerator is the number of children in the denominator, whose cases
                   go on to initial assessments.
                   The denominator Y is the number of children referred to children’s social
                   services departments during the year. [Source: CPR3 2006-07 (Part A, Item
                   1, line 1 Number of referrals of children who have been the subject of
                   referral (including re-referrals)] If one child was the subject of more than
                   one referral or assessment during the year, then each referral or assessment
                   should be counted.
                   The numerator X is the number of the number of children receiving
                   initial assessments in the year. [Source: CPR3 2006-07, Part A, Item 2, line
                   1 (‘Initial assessments completed within 7 days’) and line 2 (‘other initial
                   assessments completed In the year’)
                   A ‘referral’ is defined as a request for services to be provided by children’s
                   social care services. This is in respect of a case where the child is not
                   previously known to the local authority, or where the case was previously
                   open but is now closed. A referral can be made by a professional from one
                   of many different agencies (typically in the health and education sectors) but
                   the term as used here is a broad one which encompasses referrals from any
                   source, including self-referrals.
                   Local authorities will make an ‘initial consideration’ to decide, when looking
                   at the details of the referral, whether there are concerns about the child’s
                   health and development or actual and/or potential harm that justifies an
                   initial assessment. The initial assessment is a brief assessment of the child’s
                   needs, to be carried out by children’s social care within a maximum of seven
                   working days of the date of referral.
                   Children are defined as aged 0-17 years inclusive.
                   Further guidance is in CPR3 at www.dcsf.gov.uk/datastats1/guidelines/
                   children/returns.shtml
                   References are taken from the CPR3 return in 2006/07. Please refer to the
                   equivalent cells for other years.
                   This indicator replaces KIGS CH143, JAR/APA 2017SC as collected in
                   2007/08.
50 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 68: Percentage of referrals to children’s social care going on to initial assessment (continued)
 Formula                         X
                                       *100
                                 Y
                              Where:
                              X = of the children in the denominator – the number of children whose
                              cases go on to initial assessments.
                              Y = the number of children referred to children’s social services departments
                              during the year. If one child was the subject of more than one referral or
                              assessment during the year, then each referral or assessment should be
                              counted.
 Worked                       CPR 2006-07 England                          Good                          Indicators on safeguarding
 example                      545,000 children were                        performance                   will need to be considered
                              the subject of a referral,                                                 together to give a fuller
                              305,000 underwent an                                                       picture of local authority
                              initial assessment, then                                                   performance.

                              (305,000/545,000) * 100                                                    Difficult to quantify whether
                              = 56.0%.                                                                   good performance is typified
                                                                                                         by higher or lower numbers.
                                                                                                         The ideal should be a
                                                                                                         median percentage band
                                                                                                         that all local authorities fall
                                                                                                         within. If the percentage
                                                                                                         decreases or increases greatly
                                                                                                         it could be that children
                                                                                                         are not receiving an initial
                                                                                                         assessment when they
                                                                                                         should be (or vice versa)
                                                                                                         rather than a figure showing
                                                                                                         that fewer or more children
                                                                                                         being protected from harm.
 Collection                   Annual for year to                           Data Source                   CPR3 statutory return form
 interval                     31 March                                                                   local authorities to DCSF
 Return                       Percentage                                   Decimal                       One
 Format                                                                    Places
 Reporting                    DCSF based on data reported by local authorities
 organisation
 Spatial level                Single tier and county council
 Further                      Statutory guidance: Working Together to Safeguard Children: A guide to
 Guidance                     inter-agency working to safeguard and promote the welfare of children
                              available at www.ecm.gov.uk/socialcare/safeguarding
                              Data collection guidance for CPR3 available at
                              www.dcsf.gov.uk/datastats1/guidelines/children/returns.shtml
                                                                                           Annex 2: Children and Young People 51




NI 69: Children who have experienced bullying
Is data provided by the LA or a                      N       Is this an existing indicator?                             N
local partner?
Rationale         To measure progress in tackling bullying.
                  Bullying is children’s primary safety concern, and has remained the highest
                  reason for calls to Childline over the past 6 years.
Definition        The percentage of children who have experienced bullying at least once or
                  more in the past 4 weeks, based on responses to the TellUs survey carried
                  out on year 6, 8 and 10 pupils in schools.
                  ‘Bullying’ is repeated behaviour which makes other people feel
                  uncomfortable or threatened whether this is intended or not. There are
                  different sorts of bullying, but the main types are:
                  PHYSICAL: hitting, kicking, taking or hiding belongings including money
                  VERBAL: name calling, teasing, insulting, writing unkind notes
                  EMOTIONAL: being unfriendly, excluding, tormenting, spreading rumours,
                  looks
                  EXCLUSION: a child can be bullied simply by being excluded from
                  discussions/activities, with those they believe to be their friends
                  DAMAGE TO PROPERTY OR THEFT: pupils may have their property
                  damaged or stolen. Physical threats may be used by the bully in order that
                  the student hands over property to them
                  CYBER: cyber-bullying is a more recent problem that has come about
                  through the increased use of mobile phones and the internet. It may include
                  threats or name-calling via the internet chat rooms, web pages, texts or
                  phone calls. It may also involve the misuse of associated technology such as
                  cameras and video facilities.
                  ‘TellUs’ is the annual national Ofsted survey that records children’s
                  perceptions on a wide range of issues relevant to children and young
                  people. The relevant bullying question is:
                  10. How often, if at all, have you been bullied?
                  Bullying is when people hurt or pick on you on purpose (for example by
                  teasing or hurting you, including by mobile phone or on the internet, by
                  taking or breaking your things, or by leaving you out).
                  PLEASE TICK THE ONE BOX ON EACH LINE THAT BEST DESCRIBES YOU
                                                     Never     Once or        Once or         About       Most        Don’t
                                                              more in the   more in the       once a      days        know
                                                               last year    last 4 weeks      week

                   At school

                   Somewhere else (including on
                   your journey to or from school)
52 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 69: Children who have experienced bullying (continued)
 Definition                   The responses included for this indicator are:
 (continued)                  – Once or more in the last 4 weeks
                              – About once a week
                              – Most days
                              The size of the sample for TellUs means that this indicator can measure changes
                              in incidences of bullying. Local authorities should have plans in place to address
                              bullying, through the Children and Young People’s Plan and individual school
                              anti-bullying plans. This indicator will show whether these actions are effective,
                              and if not, the local authority can work with the children’s trusts and other
                              partners to reduce bullying in the local area.
 Formula                      The percentage of children who have experienced bullying is calculated as
                              follows:
                                 X
                                       *100
                                 Y
                              Where:
                              X = the number of pupils the weighted TellUs survey data estimates have
                              experienced bullying in the relevant school year groups once or more in the
                              last	4	weeks	in	the	area;
                              Y = the number of young people in the relevant school years responding to
                              the survey based on the weighted TellUs data.
 Worked                       In a Local Authority,                        Good                          A reduction in reports of
 example                      using the weighted and                       performance                   bullying would represent
                              grossed up TellUs survey                                                   good performance, as it
                              data, we estimate there                                                    would show that the local
                              are 4000 pupils in school                                                  authority is working with
                              years 6, 8 and 10 and 680                                                  its partners to tackle the
                              of these young people                                                      problems. There may be an
                              have experienced bullying                                                  initial increase as children
                              once or more In the last 4                                                 and young people are
                              weeks.                                                                     encouraged through the
                              This gives an indicator                                                    Tell Us survey to report
                              value of 17%.                                                              incidences of bullying which
                                                                                                         were not known about
                                                                                                         before.
 Collection                   Annual (Academic year)                       Data Source                   The TellUs survey
 interval
 Return                       Percentage                                   Decimal                       None
 Format                                                                    Places
 Reporting                    Ofstead
 organisation
                                                                    Annex 2: Children and Young People 53




NI 69: Children who have experienced bullying (continued)
Spatial level     Single tier and county council
Further           The TellUs survey is voluntary and the data are grossed up and weighted to
Guidance          match local area profiles based on School Census data.
                  See www.ofsted.gov.uk for full guidance on the TellUs3 survey.
54 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 70: Reduce emergency hospital admissions caused by unintentional and deliberate injuries to
 children and young people
 Is data provided by the LA or a                                   Y         Is this an existing indicator?   N
 local partner?
 Rationale                    The aim of this indicator is to measure hospital admissions by injury type,
                              which will include both unintentional and deliberate injury to children and
                              young people. Given that some hospital admissions with an external cause
                              of injury will be elective admissions, including some for follow-up treatment
                              after an earlier emergency admission, the indicator is restricted to counting
                              only emergency admissions. Some children and young people may have
                              more than one emergency admission with an external cause of injury within
                              a time period.
 Definition                   The number of finished in-year emergency admissions of children and young
                              people to hospital as a result of unintentional and deliberate injury, per
                              10,000 population of children and young people.
                              Accidents are the leading cause of injury to children and disproportionately
                              affect children from lower socio-economic groups. The Hospital Episode
                              Statistics can break down admissions to hospital by detailed injury type.
                              Those that are related to accidental injury or assault have been identified.
                              An ‘admitted patient’ is a person who presents as an emergency and is
                              formally admitted to a hospital bed.
                              The Hospital Episode Statistics use the International Classification of
                              Diseases (ICD) coding system. This indicator will use the external cause V01
                              to Y98 ICD-10 codes, excluding codes X33-X39 and X52 which refer to
                              forces of nature.
                              ‘Unintentional’ injury is used here to mean accidental external causes
                              of harm e.g. traffic accidents, falls, trips, accidental contact with tools/
                              machinery etc, drowning, exposure, burns and scalds etc.
                              ‘Deliberate’ injury refers to the codes for assault, which are X85-Y09,
                              covering different types of assaults – bodily force, sexual assault by bodily
                              force, sharp/blunt objects etc.
                              Hospital episode statistics are broken down by age group. This indicator will
                              include the 0–17 years (inclusive) age group.
                              Data should be collected by local authority of residence for the purposes of
                              this indicator. The data is also available by Primary Care Trust, postcode of
                              registered GP or NHS Trust where treatment was provided.
                                                                       Annex 2: Children and Young People 55




NI 70: Reduce emergency hospital admissions caused by unintentional and deliberate injuries to
children and young people (continued)
Formula             X
                         *10,000
                    Y
                  Where:
                  X = Total number of finished in-year emergency admissions of children and
                  young people to hospital as a result of accidental and non-accidental injury.
                  Y = The total population of children and young people.
Worked            If 1,000 children and          Good              Good performance is typified
example           young people are               performance       by a lower rate.
                  admitted to hospital as
                  a result of injury and the
                  0-17 (inclusive) population
                  of a LA is 76,390, then
                  there were 1,000/76,390
                  x 10,000 = 130.9 C&YP
                  admitted per 10,000
                  population
Collection        Data extracted from            Data Source       Information Centre for
interval          Secondary Users Service                          Health and Social Care
                  (DH data warehouse)                              Hospital Episode Statistics
                  into HES data warehouse                          [HES] database.
                  quarterly.
                  Published annually.
Return            Rate per 10,000                Decimal           One
Format                                           Places
Reporting         Information Centre for Health and Social Care, based on information
organisation      provided by Hospital Trusts
Spatial level     Single tier and district council
Further           Further information of HES can be found at http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/
Guidance          Publicationsandstatistics/Statistics/HospitalEpisodeStatistics/index.htm
                  Guidance specifically on this indicator can be found at www.ecm.gov.uk/
                  safeguarding
56 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 71: Children who have run away from home/care
 For introduction in 2009/10
 Rationale                   Young people who run away from home can be at increased risk of harm.
                             It is important to record the number of children who run away from home, so
                             that local authorities and the police can plan the scope for provision, such as
                             counselling and mediation, with greater certainty.
 Background                  There are currently no robust data collection procedures for this group.
 and update                  A cross-Departmental working group has been established to drive progress in
 on indicator                improving services for young runaways, and a consideration of data collection
 development                 issues is in their immediate remit. A task group has been formed, working with
                             other government departments, local government colleagues, the police and
                             experts from the voluntary sector, to identify existing sources that could offer
                             robust data. Their findings will determine the final definition of the indicator.
                             Further information on young runaways can be found in The Children’s Society
                             Report ‘Still Running II: findings from the second national survey of young
                             runaways’ (http://www.childrenssociety.org.uk), and The Social Exclusion Unit
                             Report 2002.
 Expected                    Initial scoping of existing data sources indicates that data might be collected at
 collection                  police authority and/or local authority (single tier and county council) spatial level.
 arrangements
 and spatial
 level
 Timetable for               A report on progress will be given to Ministers in June. The indicator will be ready
 development                 for full technical consultation in autumn 2008, for introduction in April 2009.
                                                                          Annex 2: Children and Young People 57




NI 72: Achievement of at least 78 points across the Early Years Foundation Stage with at least 6 in
each of the scales in Personal Social and Emotional Development and Communication, Language
and Literacy
Is data provided by the LA or a local           Y      Is this an existing indicator?                   N
partner?
Rationale         The early years are crucial to a child’s chances of later success. Children who
                  achieve well in their early years are much more likely to be successful in
                  future education and in later life.
Definition        The number of children achieving 78 points across all 13 EYFSP scales with
                  at least 6 points or more in each of the PSED and CLL scales, expressed as a
                  percentage of the total number of children assessed against the Early Years
                  Foundation Stage Profile.
                  Early Years Foundation Stage – this is a statutory framework for children’s
                  learning and development and welfare from birth to the end of the academic
                  year in which they turn 5. It covers six areas of learning:
                  •	   Personal,	Social	and	Emotional	Development	(3	scales)
                  •	   Communication,	Language	and	Literacy	(4	scales)
                  •	   Problem-solving,	reasoning	and	numeracy	(3	scales)
                  •	   Knowledge	and	understanding	of	the	world	(1	scale)
                  •	   Physical	Development	(1	scale)
                  •	   Creative	Development	(1	scale)
                  The Early Years Foundation Stage Profile is an assessment of children’s
                  achievement at the end of the academic year in which they turn 5 – it
                  supersedes the Foundation Stage Profile from September 2008.
Formula                X
                           *100
                       Y

                  Where:
                  X = number of children achieving 78 points across all 13 EYFSP scales with at
                  least	6	points	or	more	in	each	of	the	PSED	and	CLL	scales;
                  Y = total number of children assessed against the Early Years Foundation
                  Stage Profile.
58 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 72: Achievement of at least 78 points across the Early Years Foundation Stage with at least 6 in
 each of the scales in Personal Social and Emotional Development and Communication, Language
 and Literacy (continued)
 Worked                     If the number of                       Good                         Higher percentages show better
 example                    children in the LA                     performance                  performance.
                            achieving 78 points
                            across all 13 EYFSP
                            scales and at least 6+
                            points in the CLL and
                            PSED scales is 3000
                            and the total number
                            of children in the LA
                            who were assessed
                            against the Early Years
                            FSP is 5000, then:
                               3000
                                    * 100           60.0%
                               5000


 Collection                 Annual (academic                       Data Source                  Early Years Foundation Stage
 interval                   year)                                                               profile results
 Return                     Percentage                             Decimal                      One
 Format                                                            Places
 Reporting                  DCSF based on data reported by local authorities
 organisation
 Spatial level              Single tier and county council
 Further                    More information on the Foundation Stage Curriculum is available at:
 Guidance                   http://www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/eyfs/
                            Guidance for Local Authorities on setting Education Performance Targets
                            (http://www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/ts/publications/list/?index=2)
                                                                        Annex 2: Children and Young People 59




NI 73: Achievement at level 4 or above in both English and Maths at Key Stage 2
Is data provided by the LA or a            N      Is this an existing indicator?                      Y
local partner?
Rationale         It is widely accepted that good literacy and numeracy are key to
                  employability and further study, and that more needs to be done to improve
                  performance in these areas. The Government is therefore committed
                  to ensuring that more children master the basics and has set a national
                  threshold target for 2011 for 78% to achieve Level 4 or above in both
                  English and Maths at KS2. As well as improving the proportion of pupils
                  achieving this standard, the Government also wants to see no schools where
                  less than 65% of pupils achieve Level 4 in both English and Maths (floor
                  target).
Definition        The number of pupils achieving Level 4+ in both English and Maths at
                  KS2 as a percentage of the number of pupils at the end of KS2 with valid
                  National Curriculum test results in both English and maths.
                  Key Stage (KS) 2 is the stage of the National Curriculum between ages 8 and
                  11 years. This indicator relates to tests taken by pupils at the end of KS2.
                  The school element relates to all maintained mainstream schools with more
                  than 10 pupils in the end of KS2 cohort.
                  Pupils’ attainment is assessed in relation to the National Curriculum and
                  pupils are awarded levels on the National Curriculum scale to reflect their
                  attainment.
Formula
                    x
                      * 100
                    y
                  Where:
                  x = number of pupils achieving Level 4+ in both English and Maths at KS2.
                  y = number of pupils at the end of KS2 with valid National Curriculum test
                  results in both English and maths.
Worked            If 4,500 pupils achieve       Good                Good performance is
example           level 4+ in both English      performance         typified by percentages
                  and Maths, and 6,000                              where the proportion of
                  pupils have valid test                            pupils is above the national
                  results for KS2 assessment                        average and where there
                  in both English and Maths,                        are no schools with cohorts
                  then the proportion =                             of more than 10 achieving
                                                                    below 65% Level 4 in
                    4,500                                           English and maths.
                          * 100 = 75.0%
                    6,000
60 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 73: Achievement at level 4 or above in both English and Maths at Key Stage 2 (continued)
 Collection                  Annual (academic year)                        Data Source                   Revised KS2 test results
 interval                                                                                                as amended by schools
                                                                                                         checking exercise for
                                                                                                         publication of Primary
                                                                                                         School Achievement and
                                                                                                         Attainment Tables.
 Return                      Percentage                                    Decimal Places                One (English and maths
 Format                                                                                                  were previously reported
                                                                                                         separately to whole number
                                                                                                         percentages).
 Reporting                   DCSF, based on data provided by schools
 organisation
 Spatial level               Single tier and county council
 Further                     Guidance for Local Authorities on setting Education Performance Targets –
 Guidance                    issued September 2007.
                             Information on the National Curriculum
                             http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/management/atoz/n/nationalcurriculum/
                                                                        Annex 2: Children and Young People 61




NI 74: Achievement at level 5 or above in both English and Maths at Key Stage 3
Is data provided by the LA or a              N    Is this an existing indicator?                      Y
local partner?
Rationale         It is widely accepted that good literacy and numeracy are key to
                  employability and further study, and that more needs to be done to improve
                  performance in these areas. The Government is therefore committed
                  to ensuring that more children master the basics and has set a national
                  threshold target for 2011 for 74% to achieve Level 5 or above in both
                  English and Maths at KS3. As well as improving the proportion of pupils
                  achieving this standard, the Government also wants to see no schools where
                  less than 50% of pupils achieve Level 5 in both English and Maths (floor
                  target).
Definition        The number of pupils achieving Level 5+ in both English and Maths at
                  KS3 as a percentage of the number of pupils at the end of KS3 with valid
                  National Curriculum test results in both English and Maths.
                  Key Stage (KS) 3 is the stage of the National Curriculum between ages
                  11 and 14 years. This indicator relates to tests taken by pupils at the end
                  of KS3. The school element relates to all maintained mainstream schools
                  including Academies.
                  Pupils’ attainment is assessed in relation to the National Curriculum and
                  pupils are awarded levels on the National Curriculum scale to reflect their
                  attainment.
Formula
                    x
                      * 100
                    y
                  Where:
                  x = number of pupils achieving level 5+ in both English and Maths at KS3.
                  y = number of pupils at the end of KS3 with valid test results in both English
                  and Maths.
Worked            If 4,500 pupils achieve        Good              Good performance is typified
example           Level 5+ in both English       performance       by percentages where the
                  and Maths at KS3, and                            proportion of pupils is above
                  6,000 pupils have valid                          the national average and
                  National Curriculum                              where there are no schools
                  test results in English                          achieving below 50% Level 5
                  and Maths, then the                              in English and maths.
                  proportion =

                    4,500
                          * 100 = 75.0%
                    6,000
62 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 74: Achievement at level 5 or above in both English and Maths at Key Stage 3 (continued)
 Collection                  Annual (academic year)                        Data Source                   Revised KS3 test results
 interval                                                                                                as amended by schools
                                                                                                         checking exercise for
                                                                                                         publication of Secondary (Key
                                                                                                         Stage 3) Achievement and
                                                                                                         Attainment Tables.
 Return                      Percentage                                    Decimal                       One (English and Maths
 Format                                                                    Places                        previously reported
                                                                                                         separately to whole number
                                                                                                         percentages).
 Reporting                   DCSF, based on data provided by schools
 organisation
 Spatial level               Single tier and county council
 Further                     Guidance for Local Authorities on setting Education Performance Targets –
 Guidance                    issued September 2007.
                             Information on the National Curriculum
                             http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/management/atoz/n/nationalcurriculum/
                                                                      Annex 2: Children and Young People 63




NI 75: Achievement of 5 or more A*- C grades at GCSE or equivalent including English and Maths
Is data provided by the LA or a            N     Is this an existing indicator?                     Y
local partner?
Rationale         It is widely accepted that good literacy and numeracy are key to
                  employability and further study, and that more needs to be done to improve
                  performance in these areas. The Government is therefore committed to
                  ensuring that more children master the basics by the end of the years of
                  compulsory schooling and has set a national threshold target for 2011 for
                  53% to achieve 5 A*-C GCSE grades and equivalent including GCSEs in
                  English and Maths by the end of Key Stage 4. As well as improving the
                  proportion of pupils achieving this standard, the Government also wants
                  to see no schools where less than 30% of pupils achieve 5 A*-C grades
                  including GCSE English and Maths by 2012 (floor target).
Definition        The number of pupils achieving 5 or more A*-C or equivalent including
                  English and Maths at KS4 as a percentage of the number of pupils at the
                  end of KS4.
                  This indicator relates to pupils achieving 5 or more A*-C grades or
                  equivalent including GCSE English and Maths taken at the end of KS4.
                  The school element relates to all maintained mainstream schools including
                  Academies.
                  Key Stage (KS) 4 is the stage of the National Curriculum between the ages
                  of 14 and 16 years.
                  GCSE (General Certificate of Secondary Education) is the principal means of
                  assessing pupil attainment at the end of compulsory secondary education.
                  Grades A* to G are classified as passes, grades A* to C as good passes and
                  grades U and X as fails.
Formula
                    x
                      * 100
                    y
                  Where:
                  x = number of pupils achieving 5 or more A*-C or equivalent including
                  English and Maths at KS4.
                  y = number of pupils at the end of KS4.
Worked            If 4,500 pupils achieve 5 or Good               Good performance is
example           more A*-C or equivalent      performance        typified by percentages
                  including English and                           where the proportion of
                  Maths at KS4 and 6,000                          pupils is above the national
                  pupils are at the end of                        average and where there
                  KS4, then the proportion =                      are no schools achieving
                                                                  below 30% 5 A*-C grades
                    4,500                                         including GCSE English and
                          * 100 = 75.0%
                    6,000                                         maths.
64 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 75: Achievement of 5 or more A*- C grades at GCSE or equivalent including English and Maths
 (continued)
 Collection                   Annual (academic year)                        Data Source                  Revised KS4 test results
 interval                                                                                                as amended by schools
                                                                                                         checking exercise for
                                                                                                         publication of Secondary
                                                                                                         Achievement and
                                                                                                         Attainment Tables.
 Return                       Percentage                                    Decimal Places               One
 Format
 Reporting                    DCSF based on data provided by schools
 organisation
 Spatial level                Single tier and county council
 Further                      Guidance for Local Authorities on setting Education Performance Targets –
 Guidance                     issued September 2007.
                              Information on the National Curriculum
                              http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/management/atoz/n/nationalcurriculum/
                                                                        Annex 2: Children and Young People 65




NI 76: Reduction in number of schools where fewer than 65% of pupils achieve level 4 or above in
both English and Maths at KS2
Is data provided by the LA or a            N      Is this an existing indicator?                      Y
local partner?
Rationale         It is widely accepted that good literacy and numeracy are key to
                  employability and further study, and that more needs to be done to
                  improve performance in these areas. The Government is therefore
                  re-enforcing its commitment to driving up standards and tackling
                  underachievement by ensuring that more children master the basics. To
                  support this goal the Government wants to see a continuing focus on
                  the number of low attaining primary schools (defined as those achieving
                  below 65% level 4+ In English and Maths) so that by 2011 there is a 50%
                  reduction in the number of such schools compared with 2007.
Definition        The number of schools in the local education authority where the number of
                  pupils achieving Level 4+ in both English and Maths at KS2 as a percentage
                  of the number of pupils at the end of KS2 with valid National Curriculum
                  test results in both English and Maths is less than 65%.
                  KS2 is the stage of the National Curriculum between ages 8 and 11 years.
                  This indicator relates to maintained mainstream schools with end of KS2
                  cohorts with more than 10 pupils where less than 65% are achieving Level 4
                  or above in both English and maths at the end of KS2.
                  Pupils’ attainment is assessed in relation to the National Curriculum and
                  pupils are awarded levels on the National Curriculum scale to reflect their
                  attainment.
Formula           For each school with end of KS2 cohorts with more than 10 pupils, to
                  calculate the level of attainment:
                    x
                      * 100
                    y
                  Where:
                  x = number of pupils in a school achieving Level 4+ in both English and
                  Maths at KS2.
                  y = number of pupils in a school at the end of KS2 with valid National
                  Curriculum test results in both English and Maths.
                  If this figure is less than 65%, the school is below the floor.
                  The indicator value is number of schools whose attainment is below the
                  floor target of 65%.
66 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 76: Reduction in number of schools where fewer than 65% of pupils achieve level 4 or above in
 both English and Maths at KS2 (continued)
 Worked                       For each school:                             Good                          Good performance is
 example                      If 20 pupils in a school                     performance                   typified by no schools
                              achieve level 4+ in both                                                   achieving below 65% Level
                              English and Maths at KS2,                                                  4 in both English and maths.
                              and 50 pupils in a school
                              are at the end of KS2 and
                              have a valid result in both
                              English and Maths, then
                              the proportion =
                              20
                                 * 100 = 40%
                              50
                              For the LEA:
                              If 3 schools had a result
                              below 65%, then an
                              indicator value of 3 would
                              be returned.
 Collection                   Annual (academic year)                       Data Source                   Revised KS2 test results
 interval                                                                                                as amended by schools
                                                                                                         checking exercise for
                                                                                                         publication of Primary
                                                                                                         School Achievement and
                                                                                                         Attainment Tables.
 Return                       Number                                       Decimal Places                None
 Format
 Reporting                    DCSF based on data provided by schools
 organisation
 Spatial level                Single tier and county council (the final indicator value relates to the LEA
                              level not the schools).
 Further                      Guidance for Local Authorities on setting Education Performance Targets –
 Guidance                     issued September 2007.
                              Information on the National Curriculum
                              http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/management/atoz/n/nationalcurriculum/
                                                                        Annex 2: Children and Young People 67




NI 77: Reduction in number of schools where fewer than 50% of pupils achieve level 5 or above in
both English and Maths at KS3
Is data provided by the LA or a            N      Is this an existing indicator?                     Y
local partner?
Rationale         It is widely accepted that good literacy and numeracy are key to
                  employability and further study, and that more needs to be done to
                  improve performance in these areas. The Government is therefore
                  re-enforcing its commitment to driving up standards and tackling
                  underachievement by ensuring that more children master the basics. To
                  support this goal the Government wants to see no schools with less than
                  50% of pupils achieving level 5 or above in English and Maths by 2011.
Definition        The number of schools in the local education authority where the number of
                  pupils achieving Level 5+ in both English and Maths at KS3 as a percentage
                  of the number of pupils at the end of KS3 with valid National Curriculum
                  test results in both English and Maths is less than 50%.
                  KS3 is the stage of the National Curriculum between ages 11 and 14 years.
                  This indicator relates to maintained mainstream schools including Academies
                  where less than 50% of pupils are achieving Level 5 or above in both
                  English and Maths at the end of KS3.
                  Pupils’ attainment is assessed in relation to the National Curriculum and
                  pupils are awarded levels on the National Curriculum scale to reflect their
                  attainment.
Formula
                    x
                      * 100
                    y
                  Where:
                  x = number of pupils in a school achieving Level 5+ in both English and
                  Maths at KS3
                  y = number of pupils in a school at the end of KS3 with valid National
                  Curriculum test results in both English and Maths.
                  If this figure is less than 50%, the school is below the floor.
                  The indicator value is number of schools whose attainment is below the
                  floor target of 50%.
68 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 77: Reduction in number of schools where fewer than 50% of pupils achieve level 5 or above in
 both English and Maths at KS3 (continued)
 Worked                       For each school:                             Good                          Good performance is
 example                      If 50 pupils in a school                     performance                   typified by no schools
                              achieve level 5+ in both                                                   achieving below 50% Level
                              English and Maths at KS3,                                                  5 in both English and Maths.
                              and 200 pupils in a school
                              are at the end of KS3 and
                              have a valid result in both
                              English and Maths, then
                              the proportion =
                              200
                                  * 100 = 25%
                               50
                              For the LEA:
                              If 3 schools had a result
                              below 50%, then an
                              indicator value of 3 would
                              be returned.
 Collection                   Annual (academic year)                       Data Source                   Revised KS3 test results
 interval                                                                                                as amended by schools
                                                                                                         checking exercise for
                                                                                                         publication of Secondary
                                                                                                         (Key Stage 3) Achievement
                                                                                                         and Attainment Tables.
 Return                       Number                                       Decimal Places                None
 Format
 Reporting                    DCSF based on data provided by schools
 organisation
 Spatial level                Single tier and county council (the final indicator value relates to the LEA
                              level not the schools).
 Further                      Guidance for Local Authorities on setting Education Performance Targets –
 Guidance                     issued September 2007.
                              Information on the National Curriculum
                              http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/management/atoz/n/nationalcurriculum/
                                                                     Annex 2: Children and Young People 69




NI 78: Reduction in number of schools where fewer than 30% of pupils achieve 5 or more A*- C
grades at GCSE and equivalent including GCSEs in English and Maths
Is data provided by the LA or a           N     Is this an existing indicator?                    Y
local partner?
Rationale        It is widely accepted that good literacy and numeracy are key to
                 employability and further study, and that more needs to be done to
                 improve performance in these areas. The Government is therefore
                 re-enforcing its commitment to driving up standards and tackling
                 underachievement by ensuring that more children master the basics and
                 reach the end of the year’s compulsory schooling with 5 A*-C GCSEs and
                 equivalent including English and Maths. The Government has pledged to
                 ensure that there are no schools where less than 30% of pupils achieve
                 5 A*-C grades including GCSE English and Maths by 2012.
Definition       The number of schools in the local education authority where the number of
                 pupils achieving 5 or more A*-C grades or equivalent including English and
                 Maths at KS4 as a percentage of the number of pupils at the end of KS4 is
                 less than 30%.
                 This indicator relates to maintained mainstream schools including Academies
                 where less than 30% of pupils are achieving 5 or more A*-C grades or
                 equivalent including GCSE English and Maths taken at the end of KS4.
                 Key Stage (KS) 4 is the stage of the National Curriculum between the ages
                 of 14 and 16 years.
                 GCSE (General Certificate of Secondary Education) is the principal means of
                 assessing pupil attainment at the end of compulsory secondary education.
                 Grades A* to G are classified as passes, grades A* to C as good passes and
                 grades U and X as fails.
Formula
                   x
                     * 100
                   y
                 Where:
                 x = number of pupils in a school achieving 5 or more A*-C grades or
                 equivalent including English and Maths at KS4.
                 y = number of pupils in a school at the end of KS4.
                 If this figure is less than 30%, the school is below the floor.
                 The indicator value is number of schools whose attainment is below the
                 floor target of 30%.
70 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 78: Reduction in number of schools where fewer than 30% of pupils achieve 5 or more A*- C
 grades at GCSE and equivalent including GCSEs in English and Maths (continued)
 Worked                      For each school:                              Good                          Good performance is typified
 example                     If 150 pupils in a school                     performance                   by no schools achieving
                             achieve 5 or more A*-C                                                      below 30% 5 A*-C grades
                             grades or equivalent                                                        including GCSE English and
                             including English and                                                       maths.
                             Maths at KS4 and 600
                             pupils in a school are at
                             the end of KS4, then the
                             proportion =
                             150
                                 * 100 = 25%
                             600
                             For the LEA:
                             If 3 schools had a result
                             below 30%, then an
                             indicator value of 3 would
                             be returned.
 Collection                  Annual (academic year)                        Data Source                   Revised KS4 test results
 interval                                                                                                as amended by schools
                                                                                                         checking exercise for
                                                                                                         publication of Secondary
                                                                                                         Achievement and Attainment
                                                                                                         Tables.
 Return                      Number                                        Decimal                       None
 Format                                                                    Places
 Reporting                   DCSF based on data provided by schools
 organisation
 Spatial level               Single tier and county council (the final indicator value relates to the LEA
                             level not the schools)
 Further                     Guidance for Local Authorities on setting Education Performance Targets –
 Guidance                    issued September 2007.
                             Information on the National Curriculum
                             http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/management/atoz/n/nationalcurriculum/
                                                                         Annex 2: Children and Young People 71




NI 79: Achievement of a Level 2 qualification by the age of 19
Is data provided by the LA or a              N      Is this an existing indicator?                     Y
local partner?
Rationale        This indicator reports the percentages of young people attaining Level 2 by age
                 19 in a Local Authority area. Achieving Level 2 by the age of 19 represents an
                 important platform for employability, further learning and adulthood.
Definition       Achievements in the following qualifications are counted at level 2+
                 •	   1	Advanced	Extension	Award	equals	5%
                 •	   1	free	standing	maths	qualification	at	level	3	equals	10%
                 •	   1	Key	Skills	pass	at	level	3	equals	20%
                 •	   1	short	GCSE	at	grade	A*	to	C	equals	10%
                 •	   1	full	GCSE	at	grade	A*	to	C	equals	20%
                 •	   1	Double	Award	GCSE	(including	VGCSEs)	at	grade	A*	to	C	equals	40%
                 •	   1	part	1	intermediate	GNVQ	equals	40%	
                 •	   1	full	intermediate	GNVQ	equals	80%
                 •	   1	AS	level,	(including	VCE	–	Vocational	Certificicate	of	Education)	at	grade	
                      A to E equals 50%
                 •	   1	A/A2	level	(including	VCE)	at	grade	A	to	E	equals	100%	
                 •	   1	Advanced	GNVQ	pass	equals	100%
                 •	   1	Advanced	Pilot	6	unit	GNVQ	equals	100%
                 •	   1	NVQ	pass	at	level	2	or	higher	equals	100%
                 •	   1	‘full’	VRQ*	(Vocationally	Related	Qualification)	pass	at	level	2	or	higher	
                      equals 100%
                 •	   1	International	Baccalaureate	pass	equals	100%
                 •	   1	Apprenticeship	equals	100%
                 * A full Level 2 VRQ is counted as any with 325 or more guided learning
                 hours. For lists of qualifications that count as VRQs and their guided learning
                 hours see the National Database of Accredited Qualifications website:
                 http://www.accreditedqualifications.org.uk/
                 Combinations of qualifications at different levels are allowed where their parts
                 add up to at least 100 percent for that level. For example a candidate with
                 3 full GCSEs at grades A* to C (20% each) and 1 AS level (50%) would be
                 deemed to have attained a level 2 (60% + 50% = 110%).
                 GCSEs and GNVQs are subject to discounting, as are AS and A/A2 levels.
                 Discounting is counting only the higher level qualification where the same
                 qualification in the the same subject is achieved more than once at different
                 levels. For example, say a learner gains 1 short GCSE (10%) in Biology in 2000
                 and 1 full GCSE (20%) in Biology in 2001. Correct discounting means the
                 person has 10% of a full level 2 in 2000 and then 20% in 2001 as the short
                 GCSE is replaced by the full one.
                 Further information on definitions, background, methodology and qualifications
                 counted towards this indicator can be found in the technical notes to the
                 annual Statistical First Release (SFR) on Level 2 and 3 attainment by young
                 people (link to February 2007 SFR: http://www.dfes.gov.uk/rsgateway/DB/
                 SFR/s000710/index.shtml). Note though that the formula for National figures
                 described in the SFR is different to the local formula, described below.
72 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 79: Achievement of a Level 2 qualification by the age of 19 (continued)
 Formula
                              x
                                * 100
                              y
                           The Calculation is performed at Local Authority level, where:
                           x = The number of young people that were studying in the local authority at
                           academic age 15, that have passed the level 2 threshold (i.e.achieved 100%
                           of a Level two by the definitions above) by the end of the academic year in
                           which they turn 19.
                           y = The size of the cohort at academic age 14 studying in that Local Authority,
                           taken from the January termly School Census count for the relevant year
                           (includes all individuals in maintained, independent and special schools, but
                           excludes home schooled).
                           Note
                           •	 Achievements	in	all	institutions	count	towards	the	numerator	(including	
                              all maintained schools, special schools, independent schools, sixth form
                              colleges, further education institutions and work based learning), but only
                              for individuals who were studying in maintained schools at academic age 15.
                           •	 Academic	age	is	the	age	of	the	individual	at	the	start	of	the	academic	year,	
                              i.e. the 31st August preceeding the academic year.
                           •	 The	population	at	academic	age	14	is	therefore	the	population	in	the	
                              penultimate year of compulsory education, year 10. It is used as the
                              denominator on recommendation from a National Statistics Quality Review
                              on the measurement of attainment of young people (link: http://www.
                              statistics.gov.uk/methods_quality/quality_review/education.asp). Academic
                              age 14, rather than 15 was chosen to allow for those leaving the education
                              system early.
                           •	 The	Local	Authority	that	an	individual	is	studying	in	at	academic	age	15	is	
                              used in the numerator as this is the final year of compulsory education and
                              so it is the most recent year that Local Authority information is collected on
                              the School Census for the majority of individuals.
                           •	 Individuals	who	move	between	Local	Authorities	after	academic	age	15	
                              will have their achievments counted in the Local Authority in which they
                              studied at age 15.
                           •	 The	table	below	shows	for	the	most	recently	reported	and	upcoming	
                              cohorts of young people the academic years that they will be at each age
                              used in the calculation:

                                                 Academic Age:
                                                              14                  15                     16       17       18*
                             19 in 2006              2001/02             2002/03             2003/04          2004/05   2005/06
                             19 in 2007              2002/03             2003/04             2004/05          2005/06   2006/07
                             19 in 2008              2003/04             2004/05             2005/06          2006/07   2007/08
                           * At the end of this year attainment is reported since everyone in the cohort will
                             be aged 19.
                                                                         Annex 2: Children and Young People 73




NI 79: Achievement of a Level 2 qualification by the age of 19 (continued)
Formula          •	 National	figures	are	published	in	the	Statistical	First	Release	(SFR)	on	
(continued)         Level 2 and 3 attainment by young people (link to February 2007 SFR:
                    http://www.dfes.gov.uk/rsgateway/DB/SFR/s000710/index.shtml). The
                    calculation for the local figures differs from the national figures because
                    the local figures only include achievements by those individuals who were
                    studying in maintained schools at academic age 15, whereas the national
                    figures include all achievements. For this reason, for the cohort aged 19 in
                    2005/06 there were about 20,000 level 2 achievements that could not be
                    attributed	to	individual	local	authorities;	The	Local	Authority	figures	were	
                    on average approximately 3% points lower than the national figures.
Worked           Suppose there         Good                 Higher percentages show better
example          are 2,000 young       performance          performance.
                 people in a cohort
                 in a Local Authority
                 at academic age
                 14. Now suppose
                 that 474 young
                 people who were
                 studying in that
                 Local Authority at
                 age 15 pass the level
                 2 threshold by the
                 end of the academic
                 year in which they
                 turn 19. Then the
                 percentage of
                 individuals who have
                 achieved a Level 2
                 by the age of 19 in
                 the Local Authority
                 is: = (474/2000)*100
                 = 23.7%
74 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 79: Achievement of a Level 2 qualification by the age of 19 (continued)
 Collection                Annual. Data                         Data Source                Matched Administrative Data used for
 interval                  sources that make                                               the Statistical First Release (SFR) on
                           up the matched                                                  Level 2 and 3 attainment by young
                           data are available                                              people (link to February 2007 SFR:
                           at different times                                              http://www.dfes.gov.uk/rsgateway/
                           throughout the                                                  DB/SFR/s000710/index.shtml), will
                           year. They are                                                  be provided by DCSF. Neither Local
                           matched together in                                             Authorities or schools will have to
                           December/January                                                provide or match data.
                           following the end
                           of the academic                                                 This data source matches data from:
                           year and are                                                    •	 Pupil	level	termly	School	Census	
                           available following                                             •	 National	Pupil	database.
                           publishing of the                                               •	 NISVQ	database.
                           DCSF Statistical                                                •	 ILR	Database.
                           First Release (SFR)
                           on Level 2 and 3                                                Note
                           attainment by young                                             •	 This	is	the	same	data	source	as	
                           people in February                                                 used in the 14-19 Progress Checks
                           (link to February
                           2007 SFR: http://
                           www.dfes.gov.uk/
                           rsgateway/DB/SFR/
                           s000710/index.
                           shtml).
 Return                    Percentage                           Decimal                    One
 Format                                                         Places
 Reporting                 DCSF
 organisation
 Spatial level             Single tier and county council
 Further
 Guidance
                                                                         Annex 2: Children and Young People 75




NI 80: Achievement of a Level 3 qualification by the age of 19
Is data provided by the LA or a              N      Is this an existing indicator?                     Y
local partner?
Rationale        This indicator reports the percentages of young people attaining Level 3 by
                 age 19 in a Local Authority Area. Achieving Level 3 by the age of 19 increases
                 the skills levels of the economy and allows participation into Higher Education
                 and higher skilled employment.
Definition       Achievements in the following qualifications are counted at level 3:
                 •	   1	Advanced	Extension	Award	equals	5%
                 •	   1	Free	Standing	Maths	Qualification	at	level	3	equals	10%
                 •	   1	Key	Skills	pass	at	level	3	equals	15%
                 •	   1	AS	level	(including	VCE	–	Vocational	Certificicate	of	Education)	at	grade	A	
                      to E equals 25%
                 •	   1	A/A2	level	(including	VCE)	at	grade	A	to	E	equals	50%
                 •	   1	Advanced	Pilot	6	unit	GNVQ	equals	100%
                 •	   1	Advanced	GNVQ	pass	equals	100%
                 •	   1	NVQ	pass	at	level	3	or	higher	equals	100%
                 •	   1	‘full’	VRQ*	(Vocationally	Related	Qualification)	pass	at	level	3	or	higher	
                      equals 100%
                 •	   1	International	Baccalaureate	pass	equals	100%
                 •	   1	Advanced	Apprenticeship	equals	100%
                 * A full Level 3 VRQ is counted as any with 600 or more guided learning
                 hours. For lists of qualifications that count as VRQs and their guided learning
                 hours see the National Database of Accredited Qualifications website:
                 http://www.accreditedqualifications.org.uk/
                 Combinations of qualifications at different levels are allowed where their parts
                 add up to at least 100 percent for that level. For example a candidate with
                 2 full As levels at grades A to E (25% each) and 1 A2 level at grades A to E
                 (50%) would be deemed to have attained a level 3 (25% +25% + 50% =
                 100%).
                 AS and A/A2 levels are subject to discounting. Discounting is counting only
                 the higher level qualification where the same qualification in the the same
                 subject is achieved more than once at different levels. For example, say a
                 learner gains an AS (25%) in Biology in 2000 and an A level (50%) in Biology
                 in 2001. Correct discounting means the person has 25% of a full level 3 in
                 2000 and then 50% in 2001 as the AS is replaced by the A level.
                 Further information on definitions, background, methodology and
                 qulaifications counted towards this indicator can be found in the technical
                 notes to the annual Statistical First Release (SFR) on Level 2 and 3 attainment
                 by young people (link to February 2007 SFR: http://www.dfes.gov.uk/
                 rsgateway/DB/SFR/s000710/index.shtml). Note though that the formula
                 for National figures described in the SFR is different to the local formula,
                 described below.
76 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 80: Achievement of a Level 3 qualification by the age of 19 (continued)
 Formula
                              x
                                * 100
                              y
                           The Calculation is performed at Local Authority level, where:
                           x = The number of young people that were studying in the local authority at
                           academic age 15, that have passed the level 3 threshold (i.e.achieved 100%
                           of a Level three by the definitions above) by the end of the academic year in
                           which they turn 19.
                           y = The size of the cohort at academic age 14 studying in that Local Authority,
                           taken from the January termly School Census count for the relevant year
                           (includes all individuals in maintained, independent and special schools, but
                           excludes home schooled).
                           Note
                           •	 Achievements	in	all	institutions	count	towards	the	numerator	(including	
                              all maintained schools, special schools, independent schools, sixth form
                              colleges, further education institutions and work based learning), but only
                              for individuals who were studying in maintained schools at academic age 15.
                           •	 Academic	age	is	the	age	of	the	individual	at	the	start	of	the	academic	year,	
                              i.e. the 31st August preceeding the academic year.
                           •	 The	population	at	academic	age	14	is	therefore	the	population	in	the	
                              penultimate year of compulsory education, year 10. It is used as the
                              denominator on recommendation from a National Statistics Quality Review
                              on the measurement of attainment of young people (link: http://www.
                              statistics.gov.uk/methods_quality/quality_review/education.asp). Academic
                              age 14, rather than 15 was chosen to allow for those leaving the education
                              system early.
                           •	 The	Local	Authority	that	an	individual	is	studying	in	at	academic	age	15	is	
                              used in the numerator as this is the final year of compulsory education and
                              so it is the most recent year that Local Authority information is collected on
                              the School Census for the majority of individuals.
                           •	 Individuals	who	move	between	Local	Authorities	after	academic	age	15	will	
                              have their achievments counted in the Local Authority in which they studied
                              at age 15.
                           •	 The	table	below	shows	for	the	most	recently	reported	and	upcoming	cohorts	
                              of young people the academic years that they will be at each age used in the
                              calculation:

                                                 Academic Age:
                                                             14                  15                  16       17       18*
                             19 in 2006             2001/02             2002/03             2003/04       2004/05   2005/06
                             19 in 2007             2002/03             2003/04             2004/05       2005/06   2006/07
                             19 in 2008             2003/04             2004/05             2005/06       2006/07   2007/08
                           * At the end of this year attainment is reported since everyone in the cohort will
                             be aged 19.
                                                                         Annex 2: Children and Young People 77




NI 80: Achievement of a Level 3 qualification by the age of 19 (continued)
Formula          •	 National	figures	are	published	in	the	Statistical	First	Release	(SFR)	on	
(continued)         Level 2 and 3 attainment by young people (link to February 2007 SFR:
                    http://www.dfes.gov.uk/rsgateway/DB/SFR/s000710/index.shtml). The
                    calculation for the local figures differs from the national figures because
                    the local figures only include achievements by those individuals who were
                    studying in maintained schools at academic age 15, whereas the national
                    figures include all achievements. For this reason, for the cohort aged 19 in
                    2005/06 there were about 12,000 level 3 achievements that could not be
                    attributed	to	individual	local	authorities;	The	Local	Authority	figures	were	
                    on average approximately 2% points lower than the national figures.
Worked           Suppose there         Good                 Higher percentages show better
example          are 1,000 young       performance          performance.
                 people in a cohort
                 in a Local Authority
                 at academic age
                 14. Now suppose
                 that 383 young
                 people who were
                 studying in that
                 Local Authority at
                 age 15 pass the level
                 3 threshold by the
                 end of the academic
                 year in which they
                 turn 19. Then the
                 percentage of
                 individuals who have
                 achieved a Level 3 by
                 the age of 19 in the
                 Local Authority is:
                 = (383/1000)*100 =
                 38.3%
78 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 80: Achievement of a Level 3 qualification by the age of 19 (continued)
 Collection                Annual. Data                         Data Source                Matched Administrative Data used
 interval                  sources that make                                               for the Statistical First Release
                           up the matched                                                  (SFR) on Level 2 and 3 attainment
                           data are available                                              by young people (link to February
                           at different times                                              2007 SFR: http://www.dfes.gov.uk/
                           throughout the                                                  rsgateway/DB/SFR/s000710/index.
                           year. They are                                                  shtml), will be provided by DCSF.
                           matched together in                                             Neither Local Authorities or schools
                           December/January                                                will have to provide or match data.
                           following the end
                           of the academic                                                 This data source matches data from:
                           year and are                                                    •	 Pupil	level	termly	School	Census	
                           available following                                             •	 National	Pupil	database.
                           publishing of the                                               •	 NISVQ	database.
                           DCSF Statistical                                                •	 ILR	Database.
                           First Release (SFR)
                           on Level 2 and 3                                                Note
                           attainment by young                                             •	 This	is	the	same	data	source	as	
                           people in February                                                 used in the 14-19 Progress Checks
                           (link to February
                           2007 SFR: http://
                           www.dfes.gov.uk/
                           rsgateway/DB/SFR/
                           s000710/index.
                           shtml).
 Return                    Percentage                           Decimal                    One
 Format                                                         Places
 Reporting                 DCSF
 organisation
 Spatial level             Single tier and county council
 Further
 Guidance
                                                                          Annex 2: Children and Young People 79




NI 81: Inequality gap in the achievement of a Level 3 qualification by the age of 19
Is the data provided by the LA or            N      Is this an existing indicator?                     N
a local partner?
Rationale          This indicator reports the gap in attainment of level 3 at age 19 in each
                   Local Authority between those young people who were in receipt of free
                   school meals at academic age 15 and those who were not. At the moment
                   significantly fewer young people in receipt of free school meals at the age of
                   15 achieve L3 qualifications by the age of 19 than their peers who were not
                   in receipt of free school meals at age 15.
Definition         Inequality gap is measured using those eligible for and claiming free school
                   meals at academic age 15 as a proxy. The indicator will be set as a target
                   to close the gap in level 3 achievement between those claiming free school
                   meals and those that are not at academic age 15.
                   Achievements in the following qualifications are counted at level 3:
                   •	 1	Advanced	Extension	Award	equals	5%
                   •	 1	Free	Standing	Maths	Qualification	at	level	3	equals	10%
                   •	 1	Key	Skills	pass	at	level	3	equals	15%
                   •	 1	AS	level	(including	VCE	–	Vocational	Certificicate	of	Education)	at	grade	
                       A to E equals 25%
                   •	 1	A/A2	level	(including	VCE)	at	grade	A	to	E	equals	50%
                   •	 1	Advanced	Pilot	6	unit	GNVQ	equals	100%
                   •	 1	Advanced	GNVQ	pass	equals	100%
                   •	 1	NVQ	pass	at	level	3	or	higher	equals	100%
                   •	 1	‘full’	VRQ*	(Vocationally	Related	Qualification)	pass	at	level	3	or	higher	
                       equals 100%
                   •	 1	International	Baccalaureate	pass	equals	100%
                   •	 1	Advanced	Apprenticeship	equals	100%
                   * A full Level 3 VRQ is counted as any with 600 or more guided learning
                   hours. For lists of qualifications that count as VRQs and their guided learning
                   hours see the National Database of Accredited Qualifications website:
                   http://www.accreditedqualifications.org.uk/
                   Combinations of qualifications at different levels are allowed where their parts
                   add up to at least 100 percent for that level. For example a candidate with 2
                   full As levels at grades A to E (25% each) and 1 A2 level at grades A to E (50%)
                   would be deemed to have attained a level 3 (25% +25% + 50% = 100%).
                   AS and A/A2 levels are subject to discounting. Discounting is counting
                   only the higher level qualification where the same qualification in the the
                   same subject is achieved more than once at different levels. For example,
                   say a learner gains an AS (25%) in Biology in 2000 and an A level (50%) in
                   Biology in 2001. Correct discounting means the person has 25% of a full
                   level 3 in 2000 and then 50% in 2001 as the AS is replaced by the A level.
                   Further information on definitions, background, methodology and
                   qulaifications counted towards this indicator can be found in the technical
                   notes to the annual Statistical First Release (SFR) on Level 2 and 3 attainment
                   by young people (link to February 2007 SFR:
                   http://www.dfes.gov.uk/rsgateway/DB/SFR/s000710/index.shtml).
                   Note though that the formula for National figures described in the SFR is
                   different to the local free school meals formula, described below.
80 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 81: Inequality gap in the achievement of a Level 3 qualification by the age of 19 (continued)


                               (            )
 Formula
                                   X–W–         *100
                                   Y    Z
                             The Calculation is performed at Local Authority level, where:
                             X = The number of young people that were studying in the local authority
                             at academic age 15 and in receipt of free school meals, that have passed
                             the level 3 threshold (i.e.achieved 100% of a Level three by the definitions
                             above) by the end of the academic year in which they turn 19.
                             Y = The number of individuals identified as being in receipt of free school
                             meals at academic age 15 studying in that Local Authority, taken from the
                             January termly School Census count for the relevant year (includes only
                             individuals in maintained schools).
                             W = The number of young people that were studying in the local authority
                             at academic age 15 and identified as not in receipt of free school meals, that
                             have passed the level 3 threshold (i.e.achieved 100% of a Level three by the
                             definitions above) by the end of the academic year in which they turn 19.
                             Z = The number of individuals identified as not in receipt of free school
                             meals at academic age 15 studying in that Local Authority, taken from the
                             January termly School Census count for the relevant year (includes only
                             individuals in maintained schools).
                             Note
                             •	 Achievements	in	all	institutions	count	towards	the	numerators	x	and	w	
                                (including all maintained schools, special schools, independent schools,
                                sixth form colleges, further education institutions and work based learning),
                                but only for individuals identified as being in/not in receipt of free school
                                meals at academic age 15, i.e. only for those in maintained schools.
                             •	 Academic	age	is	the	age	of	the	individual	at	the	start	of	the	academic	
                                year, i.e. the 31st August preceeding the academic year.
                             •	 Academic	age	15	is	therefore	the	final	year	of	compulsory	education,	year	
                                11, and is used because it is the most recent year that Local Authority and
                                free school meals information is collected on the school Census for the
                                majority of individuals.
                             •	 Individuals	who	move	between	Local	Authorities	after	academic	age	15	
                                will have their achievments counted in the Local Authority in which they
                                studied at age 15.
                                                                           Annex 2: Children and Young People 81




NI 81: Inequality gap in the achievement of a Level 3 qualification by the age of 19 (continued)
Formula            •	 The	table	below	shows	for	the	most	recently	reported	and	upcoming	
(continued)           cohorts of young people the academic years that they will be at each age
                      used in the calculation:

                                  Academic Age:
                                            14          15            16              17              18*
                    19 in 2006      2001/02       2002/03      2003/04        2004/05           2005/06
                    19 in 2007      2002/03       2003/04      2004/05        2005/06           2006/07
                    19 in 2008      2003/04       2004/05      2005/06        2006/07           2007/08
                   * At the end of this year attainment is reported since everyone in the cohort
                      will be aged 19.
                   •	 National	figures	are	published	in	the	Statistical	First	Release	(SFR)	on	
                      Level 2 and 3 attainment by young people (link to February 2007
                      SFR: http://www.dfes.gov.uk/rsgateway/DB/SFR/s000710/index.shtml).
                      The calculation for the local free school meals figures differs from the
                      national figures because the local figures only include achievements by
                      those individuals in maintained schools at academic age 15 whereas
                      the national figures include all achievements, and the denominators are
                      different.
Worked             Suppose that from a         Good                    Lower values mean better
example            cohort of 3,000 young       performance             performance because
                   people in a Local Authority                         this indicator shows the
                   at academic age 15, 1,000                           inequality gap in the
                   are claiming free school                            achievement of level 3
                   meals and 2,000 are not.                            qualifications at age 19
                   Now suppose that 500                                between young people who
                   of those on free school                             were/were not in receipt
                   meals and 1,200 of those                            of free school meals at
                   not on free school meals                            academic age 15.
                   have passed the level 3
                   threshold by the end of
                   the academic year in which
                   they turn 19. Then for this
                   Local Authority the gap in
                   attainment of level 3 at 19
                   between the individuals
                   claiming free school meals
                   and their peers who were
                   not is:

                    =   (
                       1200 – 500
                             –
                       2000    1000   )   *100


                      10.0% pts
                   ==10.0% pts
82 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 81: Inequality gap in the achievement of a Level 3 qualification by the age of 19 (continued)
 Collection                  Annual. Data sources that                     Data Source                   Matched Administrative
 interval                    make up the matched data                                                    Data used for the Statistical
                             are available at different                                                  First Release (SFR) on
                             times throughout the                                                        Level 2 and 3 attainment
                             year. They are matched                                                      by young people (link
                             together in December/                                                       to February 2007 SFR:
                             January following the end                                                   http://www.dfes.gov.uk/
                             of the academic year and                                                    rsgateway/DB/SFR/s000710/
                             are available following                                                     index.shtml), will be
                             publishing of the DCSF                                                      provided by DCSF. Neither
                             Statistical First Release                                                   Local Authorities or schools
                             (SFR) on Level 2 and 3                                                      will have to provide or
                             attainment by young                                                         match data.
                             people in February (link
                             to February 2007 SFR:                                                       This data source matches
                             http://www.dfes.gov.                                                        data from:
                             uk/rsgateway/DB/SFR/                                                        •	 Pupil	level	termly	School	
                             s000710/index.shtml).                                                          Census
                                                                                                         •	 National	Pupil	database.
                                                                                                         •	 NISVQ	database.
                                                                                                         •	 ILR	Database.

                                                                                                         Note
                                                                                                         •	 This	is	the	same	data	
                                                                                                            source as used in the
                                                                                                            14-19 Progress Checks
 Return                      Percentage points                             Decimal Places                One
 Format
 Reporting                   DCSF
 organisation
 Spatial level               Single tier and county council
 Further
 Guidance
                                                                          Annex 2: Children and Young People 83




NI 82: Inequality gap in the achievement of a Level 2 qualification by the age of 19
Is data provided by the LA or a              N      Is this an existing indicator?                      N
local partner?
Rationale          This indicator reports the percentages of young people who were in receipt
                   of free school meals at academic age 15 who attain level 2 qualifications by
                   the age of 19. At the moment significantly fewer young people in receipt of
                   free school meals at the academic age of 15 achieve L2 qualifications by the
                   age of 19 than their peers who were not in receipt of free school meals at
                   academic age 15.
Definition         Inequality gap is measured using those eligible for and claiming free school
                   meals at academic age 15 as a proxy. The indicator will be set as a threshold
                   target for level 2 achievement in the free school meals group.
                   Achievements in the following qualifications are counted at level 2+:
                   •	 1	Advanced	Extension	Award	equals	5%
                   •	 1	free	standing	maths	qualification	at	level	3	equals	10%
                   •	 1	Key	Skills	pass	at	level	3	equals	20%
                   •	 1	short	GCSE	at	grade	A*	to	C	equals	10%
                   •	 1	full	GCSE	at	grade	A*	to	C	equals	20%
                   •	 1	Double	Award	GCSE	(including	VGCSEs)	at	grade	A*	to	C	equals	40%
                   •	 1	part	1	intermediate	GNVQ	equals	40%	
                   •	 1	full	intermediate	GNVQ	equals	80%
                   •	 1	AS	level	(including	VCE	–	Vocational	Certificicate	of	Education)	at	grade	
                      A to E equals 50%
                   •	 1	A/A2	level	(including	VCE)	at	grade	A	to	E	equals	100%	
                   •	 1	Advanced	GNVQ	pass	equals	100%
                   •	 1	Advanced	Pilot	6	unit	GNVQ	equals	100%
                   •	 1	NVQ	pass	at	level	2	or	higher	equals	100%
                   •	 1	‘full’	VRQ*	(Vocationally	Related	Qualification)	pass	at	level	2	or	higher	
                      equals 100%
                   > 1 International Baccalaureate pass equals 100%
                   > 1 Apprenticeship equals 100%
                   * A full Level 2 VRQ is counted as any with 325 or more guided learning
                   hours. For lists of qualifications that count as VRQs and their guided learning
                   hours see the National Database of Accredited Qualifications website:
                   http://www.accreditedqualifications.org.uk/
                   Combinations of qualifications at different levels are allowed where their
                   parts add up to 100 percent for that level. For example a candidate with 3
                   full GCSEs at grades A* to C (20% each) and 1 AS level (50%) would be
                   deemed to have attained a level 2 (60% + 50% = 110%).
                   GCSEs and GNVQs are subject to discounting, as are AS and A/A2 levels.
                   Discounting is counting only the higher level qualification where the same
                   qualification in the the same subject is achieved more than once at different
                   levels. For example, say a learner gains 1 short GCSE (10%) in Biology in
                   2000 and 1 full GCSE (20%) in Biology in 2001. Correct discounting means
                   the person has 10% of a full level 2 in 2000 and then 20% in 2001 as the
                   short GCSE is replaced by the full one.
84 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 82: Inequality gap in the achievement of a Level 2 qualification by the age of 19 (continued)
 Definition                   Further information on definitions, background, methodology and
 (continued)                  qualifications counted towards this indicator can be found in the technical
                              notes to the annual Statistical First Release (SFR) on Level 2 and 3 attainment
                              by young people (link to February 2007 SFR: http://www.dfes.gov.uk/
                              rsgateway/DB/SFR/s000710/index.shtml). Note though that the formula
                              for National figures described in the SFR is different to the local formula,
                              described below.
 Formula
                                 x
                                   * 100
                                 y

                              The Calculation is performed at Local Authority level, where:
                              X = The number of young people that were studying in the local authority at
                              academic age 15 and identified as being in receipt of free school meals, that
                              have passed the level 2 threshold (i.e.achieved 100% of a Level two by the
                              definitions above) by the end of the academic year in which they turn 19.
                              Y = The number of individuals identified as being in receipt of free school
                              meals at academic age 15 studying in that Local Authority, taken from the
                              January termly School Census count for the relevant year (includes only
                              individuals in maintained schools).
                              Note
                              •	 Achievements	in	all	institutions	count	towards	the	numerator	(including	
                                 all maintained schools, special schools, independent schools, sixth form
                                 colleges, further education institutions and work based learning), but
                                 only for individuals identified as being in receipt of free school meals at
                                 academic age 15.
                              •	 Academic	age	is	the	age	of	the	individual	at	the	start	of	the	academic	
                                 year, i.e. the 31st August preceeding the academic year.
                              •	 Academic	age	15	is	therefore	the	final	year	of	compulsory	education,	year	
                                 11, and is used because it is the most recent year that Local Authority
                                 and free school meals information is collected on the school Census for
                                 the majority of individuals.
                              •	 Individuals	who	move	between	Local	Authorities	after	academic	age	15	
                                 will have their achievements counted in the Local Authority in which they
                                 studied at age 15.
                              •	 The	table	below	shows	for	the	most	recently	reported	and	upcoming	
                                 cohorts of young people the academic years that they will be at each age
                                 used in the calculation:
                                                                            Annex 2: Children and Young People 85




NI 82: Inequality gap in the achievement of a Level 2 qualification by the age of 19 (continued)
Formula                           Academic Age:
(continued)
                                           14            15            16               17              18*
                    19 in 2006      2001/02        2002/03      2003/04         2004/05           2005/06
                    19 in 2007      2002/03        2003/04      2004/05         2005/06           2006/07
                    19 in 2008      2003/04        2004/05      2005/06         2006/07           2007/08
                   * At the end of this year attainment is reported since everyone in the cohort will
                     be aged 19.
                   •	 National figures are published in the Statistical First Release (SFR) on
                      Level 2 and 3 attainment by young people (link to February 2007 SFR:
                      http://www.dfes.gov.uk/rsgateway/DB/SFR/s000710/index.shtml). The
                      calculation for the local free school meals figures differs from the national
                      figures because the local figures only include achievements by those
                      individuals in maintained schools, receiving free school meals at academic
                      age 15 whereas the national figures include all achievements and use
                      different denominators.
Worked             Suppose there are            Good            Higher percentages show better
example            1,000 young people           performance     performance because this indicator
                   claiming free school                         shows the achievement of level 2
                   meals in a cohort in                         qualifications at age 19 by young
                   a Local Authority at                         people who were in receipt of free
                   academic age 15.                             school meals at age 15.
                   Now suppose that
                   383 of these young
                   people have passed
                   the level 2 threshold
                   by the end of the
                   academic year in
                   which they turn 19.
                   Then the percentage
                   of individuals,
                   claiming free school
                   meals, who have
                   achieved a Level 2 by
                   the age of 19 in this
                   Local Authority is:
                   = (383/1000)*100
                   = 38.3%
86 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 82: Inequality gap in the achievement of a Level 2 qualification by the age of 19 (continued)
 Collection                   Annual. Data sources    Data Source                              Matched Administrative Data used
 interval                     that make up the                                                 for the Statistical First Release
                              matched data are                                                 (SFR) on Level 2 and 3 attainment
                              available at different                                           by young people (link to February
                              times throughout                                                 2007 SFR: http://www.dfes.gov.
                              the year. They are                                               uk/rsgateway/DB/SFR/s000710/
                              matched together in                                              index.shtml), will be provided by
                              December/January                                                 DCSF. Neither Local Authorities
                              following the end of                                             or schools will have to provide or
                              the academic year and                                            match data.
                              are available following
                              publishing of the                                                This data source matches data
                              DCSF Statistical First                                           from:
                              Release (SFR) on Level                                           •	 Pupil	level	termly	School	Census	
                              2 and 3 attainment                                               •	 National	Pupil	database.
                              by young people                                                  •	 NISVQ	database.
                              in February (link to                                             •	 ILR	Database.
                              February 2007 SFR:
                              http://www.dfes.gov.                                             Note
                              uk/rsgateway/DB/SFR/                                             •	 This	is	the	same	data	source	
                              s000710/index.shtml).                                               as used in the 14-19 Progress
                                                                                                  Checks
 Return                       Percentage.                           Decimal                    One
 Format                                                             Places
 Reporting                    DCSF
 organisation
 Spatial level                Single tier and county council
 Further
 Guidance
                                                                      Annex 2: Children and Young People 87




NI 83: Achievement at Level 5 or above in Science at Key Stage 3
Is the data provided by the LA or            N    Is this an existing indicator?                   Y
a local partner?
Rationale         To improve the proportion of young people achieving at least level 5 in
                  science at the end of Key Stage (KS) 3.
                  The Government’s target is to raise standards in science in secondary
                  education so that more young people achieve level 5 at the end of KS3. The
                  underlying aim is to maximise the number of young people who achieve
                  A*-C in two science GCSEs and to encourage more young people to study
                  science post-16.
Definition        The number of pupils achieving level 5+ in Science at KS3 as a percentage
                  of the number of pupils with a valid National Curriculum test result in KS3
                  Science.
                  KS3 is the stage of the National Curriculum between ages 11 and 14 years.
                  This indicator relates to the tests taken by 14 year olds at the end of KS3.
                  Pupils’ attainment is assessed in relation to the National Curriculum and
                  pupils are awarded levels on the National Curriculum scale to reflect their
                  attainment.
                  The coverage of this indicator is maintained mainstream schools including
                  Academies.
Formula
                    x
                      * 100
                    y
                  Where:
                  x = number of pupils achieving level 5+ in Science at KS3.
                  y = number of pupils with a valid National Curriculum test result in KS3
                  science.
Worked            If 4,500 pupils achieve         Good             Good performance
example           level 5+ in Science at KS3,     performance      is typified by higher
                  and 6,000 pupils have a                          percentages.
                  valid test result in Science,
                  then the proportion =
                    4,500
                          * 100 = 75.0%
                    6,000


Collection        Annual (Academic year)          Data Source      Provisional KS3 test results
interval                                                           as amended by schools
                                                                   checking exercise for
                                                                   publication of Secondary
                                                                   Achievement and
                                                                   Attainment Tables.
88 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 83: Achievement at Level 5 or above in Science at Key Stage 3
 Return                      Percentage                                    Decimal Places                One
 Format
 Reporting                   DCSF based on data reported by schools
 organisation
 Spatial level               Single tier and county council
 Further                     Guidance for Local Authorities on setting Education Performance Targets –
 Guidance                    issued August 2007.
                             Information on the National Curriculum
                             http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/management/atoz/n/nationalcurriculum/
                                                                         Annex 2: Children and Young People 89




NI 84: Achievement of 2 or more A*- C grades in Science GCSEs or equivalent
Is the data provided by the LA or           N     Is this an existing indicator?                       N
a local partner?
Rationale         To improve the proportion of young people gaining two or more science
                  GCSEs at grades A*-C.
                  The Government’s target is to improve continually the number of pupils
                  achieving A*-B and A*-C grades in two science GCSEs. From 2007 the
                  Government will be publishing the percentage of pupils who gain two or
                  more science GCSEs at grades A*-C in a new indicator in the achievement
                  and attainment tables. The underlying aim is to maximise the number of
                  young people who are able to go on to study science at A level and beyond.
Definition        The number of pupils in a school at the end of KS4 who have achieved 2 or
                  more science GCSEs graded A*-C as a percentage of the number of pupils
                  in a school at the end of KS4.
                  The ‘new indicator in the achievement and attainment tables’ will count
                  pupils who have achieved grades A*-C in:
                  •	 GCSE	Science	(‘core’)	and	GCSE	Additional	Science;	or
                  •	 GCSE	Science	(‘core’)	and	GCSE	Additional	Applied	Science;
                  or
                  •	 GCSE	Applied	Science	Double	Award;	or
                  •	 GCSE	Science	and	GCSE	Environmental	and	Land-based	Science
                  •	 Pupils	who	have	taken	GCSEs	in	all	three	of	Physics,	Chemistry	and	Biology	will	
                     be counted, but need only have attained grades A*-C in at least two of the
                     disciplines.
                  •	 In	order	to	recognise	acceleration,	any	GCE	AS	levels	taken	early	will	also	be	
                     counted. Therefore, pupils who have taken GCSEs and/or GCE AS levels in all
                     three of Physics, Chemistry and Biology will also be counted, but need only
                     have attained GCSE grades A*-C and/or GCE AS grades A-E in at least two of
                     the disciplines.
                  •	 Level	2	BTEC	First	Certificates	and	First	Diplomas	in	Applied	Science	at	pass,	
                     merit	and	distinction;	and
                  •	 OCR	Level	2	National	Awards	and	National	Certificates	in	Science	at	pass,	
                     merit and distinction.
                  Until they are phased out, GCSEs covering the old Key Stage 4 programme
                  of study (Double Science, Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Science
                  Double Award) will count.
                  ‘Awarding bodies’ set and mark examinations such as GCSEs and A levels.
                  ‘Achievement and attainment tables’ are statistical tables setting out by
                  school and local authority the achievements of students in particular areas
                  e.g. the percentage of students gaining five or more good GCSEs. They are
                  published annually.
                  The ‘schools census’ collects data on individual pupil characteristics (such as
                  ethnicity) for all pupils in maintained schools.
                  The ‘national pupil database’ is a longitudinal dataset linking together data
                  collected from the school census to attainment data.
90 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 84: Achievement of 2 or more A*- C grades in Science GCSEs or equivalent (continued)
 Formula
                                 x
                                   * 100
                                 y
                              Where:
                              x = number of pupils in a school at the end of KS4 who have achieved 2 or
                              more science GCSEs graded A*-C
                              y = number of pupils in a school at the end of KS4
 Worked                       If 450 pupils in a school                     Good                         Good performance
 example                      achieve 2 or more science                     performance                  is typified by higher
                              GCSEs graded A*-C, and                                                     percentages
                              600 pupils in a school are
                              at the end of KS4, then
                              the proportion =
                                450
                                    *100 = 75.0%
                                600

 Collection                   Annual (Academic year)                        Data Source                  Awarding Body data
 interval                                                                                                collected as part of
                                                                                                         the Achievement and
                                                                                                         Attainment Tables exercise,
                                                                                                         containing information on
                                                                                                         pupils’ achievements at
                                                                                                         all institutions, collected
                                                                                                         by Bath University from
                                                                                                         awarding bodies on behalf
                                                                                                         of DCSF and matched to
                                                                                                         pupil level Schools Census
                                                                                                         data to produce the
                                                                                                         National Pupil Database
                                                                                                         (NPD).
 Return                       Percentage                                    Decimal Places               One
 Format
 Reporting                    DCSF based on data reported by schools
 organisation
 Spatial level                Schools within a local authority (single tier or county council)
 Further                      Guidance for Local Authorities on setting Education Performance Targets –
 Guidance                     issued August 2007.
                              Information on the National Curriculum
                              http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/management/atoz/n/nationalcurriculum/
                                                                          Annex 2: Children and Young People 91




NI 85: Post-16 participation in physical sciences (A Level Physics, Chemistry and Maths)
Is the data provided by the LA or             N      Is this an existing indicator?                     N
a local partner?
Rationale          To improve the number of A level entries in physics, chemistry and
                   mathematics while maintaining the number of young people taking biology
                   A level.
                   The Government’s target is to achieve year on year increases in the numbers
                   of young people taking A levels in physics, chemistry and mathematics so
                   that by 2014 entries to A level physics are 35,000 (the number of entries
                   was	23,932	in	2007);	chemistry	A	level	entries	are	37,000	(35,145	in	2007);	
                   and mathematics A level entries are 56,000 (53,460 in 2007). It aims to
                   achieve these targets without adversely affecting the number of young
                   people taking biology A level.
Definition         The number of entries for pupils that are aged 16-18 year olds in schools
                   and colleges for
                   •	 A	level	Physics;
                   •	 A	level	Chemistry;
                   •	 A	level	Maths.
                   The number of entries for each subject will be counted separately, i.e. there
                   are three values for this indicator – one each for physics, chemistry and
                   mathematics. The three numbers should not be added together.
                   ‘Physical sciences’ in this context means physics, chemistry and mathematics.
                   ‘Awarding bodies’ set and mark examinations such as GCSEs and A levels.
                   ‘Achievement and attainment tables’ are statistical tables setting out by
                   school and local authority the achievements of students in particular areas
                   e.g. the percentage of students gaining five or more good GCSEs. They are
                   published annually.
                   The ‘schools census’ collects data on individual pupil characteristics (such as
                   ethnicity) for all pupils in maintained schools.
                   The ‘national pupil database’ is a longitudinal dataset linking together data
                   collected from the school census to attainment data.
                   ‘Number of entries’ means the number of pupils entered for the relevant
                   A level with the awarding body by the school or college, irrespective of
                   whether the pupil takes the exam.
Formula            Count of the number of entries for each A level by pupils that are aged 16-
                   18 year olds in schools and colleges in England.
92 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 85: Post-16 participation in physical sciences (A Level Physics, Chemistry and Maths) (continued)
 Worked                       There were 200 entries                   Good                       Good performance is typified by
 example                      for physics A level, 150                 performance                higher numbers
                              entries for chemistry A
                              level and 300 entries
                              for mathematics A level
                              in schools and colleges
                              in the LA at the end of
                              summer term 2008.
 Collection                   Annual (Academic year)                   Data Source                National Pupil database
 interval
 Return                       Number                                   Decimal                    None
 Format                                                                Places
 Reporting                    DCSF based on data reported by schools
 organisation
 Spatial level                Schools within the local authority (single tier and county council)
 Further
 Guidance
                                                                     Annex 2: Children and Young People 93




NI 86: Secondary schools judged as having good or outstanding standards of behaviour
Is the data provided by the LA or         N     Is this an existing indicator?                    Y
a local partner?
Rationale         To provide a general indicator of standards of behaviour in secondary
                  schools.
Definition        OFSTED inspect all schools regularly, usually at three year intervals.
                  Inspectors make judgements about standards in a school, including a
                  specific judgement on standards of behaviour. Standards are graded from
                  1	to	4	(grade	1	–	outstanding;	grade	2	–	good;	grade	3	-satisfactory;	grade	
                  4 – inadequate).
                  The indicator is the percentage of secondary schools graded 1 or 2 for
                  behaviour in each local authority.
                  The DCSF will maintain a record of each secondary school’s behaviour
                  grade together with the inspection date. It will take an annual snapshot of
                  the most recent behaviour grades for the secondary schools in each local
                  authority.
                  For this indicator, “secondary schools” includes all maintained secondary
                  schools (including middle-deemed-secondary) and academies. It excludes
                  pupil referral units.
Formula
                    x
                      * 100
                    y
                  Where:
                  x = number of secondary school grades 1 or 2 for behaviour in the annual
                  snapshot
                  y = total number of secondary school behaviour grades in the annual
                  snapshot.
Worked            A local authority has 20     Good                Good performance is
example           secondary schools. In the    performance         a higher percentage of
                  annual snapshot 15 (75%)                         grades 1 and 2.
                  are graded 1 or 2 for
                  behaviour.
Collection        DCSF will collate            Data Source         OFSTED
interval          inspection grades from
                  the OFSTED website every
                  school term. The snapshot
                  on which the indicator is
                  based will be taken once
                  every calendar year at the
                  same time each year.
94 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 86: Secondary schools judged as having good or outstanding standards of behaviour (continued)
 Return                       Percentage of grades 1                       Decimal Places                None
 Format                       and 2 for behaviour for
                              secondary schools in each
                              local authority.
 Reporting                    DCSF using OFSTED data
 organisation
 Spatial level                Single tier local authorities and county councils
 Further
 Guidance
                                                                           Annex 2: Children and Young People 95




NI 87: Secondary school persistent absence rate
Is the data provided by the LA or            N      Is this an existing indicator?                       N
a local partner?
Rationale         To reduce the percentage of persistent absentee secondary pupils (those
                  missing 20% or more of the school year).
Definition        The number of persistent absentees as a percentage of the total number of
                  local authority maintained secondary school pupil enrolments.
                  A ‘persistent absentee’ is a pupil who has accumulated the threshold
                  number of half-day sessions of absence over the relevant statistical reporting
                  period. These are counted on:
                  •	 an	annual	basis	–	64	or	more	half-day	sessions	of	absence	from	school	over	
                     the statistical reporting period for absence (this is currently the two and a half
                     terms	ending	at	the	May	half	term);	and
                  •	 a	two-term	basis	–	52	or	more	half-day	sessions	of	absence	from	school	over	
                     the combined autumn and spring terms.
                  All sessions with the following pupil attendance codes relating to absence
                  count towards the number of absences per pupil enrolment:
                  I – Authorised absence due to illness (NOT medical or dental etc.
                  appointments)
                  M – Authorised absence due to medical/ dental appointments
                  R – Authorised absence due to religious observance
                  S – Authorised absence due to study leave
                  T – Authorised absence due to traveller absence
                  H – Authorised absence due to agreed family holiday
                  F – Authorised absence due to agreed extended family holiday
                  E – Authorised absence as pupil is excluded, with no alternative provision
                  made
                  C – Authorised absence as pupil is absent due to other authorised
                  circumstances
                  G – Unauthorised absence as pupil is on a family holiday, not agreed, or is
                  taking days in excess of an agreed family holiday
                  U – Unauthorised absence as pupil arrived after registers closed
                  O – Unauthorised absence as pupil missed sessions for an unauthorised
                  absence not covered by any other code/description
                  N – Unauthorised absence as pupil missed sessions for a reason that has not
                  yet been provided
                  Numerator:
                  The number of local authority maintained* secondary school pupil
                  enrolments with more than the threshold number of sessions where the
                  attendance reason is one or a combination of: [I, M, R, S, T, H, F, E, C, G, U,
                  O, N].
96 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 87: Secondary school persistent absence rate (continued)
 Definition                   Denominator:
 (continued)                  The total number of local authority maintained* secondary school pupil
                              enrolments
                              (include all pupils on the roll for one or more sessions during the period).
                              * Academies are not included within this indicator and this will need to be
                              taken into account in year-on-year comparisons ie where schools move from
                              local authority maintained to academy status.
 Formula
                                 x
                                   * 100
                                 y
                              Where:
                              x = the number of persistent absentees
                              Y= the total number of secondary pupil enrolments
 Worked                       If 570 of 11,000                      Good                        Good performance is typified by
 example                      pupils enrolled at                    performance                 low or reduced percentages.
                              secondary schools
                              in a local authority
                              meet the relevant
                              persistent absence
                              threshold, then for
                              that local authority
                              [570/11,000] * 100 =
                              5.2%.
 Collection                   Data	collected	termly;	 Data Source                               Termly School Census
 interval                     indicator outturn:
                              “Annual figures” for
                              previous academic
                              year using 64 session
                              threshold – published
                              February.
                              “Two-term figures”
                              for autumn and
                              spring of school year
                              just ended using
                              52 session shadow
                              threshold – published
                              October.
 Return                       Percentage                            Decimal                     One
 Format                                                             Places
                                                                    Annex 2: Children and Young People 97




NI 87: Secondary school persistent absence rate (continued)
Reporting         DCSF based on data reported by schools
organisation
Spatial level     Single tier and county council
Further           Published within Guidance For Local Authorities On Setting Education
Guidance          Performance Targets Parts 1 & 2, available at www.standards.dcsf.gov.uk/ts
98 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 88: Percentage of schools providing access to extended services
 Is the data provided by the LA or                                  Y        Is this an existing indicator?                 N
 a local partner?
 Rationale                   To measure progress and shape support for the development of extended
                             schools.
 Definition                  The percentage of schools providing access to the full core offer of extended
                             services.
                             Schools include primary, middle and secondary schools, nursery schools and
                             special schools, including academies.
                             The full core offer of extended services involves providing access to:
                             •	 a	varied	range	of	activities	including	study	support	activities	for	primary	and	
                                secondary schools, combined in primary schools with childcare, 8am-6pm, all
                                year	round	in	line	with	demand;
                             •	 parenting	and	family	support;
                             •	 swift	and	easy	referral	to	specialist	services	such	as	speech	therapy;
                             •	 community	use	of	school	facilities.
                             to a level and in a way that meets the needs of the pupils, their families and the
                             community.
 Formula                     Proportion of schools in the local authority providing access to the full core
                             offer of extended services is calculated as follows:
                                x
                                  * 100
                                y
                             Where:
                             x = number of schools providing access to the full core offer of extended
                             services;
                             y = number of schools in the local authority.
 Worked                      If of 70 schools in               Good                          Increasing percentage.
 example                     the local authority               performance                   National average results (2007) and
                             area 56 are                                                     targets (to 2010) are as follows:
                             providing access to                                             September 2007: 26%
                             extended services                                               September 2008: 42%
                             then                                                            September 2009: 80%
                                56                                                           September 2010: 100%
                                   *100          80%                                         Good performance is meeting or
                                70
                                                                                             exceeding these percentages.
 Collection                  Monthly                           Data Source                   Training and Development Agency
 interval                                                                                    for Schools (TDA)
 Return                      Percentage                        Decimal Places                None
 Format
                                                                        Annex 2: Children and Young People 99




NI 88: Percentage of schools providing access to extended services (continued)
Reporting         The Training and Development Agency for Schools, based on data reported
organisation      by local authorities.
Spatial level     Single tier and county council
Further           www.tda.gov.uk/remodelling/extendedschools.aspx
Guidance          or www.teachernet.gov.uk/extendedschools
100 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 89: Reduction of number of schools judged as requiring special measures and improvement in
 time taken to come out of the category
 Is the data provided by the LA or                                 N         Is this an existing indicator?   N
 a local partner?
 Rationale                   To raise school standards by (a) reducing the number of failing schools and
                             (b) the average time a school spends in failure.
 Definition                  This indicator is in two parts. The first part is the number of schools which
                             are in special measures. The second part is the average amount of time
                             spent by schools in special measures.
                             A school is judged to require special measures on inspection by Ofsted if it is
                             providing inadequate education and lacks the capacity to improve.
                             The following maintained schools are included – primary, secondary, special
                             and Pupil Referral Units (PRUs). So are non maintained special schools and
                             Academies.
                             For part (a) the indicator is the total number of schools which are in special
                             measures at the end of the summer term each year.
                             For part (b) the average amount of time spent by schools in special measures
                             is calculated for those schools which have come out of special measures
                             during the previous academic year. For those schools only, take the sum of
                             the time spent in special measures (in months), divided by the number of
                             schools which have come out of special measures during the period.
 Formula                     Part a:
                             Simple count of all eligible schools in special measures at the end of the
                             summer term each year.
                             Part b:
                             Average of time spent by schools in special measures, for those schools
                             which have come out of special measures during the previous academic year
                             (whole months).
                             For those schools only, take the sum of the time spent in special measures,
                             divided by the number of schools which have come out of special measures
                             during the period.
                             = (X1+X2+X3…)/Y
                             Where Xn etc is the number of complete whole months spent in special
                             measures	by	each	of	the	schools	in	Y;	and
                             Where Y is the number of schools which have come out of special measures
                             during the period.
                                                                     Annex 2: Children and Young People 101




NI 89: Reduction of number of schools judged as requiring special measures and improvement in
time taken to come out of the category (continued)
Worked           Part a – If at the        Good              Good performance is typified
example          end of the summer         performance       by no schools being judged as
                 term there were 20                          needing special measures. Where
                 primary, 32 secondary,                      a school is in special measures
                 and 5 PRUs in                               good performance is typified
                 special measures,                           by actions which result in the
                 the indicator value                         school being judged as making
                 reported would be =                         good progress at the 12 month
                 57                                          monitoring visit.
                 Part b
                 Calculate for all
                 schools in special
                 measures (No need to
                 calculate separately
                 for each type of
                 school).
                 If 5 schools were
                 removed from special
                 measures during the
                 year, and they were in
                 special measures for
                 12, 18, 22, 5 and 7
                 months respectively,
                 the average amount
                 of time spent in
                 special measures
                 would be calculated
                 as:
                 (12+18+22+5+7)/5
                 = 64/5
                 = 13 months (rounded
                 to the nearest
                 complete month)
Collection       Annually (Academic        Data Source       Ofsted school inspection data
interval         year)
Return           Number                    Decimal           None
Format                                     Places
Reporting        Ofsted
organisation
Spatial level    Single tier and county council
Further          DCSF Standards website: guidance on schools causing concern.
Guidance
102 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 90: Take up of 14-19 Learning Diplomas
 Is the data provided by the LA or                                 N         Is this an existing indicator?                   N
 a local partner?
 Rationale                   The indicator will give an indication of the progress every area is making
                             in offering and promoting Diplomas to young people. There should be
                             incremental rises until a significant proportion of the country is offering
                             Diplomas as part of the 14-19 learning offer leading towards national
                             entitlement to the first 14 Diploma lines in 2013.
 Definition                  The number of active Diploma Aggregation Service acccounts where the
                             centre of learning is recorded as being within the local authority.
                             The Diploma Aggregation Service (DAS) is a centrally managed electronic
                             service that will provide definitive information about each learner’s Diploma
                             achievement, the consistuent qualifications, the completion of work
                             experience and achievement of Personal Learning and Thinking skills, and
                             of their Diploma graded awards. Each Diploma will have a ‘learner account’
                             with the aggregation service that will indicate participation on a Diploma
                             programme and act as a repository for results data for an individual learner.
                             ‘Diploma’ means a new qualification in 17 sector areas. Five of them
                             will	be	available	for	first	teaching	in	2008:	engineering;	society,	health	&	
                             development;	information	technology;	creative	&	media;	construction	and	
                             the built environment. A further five will be available for first teaching in
                             2009;	four	in	2010;	and	the	final	three	in	2011.
                             A learner account can be opened in DAS before any Diploma learning is
                             undertaken. Also if an individual starts a Diploma but drops out before
                             completing, the DAS account may remain open. This means that the
                             number of active accounts in DAS is only a proxy for take up of Diplomas.
                             The number of active accounts in a Local Authority relates to learning at
                             providers within the Local Authority rather than learners residing within the
                             Local Authority. The former was considered to be a better measure of how
                             LAs were promoting Diploma provision in their area than the latter measure.
 Formula                     x, where x = the number of active DAS acccounts where the centre of
                             learning is recorded as being within the Local Authority.
 Worked                      Not required.                          Good                       Good performance is typified
 example                                                            performance                by higher numbers, with the
                                                                                               expectation of year on year
                                                                                               increases.
 Collection                  Annual (academic                       Data Source                Diploma Aggregation Service
 interval                    year)                                                             (DAS
 Return                      Number                                 Decimal                    None
 Format                                                             Places
 Reporting                   DCSF
 organisation
                                                        Annex 2: Children and Young People 103




NI 90: Take up of 14-19 Learning Diplomas (continued)
Spatial level     Single tier and county council
Further
Guidance
104 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 91: Participation of 17 year-olds in education or training
 Is the data provided by the LA or                                 N         Is this an existing indicator?   N
 a local partner?
 Rationale                   This indicator reports the percentages of young people at academic age
                             17 who participate in education or Work Based Learning in each Local
                             Authority.
                             We have more young people dropping out of education and training
                             before the age of 18 than in many other countries and our long term
                             ambition is to transform participation so that by 2015 90% of 17 year
                             olds are participating. This indicator will be essential to monitor and drive
                             performance against that aspiration. It will also be an essential stepping
                             stone to raising the participation age proposals for all young people to stay
                             in some form of education or training post 16. This indicator is the only one
                             focusing on young peoples’ participation post 16.
 Definition                  The indicator is a measure of all those in full or part time education or
                             Work Based Learning in a Local Authority at academic age 17. This is the
                             definition of participation used in the 90% aspiration.
                             Participation is measured as a snapshot at the end of the calendar year, from
                             a variety of administrative data sources (described under ‘Data Source’).
                             The reference dates differ slightly for each of the different data sources.
                             For example, the population, schools and work based learning (WBL) data
                             described	as	end	2006	relate	to	January	2007;	Further	Education	Institution	
                             (FEI)	data	relate	to	November	2006;	and	Higher	Education	Institution	(HEI)	
                             data relate to December 2006. The Labour Force Survey (LFS) relates to
                             Quarter 1 2007 (January to March 2007).
                             Academic age is the age of the individual at the start of the academic year,
                             i.e. the 31st August preceeding the academic year.
                             Work Based Learning for young people comprises Advanced
                             Apprenticeships, Apprenticeships, Entry to Employment (E2E) and NVQ
                             Learning. WBL has been funded through the Learning and Skills Council
                             since 26 March 2001.
                             Population estimates for each Local Authority are derived by the DCSF from
                             mid-year estimates provided by the Office for National Statistics.
                             The methodology for assigning individuals to Local Authorities is explained
                             in the Statistical First Release (SFR) on the partcipation of young people
                             in education, training and employment, published each June. The latest
                             version of this SFR can be found here:
                             http://www.dfes.gov.uk/rsgateway/DB/SFR/s000734/index.shtml
                                                                            Annex 2: Children and Young People 105




NI 91: Participation of 17 year-olds in education or training (continued)
Formula
                     x
                       * 100
                     y
                   The Calculation is performed at Local Authority level, where:
                   X = Number of learners in education and Work Based Learning at academic
                   age 17. This includes maintained schools, independent schools, sixth form
                   colleges, further education institutions, tertiary colleges, higher education
                   institutions and work based learning providers.
                   Y = The population of academic age 17 year olds, calculated by DCSF from
                   mid year estimates provided by the Office for National Statistics.
Worked             If of a local          Good                   Higher percentages show better
example            population of 12,000 performance              performance.
                   17 year olds, 4,250
                   are in education
                   or Work Based
                   Learning then [4,250 /
                   12,000]*100 = 35%.
Collection         Annual. Several         Data Source           DCSF participation estimates
interval           souces of data are                            broken down by Local Authority
                   used for this indicator                       by DCSF. Data sources used:
                   (see ‘Data Source’)                           •	 Population	Estimates	–	ONS
                   with different                                •	 Schools	data	–	Schools	Census
                   collection intervals                          •	 Further	Education	–	
                   throughout the                                   Individualised Learner Record
                   year. Local figures                              (ILR)
                   are published in                              •	 Higher	Education	–	Higher	
                   the Statistical First                            Education Statistics Agency
                   Release (SFR) on                              •	 Work-based	Learning	–	ILR
                   the partcipation of
                   young people in                               Further details on these data
                   education, training                           sources and the latest local figures
                   and employment,                               can be found in the Statistical First
                   each June. The latest                         Release (SFR) on the partcipation
                   version of this SFR can                       of young people in education,
                   be found here:                                training and employment,
                   http://www.dfes.gov.                          published each June. The latest
                   uk/rsgateway/DB/SFR/                          version of this SFR can be found
                   s000734/index.shtml                           here:
                                                                 http://www.dfes.gov.uk/
                                                                 rsgateway/DB/SFR/s000734/index.
                                                                 shtml
Return             Percentage                 Decimal            None
Format                                        Places
106 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 91: Participation of 17 year-olds in education or training (continued)
 Reporting                   DCSF drawing on various data sources
 organisation
 Spatial level               Single tier and county council
 Further
 Guidance
                                                                       Annex 2: Children and Young People 107




NI 92: Narrowing the gap between the lowest achieving 20% in the Early Years Foundation Stage
Profile and the rest
Is the data provided by the LA or           Y     Is this an existing indicator?                      Y
a local partner?
Rationale        The early years are crucial to chances of later success – children who
                 achieve well in the early years are much more likely to be successful in
                 future education and in later life. A focus on narrowing the gaps between
                 the lowest achieving and the rest is the best way to ensure that all children
                 regardless of background are able to reach their potential and that those at
                 risk of poor outcomes are given as much help and support as possible.
Definition       The gap between the median Foundation Stage Profile score of all children
                 locally and the mean score of the lowest achieving 20% of children locally,
                 as a percentage of the median score of all children locally.
                 Early Years Foundation Stage – this is a statutory framework for children’s
                 learning and development and welfare from birth to the end of the
                 academic year in which they turn 5. It covers six areas of learning:
                 •	   Personal,	Social	and	Emotional	Development	(3	scales)
                 •	   Communication,	Language	and	Literacy	(4	scales)
                 •	   Problem-solving,	reasoning	and	numeracy	(3	scales)
                 •	   Knowledge	and	understanding	of	the	world	(1	scale)
                 •	   Physical	Development	(1	scale)
                 •	   Creative	Development	(1	scale)
                 The Early Years Foundation Stage Profile is an assessment of children’s
                 achievement at the end of the academic year in which they turn 5 – it
                 supersedes the Foundation Stage Profile from September 2008.
                 Average (mean) score – this is defined as the average (mean) score for a
                 particular cohort of children. The importance of using a mean score is that
                 those at risk of the lowest scores may have some of the most intractable
                 problems but all improvements in scores will contribute.
                 Median score – this is defined as the score of the middle child, where in an
                 ordered list of scores half of the children would lie above and half of the
                 children would lie below this child.
                 Lowest 20% of the EYFSP results – this is defined as those children whose
                 total EYFSP score falls into the lowest 20% of results locally.
Formula               x       y
                                  *100
                          x
                 Where:
                 x = the median score, where in an ordered list of scores half of the children
                 would lie above and half of the children would lie below the score of this
                 child.
                 y = the mean score of the lowest achieving 20% of children locally.
108 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 92: Narrowing the gap between the lowest achieving 20% in the Early Years Foundation Stage
 Profile and the rest (continued)
 Worked                      If the median score                    Good                       A lower percentage gap shows
 example                     for all children is 93                 performance                good performance.
                             and the mean score
                             of the lowest 20%
                             is 58 then the gap is
                             ((93 – 58)/93) * 100 =
                             37.6%.
 Collection                  Annual for the                         Data Source                Early Years Foundation Stage
 interval                    academic year                                                     Profile results
 Return                      Percentage                             Decimal                    One
 Format                                                             Places
 Reporting                   DCSF based on data reported by local authorities
 organisation
 Spatial level               Single tier and county council
 Further                     More information on the Foundation Stage Curriculum is available at:
 Guidance                    http://www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/eyfs/
                             Guidance for Local Authorities on setting Education Performance Targets.
                             (http://www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/ts/publications/list/?index=2)
                                                                       Annex 2: Children and Young People 109




NI 93: Progression by 2 levels in English between Key Stage 1 and Key Stage 2
Is the data provided by the LA or           N     Is this an existing indicator?                      N
a local partner?
Rationale         Performance at Key Stage (KS) 2 is a very strong indicator for expected
                  performance at KS4 (5 A*-C including English and maths). Without this
                  indicator at age 11, the risks to performance at the end of compulsory
                  schooling would be very substantial. English is a core National Curriculum
                  subject and one of the building blocks for the curriculum generally. For pupils
                  not achieving expected levels at the end of KS2 it is nevertheless important
                  that they also make 2 levels progress where possible. This indicator not
                  only ensures that schools and local authorities are concentrating on pupils
                  capable of reaching level 4 or above but also enables recognition to be given
                  where pupils do not reach level 4 but still make exceptional progress.
Definition        The number of pupils at the end of KS2 making 2 levels progress in English
                  between KS1 and KS2, as a percentage of the number of pupils at the end
                  of KS2 with valid National Curriculum test results (including absent pupils
                  and pupils unable to access the test).
                  Number of pupils at the end of KS2 with valid National Curriculum test
                  results includes absent pupils and pupils unable to access the test. These
                  pupils must have matched, valid results at KS1 (including absent (A) and
                  disapplied (D)), with the exception of pupils who were absent from the KS2
                  test, who are included in the denominator regardless of KS1 attainment.
                  KS1 is the stage of the National Curriculum between ages 5 and 7 years.
                  This indicator relates to tests taken by 7 year olds at the end of KS1.
                  KS2 is the stage of the National Curriculum between ages 8 and 11 years.
                  This indicator relates to tests taken by and teacher assessments of pupils at
                  the end of KS2.
                  KS4 is the stage of the National Curriculum between ages 14 and 16 years.
                  Pupils’ attainment is assessed in relation to the National Curriculum and
                  pupils are awarded levels on the National Curriculum scale to reflect their
                  attainment.
                  For pupils who attempted the National Curriculum test at the end of KS2 but
                  did not achieve the minimum level (Level 2), teacher-assessed levels are used
                  as a measure of attainment.
                  KS1 English is defined as a simple average of the reading task/test or teacher
                  assessment, and the writing test or teacher assessment, as set out in the
                  following matrix.
110 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 93: Progression by 2 levels in English between Key Stage 1 and Key Stage 2 (continued)
 Definition                                                                                   Writing test or teacher assessment
 (continued)
                                                                               None   A   D        W      1      2C     2B     2A      3   4
                              Reading task/test or teacher assessment

                                                                        None   None   A   D        W      1      2       2         2   3   4
                                                                         A      A     A   A        W      1       2      2         2   3   4
                                                                         D      D     A   D        W      1       2      2         2   3   4
                                                                         W      W     W   W        W      1       1      1         1   2   2
                                                                         1      1     1   1        1      1       1      2         2   2   3
                                                                        2C      2     2   2        1      1       2      2         2   2   3
                                                                         2B     2     2   2        1      2       2      2         2   3   3
                                                                        2A      2     2   2        1      2       2      2         2   3   3
                                                                         3      3     3   3        2      2       2      3         3   3   4
                                                                         4      4     4   4        2      3       3      3         3   4   4

                             A = (absent)
                             D = (dis-applied)
                             W = (working towards Level 1)
                             Pupils are defined as having made 2 levels of progress if they achieve one of the
                             following transitions between KS1 and KS2:
                             •	 W	(working	towards	Level	1)	at	KS1	to	Level	2	or	above	at	KS2
                             •	 Level	1	at	KS1	to	Level	3	or	above	at	KS2
                             •	 Level	2	at	KS1	to	Level	4	or	above	at	KS2
                             •	 Level	3	or	Level	4	at	KS1	to	Level	5	at	KS2
                             The coverage of this indicator is maintained mainstream schools including
                             Academies with pupils at the end of KS2.
 Formula
                                                  x
                                                    * 100
                                                  y
                             Where:
                             x = number of pupils at the end of KS2 making 2 levels progress between
                             Key Stages as defined above.
                             y = number of pupils at the end of KS2 with valid National Curriculum test
                             results (including absent pupils and pupils unable to access the test). These
                             pupils must have matched, valid results at KS1 (including absent (A) and
                             disapplied (D)), with the exception of pupils who were absent from the KS2
                             test, who are included in the denominator regardless of KS1 attainment.
                                                                       Annex 2: Children and Young People 111




NI 93: Progression by 2 levels in English between Key Stage 1 and Key Stage 2 (continued)
Worked            If 3,500 pupils make 2     Good                   Good performance is
example           levels progress in English performance            exemplified where the
                  between KS1 and KS2, and                          percentage achieving 2 levels
                  6,000 pupils have tracked                         progress (as defined above)
                  valid results, then the                           is higher than the national
                  proportion = (3,500/6,000)                        average.
                  x 100 = 58.3%
Collection        Annual (Academic year)           Data Source      Revised KS2 test results
interval                                                            matched to KS1 results,
                                                                    as amended by schools
                                                                    checking exercise for
                                                                    publication of Primary
                                                                    Achievement and Attainment
                                                                    Tables.
Return            Percentage                       Decimal          One
Format                                             Places
Reporting         DCSF based on data reported by schools
organisation
Spatial level     Single tier and county council
Further           Guidance for Local Authorities on setting Education Performance Targets –
Guidance          issued September 2007.
                  Information on the National Curriculum
                  http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/management/atoz/n/nationalcurriculum/
112 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 94: Progression by 2 levels in Maths between Key Stage 1 and Key Stage 2
 Is the data provided by the LA or                                  N        Is this an existing indicator?   N
 a local partner?
 Rationale                   Performance at Key Stage (KS) 2 is a very strong indicator for expected
                             performance at KS4 (5 A*-C including English and maths). Without this
                             indicator at age 11, the risks to performance at the end of compulsory
                             schooling would be very substantial. Maths is a core National Curriculum
                             subject and one of the building blocks for the curriculum generally. For
                             pupils not achieving expected levels at the end of KS2 it is nevertheless
                             important that they also make 2 levels progress where possible. This
                             indicator not only ensures that schools and LAs are concentrating on pupils
                             capable of reaching level 4 but also enables recognition to be given where
                             pupils do not reach level 4 but still make exceptional progress.
 Definition                  The number of pupils at the end of KS2 making 2 levels progress in Maths
                             between KS1 and KS2, as a percentage of the number of pupils at the end
                             of KS2 with valid National Curriculum test results (including absent pupils
                             and pupils unable to access the test).
                             Number of pupils at the end of KS2 with valid National Curriculum test
                             results includes absent pupils and pupils unable to access the test. These
                             pupils must have matched, valid results at KS1 (including absent (A) and
                             disapplied (D)), with the exception of pupils who were absent from the KS2
                             test, who are included in the denominator regardless of KS1 attainment.
                             KS1 is the stage of the National Curriculum between ages 5 and 7 years.
                             This indicator relates to tests taken by and teacher assessments of 7 year
                             olds at the end of KS1.
                             KS2 is the stage of the National Curriculum between ages 8 and 11 years.
                             This indicator relates to tests taken by and teacher assessments of pupils at
                             the end of KS2.
                             KS4 is the stage of the National Curriculum between ages 14 and 16 years.
                             Pupils’ attainment is assessed in relation to the National Curriculum and
                             pupils are awarded levels on the National Curriculum scale to reflect their
                             attainment.
                             For pupils who attempted the National Curriculum test at the end of KS2 but
                             did not achieve the minimum level (Level 2), teacher-assessed levels are used
                             as a measure of attainment.
                             Pupils are defined as having made 2 levels of progress if they achieve one of
                             the following transitions between KS1 and KS2:
                             •	   (working	towards	Level	1)	at	KS1	to	Level	2	or	above	at	KS2
                             •	   Level	1	at	KS1	to	Level	3	or	above	at	KS2
                             •	   Level	2	at	KS1	to	Level	4	or	above	at	KS2
                             •	   Level	3	or	Level	4	at	KS1	to	Level	5	at	KS2
                             The coverage of his indicator is maintained mainstream schools including
                             Academies with pupils at the end of KS2.
                                                                      Annex 2: Children and Young People 113




NI 94: Progression by 2 levels in Maths between Key Stage 1 and Key Stage 2 (continued)
Formula
                    x
                      * 100
                    y
                  Where:
                  x = number of pupils at the end of KS2 making 2 levels progress between
                  Key Stages as defined above.
                  y = number of pupils at the end of KS2 with valid National Curriculum test
                  results (including absent pupils and pupils unable to access the test). These
                  pupils must have matched, valid results at KS1 (including absent (A) and
                  disapplied (D)), with the exception of pupils who were absent from the KS2
                  test, who are included in the denominator regardless of KS1 attainment.
Worked            If 3,500 pupils make 2           Good              Good performance is
example           levels progress in English       performance       exemplified where the
                  between KS1 and KS2,                               percentage achieving 2
                  and 6,000 pupils have                              levels progress (as defined
                  valid results noting the                           above) is higher than the
                  exceptions above, then the                         national average.
                  proportion = (3,500/6,000)
                  x 100 = 58.3%
Collection        Annual (academic year)           Data Source       Revised KS2 test results
interval                                                             matched to KS1 results,
                                                                     as amended by schools
                                                                     checking exercise for
                                                                     publication of Primary
                                                                     Achievement and
                                                                     Attainment Tables.
Return            Percentage                       Decimal Places    One
Format
Reporting         DCSF based on data reported by schools
organisation
Spatial level     Single tier and county council
Further           Guidance for Local Authorities on setting Education Performance Targets –
Guidance          issued September 2007.
                  Information on the National Curriculum
                  http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/management/atoz/n/nationalcurriculum/
114 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 95: Progression by 2 levels in English between Key Stage 2 and Key Stage 3
 Is the data provided by the LA or                                  N        Is this an existing indicator?   N
 a local partner?
 Rationale                   Performance at Key Stage (KS) 3 is a strong indicator for expected
                             performance at KS4 (5 A*-C including English and maths). Without this
                             indicator at age 14, the risks to performance at the end of compulsory
                             schooling would be very substantial. English is a core National Curriculum
                             subject and one of the building blocks for the curriculum generally. Although
                             pupils are normally expected to have reached at least level 5 by the end of
                             KS3, level 6 provides a more secure platform for achieving the expected
                             outcome at the end of KS4. This indicator not only ensures that schools and
                             LAs are concentrating on pupils capable of reaching level 5 or above but also
                             enables recognition to be given where pupils do not reach these levels but
                             still make exceptional progress.
 Definition                  The number of pupils at the end of KS3 making 2 levels progress in English
                             between KS2 and KS3, as a percentage of the number of pupils at the end
                             of KS3 with valid National Curriculum test results (including absent pupils
                             and pupils unable to access the test).
                             Number of pupils at the end of KS3 with valid National Curriculum test
                             results includes absent pupils and pupils unable to access the test. These
                             pupils must have matched, valid results at KS2 (including absent (A) and
                             unable to access the test (T)), with the exception of pupils who were absent
                             from the KS3 test or achieved Level 7, who are included in the denominator
                             regardless of KS2 attainment.
                             KS2 is the stage of the National Curriculum between ages 8 and 11 years.
                             This indicator relates to tests taken by and teacher assessments of pupils at
                             the end of KS2.
                             KS3 is the stage of the National Curriculum between ages 11 and 14 years.
                             This indicator relates to tests taken by and teacher assessments of pupils at
                             the end of KS3.
                             KS4 is the stage of the National Curriculum between ages 14 and 16 years.
                             Pupils’ attainment is assessed in relation to the National Curriculum and
                             pupils are awarded levels on the National Curriculum scale to reflect their
                             attainment.
                             For pupils who attempted the National Curriculum test at the end of KS3 but
                             did not achieve the minimum level (Level 3), teacher-assessed levels are used
                             as a measure of attainment. The same applies for pupils who attempted the
                             National Curriculum test at the end of KS2 but did not achieve the minimum
                             level (Level 2).
                                                                       Annex 2: Children and Young People 115




NI 95: Progression by 2 levels in English between Key Stage 2 and Key Stage 3 (continued)
Definition        Pupils are defined as having made 2 levels of progress if they achieve one of
(continued)       the following transitions between KS2 and KS3:
                  •	 W	(working	towards	Level	1)	at	KS2	to	Level	2	or	above	at	KS3
                  •	 Level	1	at	KS2	to	Level	3	or	above	at	KS3
                  •	 Level	2	at	KS2	to	Level	4	or	above	at	KS3
                  •	 Level	3	at	KS2	to	Level	5	or	above	at	KS3
                  •	 Level	4	at	KS2	to	Level	6	or	above	at	KS3
                  •	 Level	7	at	KS3,	regardless	of	attainment	at	KS2
                  The coverage of this indicator is maintained mainstream schools including
                  Academies.
Formula
                    x
                      * 100
                    y
                  Where:
                  x = number of pupils at the end of KS3 making 2 levels progress between
                  Key Stages as defined above.
                  y = number of pupils at the end of KS3 with valid National Curriculum test
                  results (including absent pupils and pupils unable to access the test). These
                  pupils must have matched, valid results at KS2 (including absent (A) and
                  unable to access the test (T)), with the exception of pupils who were absent
                  from the KS3 test or achieved Level 7, who are included in the denominator
                  regardless of KS2 attainment.
Worked            If 3,500 pupils make 2         Good                Good performance is
example           levels progress in English     performance         exemplified where the
                  between KS2 and KS3, and                           percentage achieving 2
                  6,000 pupils have tracked                          levels progress (as defined
                  valid results, then the                            above) is higher than the
                  proportion = (3,500/6,000)                         national average.
                  x 100 = 58.3%
Collection        Annual (academic year)         Data Source         Revised KS3 test results
interval                                                             matched to KS2 results,
                                                                     as amended by schools
                                                                     checking exercise for
                                                                     publication of Secondary
                                                                     (Key Stage 3) Achievement
                                                                     and Attainment Tables.
Return            Percentage                     Decimal Places      One
Format
Reporting         DCSF based on data reported by schools
organisation
116 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 95: Progression by 2 levels in English between Key Stage 2 and Key Stage 3 (continued)
 Spatial level               Single tier and county council
 Further                     Guidance for Local Authorities on setting Education Performance Targets –
 Guidance                    issued September 2007.
                             Information on the National Curriculum
                             http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/management/atoz/n/nationalcurriculum/
                                                                      Annex 2: Children and Young People 117




NI 96: Progression by 2 levels in Maths between Key Stage 2 and Key Stage 3
Is the data provided by the LA or          N     Is this an existing indicator?                      N
a local partner?
Rationale         Performance at Key Stage (KS) 3 is a strong indicator for expected
                  performance at KS4 (5 A*-C including English and maths). Without this
                  indicator at age 14, the risks to performance at the end of compulsory
                  schooling would be very substantial. Maths is a core National Curriculum
                  subject and one of the building blocks for the curriculum generally. Although
                  pupils are normally expected to have reached at least level 5 by the end of
                  KS3, level 6 provides a more secure platform for achieving the expected
                  outcome at the end of KS4. This indicator not only ensures that schools and
                  LAs are concentrating on pupils capable of reaching level 5 or above but also
                  enables recognition to be given where pupils do not reach these levels but
                  still make exceptional progress.
Definition        The number of pupils at the end of KS3 making 2 levels progress in Maths
                  between KS2 and KS3, as a percentage of the number of pupils at the end
                  of KS3 with valid National Curriculum test results (including absent pupils
                  and pupils unable to access the test).
                  Number of pupils at the end of KS3 with valid National Curriculum test
                  results includes absent pupils and pupils unable to access the test. These
                  pupils must have matched, valid results at KS2 (including absent (A) and
                  unable to access the test (T)), with the exception of pupils who were
                  absent from the KS3 test or achieved Level 7 or 8, who are included in the
                  denominator regardless of KS2 attainment.
                  KS2 is the stage of the National Curriculum between ages 8 and 11 years.
                  This indicator relates to tests taken by and teacher assessments of pupils at
                  the end of KS2.
                  KS3 is the stage of the National Curriculum between ages 11 and 14 years.
                  This indicator relates to tests taken by and teacher assessments of pupils at
                  the end of KS3.
                  KS4 is the stage of the National Curriculum between ages 14 and 16 years.
                  Pupils’ attainment is assessed in relation to the National Curriculum and
                  pupils are awarded levels on the National Curriculum scale to reflect their
                  attainment.
                  For pupils who attempted the National Curriculum test at the end of KS3 but
                  did not achieve the minimum level (Level 2), teacher-assessed levels are used
                  as a measure of attainment. The same applies for pupils who attempted the
                  National Curriculum test at the end of KS2 but did not achieve the minimum
                  level (Level 2).
118 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 96: Progression by 2 levels in Maths between Key Stage 2 and Key Stage 3 (continued)
 Definition                  Pupils are defined as having made 2 levels of progress if they achieve one of
 (continued)                 the following transitions between KS2 and KS3:
                             W (working towards Level 1) at KS2 to Level 2 or above at KS3
                             Level 1 at KS2 to Level 3 or above at KS3
                             Level 2 at KS3 to Level 4 or above at KS3
                             Level 3 at KS3 to Level 5 or above at KS3
                             Level 4 at KS3 to Level 6 or above at KS3
                             Levels 7 or 8 at KS3, regardless of attainment at KS2
                             The coverage of this indicator is maintained mainstream schools including
                             Academies.
 Formula
                                x
                                  * 100
                                y
                             Where:
                             x = number of pupils at the end of KS3 making 2 levels progress between
                             Key Stages as defined above.
                             y = number pupils at the end of KS3 with valid National Curriculum test
                             results (including absent pupils and pupils unable to access the test).
                             These pupils must have matched, valid results at KS2 (including absent (A)
                             and unable to access the test (T)), with the exception of pupils who were
                             absent from the KS3 test or achieved Levels 7 or 8, who are included in the
                             denominator regardless of KS2 attainment.
 Worked                      If 3,500 pupils make 2                        Good                           Good performance is
 example                     levels progress in maths                      performance                    exemplified where the
                             between KS2 and KS3,                                                         percentage achieving 2
                             and 6,000 pupils have                                                        levels progress (as defined
                             valid results, noting the                                                    above) is higher than the
                             exceptions above, then the                                                   national average.
                             proportion = (3,500/6,000)
                             x 100 = 58.3%
 Collection                  Annual                                        Data Source                    Revised KS3 test results
 interval                                                                                                 as amended by schools
                                                                                                          checking exercise for
                                                                                                          publication of Secondary
                                                                                                          (Key Stage 3) Achievement
                                                                                                          and Attainment Tables.
 Return                      Percentage                                    Decimal Places                 One
 Format
 Reporting                   DCSF based on data reported by schools
 organisation
 Spatial level               Single tier and county council
                                                                      Annex 2: Children and Young People 119




NI 96: Progression by 2 levels in Maths between Key Stage 2 and Key Stage 3 (continued)
Further           Guidance for Local Authorities on setting Education Performance Targets –
Guidance          issued September 2007.
                  Information on the National Curriculum
                  http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/management/atoz/n/nationalcurriculum/
120 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 97: Progression by 2 levels in English between Key Stage 3 and Key Stage 4
 Is the data provided by the LA or                                  N        Is this an existing indicator?   N
 a local partner?
 Rationale                   It is widely accepted that good literacy is key to employability and further
                             study, and that more needs to be done to improve performance in this area.
                             The Government is therefore committed to ensuring that more children
                             master the basics and reach the end of the years of compulsory schooling
                             with 5 A*-C GCSE and equivalent including GCSE in English.
 Definition                  The number of pupils at the end of KS4 making 2 levels progress in English
                             between KS3 and KS4, as a percentage of the number of pupils at the end
                             of KS4 (with valid National Curriculum test results (including absent pupils
                             and pupils unable to access the test) at KS3).
                             Number of pupils at the end of KS4: these pupils must have matched, valid
                             results at KS3 (including absent (A) and unable to access the test (T)), with
                             the exception of pupils who achieved grades A or A* in GCSE English, who
                             are included in the denominator regardless of KS3 attainment.
                             KS3 is the stage of the National Curriculum between ages 11 and 14 years.
                             This indicator relates to tests taken by and teacher assessments of pupils at
                             the end of KS3.
                             Key Stage 4 is the stage of the National Curriculum between 14 and 16. This
                             indicator relates to full GCSEs in English (i.e. those qualifications contributing
                             towards the 5 A*-C including English and maths indicator) taken by pupils at
                             the end of KS4.
                             Pupils’ attainment at KS3 is assessed in relation to the National Curriculum
                             and pupils are awarded levels on the National Curriculum scale to reflect
                             their attainment.
                             For pupils who attempted the National Curriculum test at the end of KS3 but
                             did not achieve the minimum level (Level 3), teacher-assessed levels are used
                             as a measure of attainment.
                             Pupils are defined as having made 2 levels of progress if they achieve one of
                             the following transitions between KS3 and the end of KS4:
                             •	 (working	towards	Level	1)	or	Level	1	at	KS3	to	grade	G	or	higher	in	GCSE
                             •	 Level	2	at	KS3	to	grade	F	or	higher	in	GCSE
                             •	 Level	3	at	KS3	to	grade	E	or	higher	in	GCSE
                             •	 Level	4	at	KS3	to	grade	D	or	higher	in	GCSE
                             •	 Level	5	at	KS3	to	grade	C	or	higher	in	GCSE
                             •	 Level	6	at	KS3	to	grade	B	or	higher	in	GCSE
                             •	 Grades	A	or	A*	in	GCSE,	regardless	of	attainment	at	KS3
                             The coverage of this indicator is maintained mainstream schools including
                             Academies.
                                                                       Annex 2: Children and Young People 121




NI 97: Progression by 2 levels in English between Key Stage 3 and Key Stage 4 (continued)
Formula
                    x
                      * 100
                    y
                  Where:
                  x = number of pupils at the end of KS4 making 2 levels progress between
                  Key Stages as defined above.
                  y = number of pupils at the end of KS4. These pupils must have matched,
                  valid results at KS3 (including absent (A) and unable to access the test (T)),
                  with the exception of pupils who achieved grades A or A* in GCSE English,
                  who are included in the denominator regardless of KS3 attainment.
Worked            If 3,500 pupils make 2           Good               Good performance is
example           levels progress in English       performance        exemplified where the
                  between KS3 and KS4,                                percentage achieving 2
                  and 6,000 pupils have                               levels progress (as defined
                  valid results, noting the                           above) is higher than the
                  exceptions above, then the                          national average.
                  proportion = (3,500/6,000)
                  x 100 = 58.3%
Collection        Annual (academic year)           Data Source        Revised KS4 test results
interval                                                              as amended by schools
                                                                      checking exercise for
                                                                      publication of Secondary
                                                                      Achievement and
                                                                      Attainment Tables.
Return            Percentage                       Decimal Places     One
Format
Reporting         DCSF based on data reported by schools
organisation
Spatial level     Single tier and county council
Further           Guidance for Local Authorities on setting Education Performance Targets –
Guidance          issued September 2007.
                  Information on the National Curriculum
                  http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/management/atoz/n/nationalcurriculum/
122 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 98: Progression by 2 levels in Maths between Key Stage 3 and Key Stage 4
 Is the data provided by the LA or                                  N        Is this an existing indicator?   N
 a local partner?
 Rationale                   It is widely accepted that good numeracy is key to employability and further
                             study, and that more needs to be done to improve performance in this area.
                             The Government is therefore committed to ensuring that more children
                             master the basics and reach the end of the years of compulsory schooling
                             with 5 A*-C GCSE and equivalent including GCSE in Maths.
 Definition                  The number of pupils at the end of KS4 making 2 levels progress in Maths
                             between KS3 and KS4, as a percentage of the number of pupils at the end
                             of KS4 (with valid National Curriculum test results (including absent pupils
                             and pupils unable to access the test) at KS3).
                             Number of pupils at the end of KS4: these pupils must have matched, valid
                             results at KS3 (including absent (A) and unable to access the test (T)), with
                             the exception of pupils who achieved grades A or A* in GCSE English, who
                             are included in the denominator regardless of KS3 attainment.
                             KS3 is the stage of the National Curriculum between ages 11 and 14 years.
                             This indicator relates to tests taken by and teacher assessments of pupils at
                             the end of KS3.
                             Key Stage 4 is the stage of the National Curriculum between 14 and 16. This
                             indicator relates to full GCSEs in maths (i.e. those qualifications contributing
                             towards the 5 A*-C including English and maths indicator) taken by pupils at
                             the end of KS4.
                             Pupils’ attainment at KS3 is assessed in relation to the National Curriculum
                             and pupils are awarded levels on the National Curriculum scale to reflect
                             their attainment.
                             For pupils who attempted the National Curriculum test at the end of KS3 but
                             did not achieve the minimum level (Level 2), teacher-assessed levels are used
                             as a measure of attainment.
                             Pupils are defined as having made 2 levels of progress if they achieve one of
                             the following transitions between KS3 and the end of KS4:
                             •	   (working	towards	Level	1)	or	Level	1	at	KS3	to	grade	G	or	higher	in	GCSE
                             •	   Level	2	at	KS3	to	grade	F	or	higher	in	GCSE
                             •	   Level	3	at	KS3	to	grade	E	or	higher	in	GCSE
                             •	   Level	4	at	KS3	to	grade	D	or	higher	in	GCSE
                             •	   Level	5	at	KS3	to	grade	C	or	higher	in	GCSE
                             •	   Level	6	at	KS3	to	grade	B	or	higher	in	GCSE
                             •	   Level	7	at	KS3	to	grade	A	or	higher	in	GCSE
                             •	   Grade	A*	in	GCSE,	regardless	of	attainment	at	KS3
                             The coverage of this indicator is maintained mainstream schools including
                             Academies.
                                                                       Annex 2: Children and Young People 123




NI 98: Progression by 2 levels in Maths between Key Stage 3 and Key Stage 4 (continued)
Formula
                    x
                      * 100
                    y
                  Where:
                  x = number of pupils at the end of KS4 making 2 levels progress between
                  Key Stages, as defined above.
                  y = number of pupils at the end of KS4. These pupils must have matched,
                  valid results at KS3 (including absent (A) and unable to access the test (T)),
                  with the exception of pupils who achieved grade A* in GCSE maths, who
                  are included in the denominator regardless of KS3 attainment.
Worked            If 3,500 pupils make 2           Good              Good performance is
example           levels progress in maths         performance       exemplified where the
                  between KS3 and KS4,                               percentage achieving 2
                  and 6,000 pupils have                              levels progress (as defined
                  valid results, noting the                          above) is higher than the
                  exceptions above, then the                         national average.
                  proportion = (3,500/6,000)
                  x 100 = 58.3%
Collection        Annual (academic year)           Data Source       Revised KS4 test results
interval                                                             as amended by schools
                                                                     checking exercise for
                                                                     publication of Secondary
                                                                     Achievement and
                                                                     Attainment Tables.
Return            Percentage                       Decimal Places    One
Format
Reporting         DCSF based on data reported by schools
organisation
Spatial level     Single tier and county council
Further           Guidance for Local Authorities on setting Education Performance Targets –
Guidance          issued September 2007.
                  Information on the National Curriculum
                  http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/management/atoz/n/nationalcurriculum/
124 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 99: Looked after children reaching level 4 in English at Key Stage 2
 Is the data provided by the LA or a                                 Y         Is this an existing indicator?   N
 local partner?
 Rationale                   The educational achievement of looked after children is generally poor
                             compared to all children. In 2006, at Key Stage 2 (KS2), 42.8% of looked
                             after children achieved at least level 4 in English compared to 79% for
                             all children. The aim of this indicator is to measure the progress towards
                             narrowing the gap between looked after children and all children.
 Definition                  The number of looked after children who have been in care for at least one
                             year who were in year 6 (Key Stage 2) and who achieved at least level 4 in
                             English, as a percentage of the total number of looked after children who
                             were in care for at least one year who were in year 6 (Key Stage 2).
                             Any child who is 10 years old on 31 August before the start of the school
                             year is eligible for year 6 schooling. Children sitting their KS2 tests early (i.e.
                             those who are under 10 at 31 August just before the start of the school
                             year) should be excluded from the calculation.
                             Key Stage 2
                             this reflects achievement of children at age 11 years.
                             Level 4
                             this is the target level of attainment for a pupil at the end of Key Stage 2.
                             Looked After Children
                             The term of looked after children has a specific legal meaning deriving from
                             the Children Act 1989. Under the Children Act 1989, a child is looked after
                             by a local authority if he or she:
                             •	 is	provided	with	accommodation,	for	a	continuous	period	of	more	than	24	
                                hours, [Children Act 1989 Section 20 and 21];	or
                             •	 is	subject	to	a	care	order	[Children Act 1989 Part IV]
                             For further information on the definition of looked after children for the
                             purposes of DCSF data collection please see: http://www.dfes.gov.uk/
                             datastats1/guidelines/children/pdf/GuidanceNotes_2007-%2008_final_
                             version%201%200.pdf (page 6).
                             Looked after children who:
                             •	 have	repeated	an	earlier	academic	year	at	school	and	are	not	yet	being	entered	
                                for	Year	6	tests;
                             •	 were	disapplied	from	any	test	or	absent	(authorised	or	unauthorised)	for	any	
                                reason;
                             •	 or	are	excluded	or	not	attending	a	mainstream	school	should be included in
                                the calculation.
                             Looked after children who were not educated in England at the time of their
                             examination should be excluded from the calculation.
                                                                          Annex 2: Children and Young People 125




NI 99: Looked after children reaching level 4 in English at Key Stage 2 (continued)
Formula
                     x
                       * 100
                     y
                   Where:
                   x = Of Y, the number of looked after children who have been in care for at
                   least one year who were in year 6 (Key Stage 2) and who achieved at least
                   level 4 in English.
                   y = The total number of looked after children who were in care for at least
                   one year who were in year 6 (Key Stage 2).
                   Any child who is 10 years old on 31 August before the start of the school
                   year is eligible for year 6 schooling. Children sitting their KS2 tests early (i.e.
                   those who are under 10 at 31 August just before the start of the school
                   year) should be excluded from the calculation.
Worked             If the total number of     Good               Good performance is typified by
example            looked after children      performance        higher percentages.
                   in care for at least
                   one year who were
                   eligible for Year 6
                   (cohort defined above)
                   schooling = 40
                   And if the total
                   number of looked
                   after children who
                   have been in care
                   for at least one year,
                   achieved at least level
                   4 in English at KS2
                   = 23
                   Then the percentage
                   of children in care
                   achieving level 4 in
                   English at KS2
                   = (23/40)*100
                   = 57.5%
Collection         Annual (Figures based      Data Source        OC2 data collection (at present).
interval           on the academic year)                         In future the intention is to use
                                                                 the National Pupil Database,
                                                                 subject to consultation with local
                                                                 authorities.
Return             Percentage                 Decimal            One
Format                                        Places
Reporting          DCSF (based on data reported by local authorities)
organisation
126 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 99: Looked after children reaching level 4 in English at Key Stage 2 (continued)
 Spatial level               Single tier and county council
 Further                     More information on Key Stage 2 is available at:
 Guidance                    www.qca.org.uk/qca_7125.aspx
                             Detailed OC2 and SSDA903 guidance can be found at:
                             http://www.dcsf.gov.uk/datastats1/guidelines/children/returns.shtml
                                                                         Annex 2: Children and Young People 127




NI 100: Looked after children reaching level 4 in maths at Key Stage 2
Is the data provided by the LA or           Y      Is this an existing indicator?                       N
a local partner?
Rationale         The educational achievement of looked after children is poor compared to
                  all children. In 2006, at Key Stage 2 (KS2), 40.9% of looked after children
                  achieved at least level 4 in mathematics compared to 76% for all children.
                  The aim of this indicator is to measure the progress towards narrowing the
                  gap between looked after children and all children.
Definition        The number of looked after children who have been in care for at least one
                  year who were in year 6 (Key Stage 2) and who achieved at least level 4 in
                  mathematics, as a percentage of the total number of looked after children
                  who were in care for at least one year who were in year 6 (Key Stage 2).
                  Any child who is 10 years old on 31 August before the start of the school
                  year is eligible for year 6 schooling. Children sitting their KS2 tests early (i.e.
                  those who are under 10 at 31 August just before the start of the school
                  year) should be excluded from the calculation.
                  Key Stage 2
                  this reflects achievement of children at age 11 years.
                  Level 4
                  this is the target level of attainment for a pupil at the end of Key Stage 2.
                  Looked After Children
                  The term of looked after children has a specific legal meaning deriving from
                  the Children Act 1989. Under the Children Act 1989, a child is looked after
                  by a local authority if he or she:
                  •	 is	provided	with	accommodation,	for	a	continuous	period	of	more	than	24	
                     hours, [Children Act 1989 Section 20 and 21];	or
                  •	 is	subject	to	a	care	order [Children Act 1989 Part IV]
                  For further information on the definition of looked after children for the
                  purposes of DCSF data collection please see: http://www.dfes.gov.uk/
                  datastats1/guidelines/children/pdf/GuidanceNotes_2007-%2008_final_
                  version%201%200.pdf (page 6).
                  Looked after children who:
                  •	 have	repeated	an	earlier	academic	year	at	school	and	are	not	yet	being	entered	
                     for	Year	6	tests;
                  •	 were	disapplied	from	any	test	or	absent	(authorised	or	unauthorised)	for	any	
                     reason;
                  •	 or	are	excluded	or	not	attending	a	mainstream	school	should be included in
                     the calculation.
                  Looked after children who were not educated in England at the time of their
                  examinations should be excluded from the calculation.
128 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 100: Looked after children reaching level 4 in maths at Key Stage 2 (continued)
 Formula
                                x
                                  * 100
                                y
                             Where:
                             X = Of Y, the number of looked after children who have been in care for at
                             least one year who were in year 6 (Key Stage 2) who achieved at least level 4
                             in mathematics.
                             Y = The total number of looked after children who were in care for at least
                             one year who were in year 6 (Key Stage 2).
                             Any child who is 10 years old on 31 August just before the start of the
                             school year is eligible for year 6 schooling. Children sitting their KS2 tests
                             early (i.e. those who are under 10 at 31 August just before the start of the
                             school year) should be excluded from the calculation.
 Worked                      If the total number of                   Good                        Good performance is shown by
 example                     looked after children                    performance                 a high percentage.
                             in care for at least
                             one year who were
                             eligible for Year 6
                             (cohort defined above)
                             schooling = 40
                             And if the total number
                             of looked after children
                             who have been in care
                             for at least one year,
                             achieved at least level 4
                             in mathematics at KS2
                             = 23
                             Then the percentage
                             of children in care
                             achieving level 4 in
                             Maths at KS2
                             = (23/40)*100 = 57.5%
 Collection                  Annual (Figures based                    Data Source                 OC2 data collection (at present).
 interval                    on the academic year)                                                In future the intention is to use
                                                                                                  the National Pupil Database,
                                                                                                  subject to consultation with
                                                                                                  local authorities.
 Return                      Percentage                               Decimal                     One
 Format                                                               Places
 Reporting                   DCSF (based on data reported by local authorities)
 organisation
                                                                        Annex 2: Children and Young People 129




NI 100: Looked after children reaching level 4 in maths at Key Stage 2 (continued)
Spatial level     Single tier and county council
Further           More information on Key Stage 2 is available at:
Guidance          www.qca.org.uk/qca_7125.aspx
                  Detailed OC2 and SSDA903 guidance can be found at:
                  www.dcsf.gov.uk/datastats1/guidelines/children/returns.shtml
130 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 101: Looked after children achieving 5 A*-C GCSEs (or equivalent) at Key Stage 4 (including
 English and maths)
 Is the data provided by the LA or                                  Y        Is this an existing indicator?     N
 a local partner?
 Rationale                   The educational achievement of looked after children at GCSE level is
                             significantly lower than all children (11.8% achieved 5A*-C in 2006). The
                             aim of this indicator is to measure the progress towards narrowing the gap
                             between looked after children and all children.
 Definition                  The number of looked after children who were in care for at least one year who
                             were in year 11 and achieved the equivalent of at least 5 A*-C GCSEs, including
                             English and mathematics (or equivalent) as a percentage of the total number of
                             looked after children who were in care for at least one year who were in year 11.
                             Any child who is 15 years old on 31 August before the start of the school year is
                             eligible for year 11 schooling. Children sitting their year 11 exams early (i.e. those
                             who are under 15 at 31 August just before the start of the school year) should be
                             excluded from the calculation.
                             Key Stage 4
                             This reflects achievement of children in school year 11.
                             5A*-C GCSEs (or equivalent) including English and Mathematics
                             This is the target level of attainment for a pupil at the end of Key Stage 4. For
                             data collected via the looked after children OC2 data collection in 2008-9 only
                             GNVQs should be counted as GCSE equivalents. Data collected via the National
                             Pupil Database will both replicate the OC2 data collection and provide data on all
                             qualifications approved for use with compulsory school age pupils under section
                             96 of the Learning and Skills Act 2000 that count as GCSE equivalents.
                             From April 2009 local authorities will report on the percentage of looked
                             after children achieving 5 A*-C at GCSE (or equivalent) including English
                             and mathematics. This will take place either via the National Pupil Database or we
                             will seek to make changes to the OC2 data collection for looked after children.
                             Looked After Children
                             The term of looked after children has a specific legal meaning deriving from the
                             Children Act 1989. Under the Children Act 1989, a child is looked after by a local
                             authority if he or she:
                             •	 is	provided	with	accommodation,	for	a	continuous	period	of	more	than	24	
                                hours, [Children Act 1989 Section 20 and 21];	or
                             •	 is	subject	to	a	care	order	[Children Act 1989 Part IV]
                                                                        Annex 2: Children and Young People 131




NI 101: Looked after children achieving 5 A*-C GCSEs (or equivalent) at Key Stage 4 (including
English and maths) (continued)
Definition        For further information on the definition of looked after children for the
(continued)       purposes of DCSF data collection please see: http://www.dfes.gov.uk/
                  datastats1/guidelines/children/pdf/GuidanceNotes_2007-%2008_final_
                  version%201%200.pdf (page 6).
                  Looked after children who:
                  •	 have	repeated	an	earlier	academic	year	at	school	and	are	not	yet	being	entered	
                     for	Year	11	exams;
                  •	 were	disapplied	from	tests	or	absent	(authorised	or	unauthorised)	for	any	
                     reason;
                  •	 are	excluded	or	not	attending	a	mainstream	school	(for	example	looked	
                     after children in educational institutions such as Pupil Referral units or Young
                     Offenders Institutions)
                  should be included in the calculation.
                  Looked after children who were not educated in England at the time of their
                  examinations should be excluded from the calculation.
Formula
                    x
                      * 100
                    y
                  Where:
                  x = Of Y, the number of looked after children who were in care for at least
                  one year who were in year 11 and achieved the equivalent of at least 5 A*-C
                  GCSEs, including English and maths (or equivalent).
                  Y = The total number of looked after children who were in care for at least
                  one year who were in year 11.
                  Any child who is 15 years old on 31 August before the start of the school
                  year is eligible for year 11 schooling. Children sitting their year 11 exams
                  early (i.e. those who are under 15 at 31 August just before the start of the
                  school year) should be excluded from the calculation
132 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 101: Looked after children achieving 5 A*-C GCSEs (or equivalent) at Key Stage 4 (including
 English and maths) (continued)
 Worked                      If the total number of        Good                                           Good performance is
 example                     looked after children in care performance                                    shown by high percentage.
                             for at least one year who
                             were in year 11 (cohort
                             defined above) = 50
                             And if the total number
                             of looked after children
                             who have been in care
                             for at least one year, who
                             achieved at least 5 GCSEs
                             at A*-C (or equivalent),
                             including English and
                             mathematics = 8
                             Then the percentage of
                             children in care achieving
                             this level at KS4
                             = (8/50)*100 = 16.0%
 Collection                  Annual (Figures based on                       Data Source                   OC2 data collection (at
 interval                    the academic year)                                                           present). In future the
                                                                                                          intention is to use the
                                                                                                          National Pupil Database,
                                                                                                          subject to consultation
                                                                                                          with local authorities.
 Return                      Percentage                                     Decimal Places                One
 Format
 Reporting                   DCSF based on data reported by local authorities
 organisation
 Spatial level               Single tier and county council
 Further                     More information on Key Stage 4 is available at:
 Guidance                    www.qca.org.uk/qca_7125.aspx.
                             Detailed OC2 and SSDA903 guidance can be found at:
                             www.dcsf.gov.uk/datastats1/guidelines/children/returns.shtml
                                                                        Annex 2: Children and Young People 133




NI 102: Achievement gap between pupils eligible for free school meals and their peers achieving
the expected level at Key Stages 2 and 4
Is the data provided by the LA or            Y      Is this an existing indicator?                    N
a local partner?
Rationale         To narrow the gap in achievement between children from disadvantaged
                  backgrounds and their peers.
Definition        This indicator is made up of two measures:
                  The percentage point gap between pupils eligible for free schools meals
                  (FSM) achieving at least Level 4 in English and Maths at Key Stage (KS) 2 and
                  pupils ineligible for FSM achieving the same outcome.
                  The percentage point gap between pupils eligible for FSM achieving 5A*-C
                  grades at GCSE (and equivalent), including GCSE English and Maths, at KS4
                  and pupils ineligible for FSM achieving the same outcome.
                  KS2 is the stage of the National Curriculum between ages 8 and 11 years.
                  This indicator relates to tests taken by 11 year olds. Pupils’ attainment is
                  assessed in relation to the National Curriculum and pupils are awarded levels
                  on the National Curriculum scale to reflect their attainment.
                  KS4 is the stage of the National Curriculum between the ages of 14 and 16
                  years. GCSE is the principal means of assessing pupil attainment at the end
                  of compulsory secondary education. Grades A* to G are classified as passes,
                  grades A* to C as good passes and grades U and X as fails.
                  Qualifications equivalent to GCSEs are those which have been approved for
                  use	pre-16	(including	GCSE	short	courses;	Vocational	GCSEs;	Full	GNVQs;	
                  GNVQ	language	units;	NVQs	and	VRQs).	English	is	defined	as	all	English	
                  GCSEs except English Literature. Maths is defined as all maths GCSEs except
                  statistics.
                  Figures are cumulative – the data includes all results achieved by pupils in a
                  particular year as well as any results those pupils obtained in earlier years.
                  Free school meals – children whose parents receive the following are entitled
                  to free school meals:
                  •	 Income	Support	(IS);
                  •	 Income	Based	Jobseekers	Allowance	(IBJSA);
                  •	 Support	under	part	VI	of	the	Immigration	and	Asylum	Act	1999;
                  •	 Child	Tax	Credit,	provided	they	are	not	entitled	to	Working	Tax	Credit	and	have	
                      an annual income, as assessed by the Inland Revenue, that (for 2007/2008)
                      does	not	exceed	£14,495;	or
                  •	 The	guaranteed	element	of	State	Pension	Credit.
                  Children who receive IS or IBJSA in their own right are also entitled to free
                  school meals.
134 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 102: Achievement gap between pupils eligible for free school meals and their peers achieving
 the expected level at Key Stages 2 and 4 (continued)
 Formula                     This indicator requires two separate equations for KS2 and KS4
                                         x1                     x2
                             G=                * 100                    * 100
                                         y1                     y2

                             Where for KS2:
                             G = achievement gap between pupils eligible for free school meals and their
                             peers achieving at least Level 4 in English and Maths at KS2
                             x1 = number of pupils not eligible for FSM and achieving at least Level 4 in
                             English and Maths at KS2
                             y1 = number of pupils not eligible for FSM and eligible for KS2 assessment
                             x2 = number of pupils eligible for FSM and achieving at least Level 4 in
                             English and Maths at KS2
                             y2 = number of pupils eligible for FSM and eligible for KS2 assessment
                             Where for KS4:
                             G = achievement gap between pupils eligible for free school meals and their
                             peers achieving 5A*-C grades or equivalent including English and Maths at
                             KS4
                             x1 = number of pupils not eligible for FSM and achieving 5A*-C grades or
                             equivalent including English and Maths at KS4
                             y1 = number of pupils not eligible for FSM and eligible for KS4 assessment
                             x2 = number of pupils eligible for FSM and achieving 5A*-C or equivalent
                             including English and Maths at KS4
                             y2 = number of pupils eligible for FSM and eligible for KS4 assessment
 Worked                      If 700 pupils not eligible for                  Good                         Good performance is
 example                     FSM achieve 5A*-C grades                        performance                  demonstrated by a lower
                             or equivalent including                                                      percentage point gap
                             English and Maths at KS4                                                     between pupils eligible for
                             and 1,000 pupils not eligible                                                FSM and pupils ineligible
                             for FSM and are eligible for                                                 for FSM and an increase in
                             assessment	at	KS4;	and                                                       the percentage of pupils
                             if 150 pupils eligible for FSM                                               eligible for FSM. achieving at
                             achieve 5A*-C grades or                                                      least level 4 in English and
                             equivalent including English                                                 Maths at Key Stage 2 and
                             and Maths at KS4 and 300                                                     5 A*-C grades at GCSE and
                             pupils eligible for FSM and                                                  equivalent at Key Stage 4.
                             are eligible for assessment
                             at	KS4;
                             Then the percentage point
                             gap =
                                 700                     150
                                         * 100                  * 100
                                1,000                    300
                                                 20%
                                                   percentage points
                                                                      Annex 2: Children and Young People 135




NI 102: Achievement gap between pupils eligible for free school meals and their peers achieving
the expected level at Key Stages 2 and 4 (continued)
Collection        Annual (based on academic        Data Source     Revised KS2 and KS4
interval          year, published in January)                      test results as amended
                                                                   by schools checking
                                                                   exercise for publication of
                                                                   Secondary Achievement and
                                                                   Attainment Tables
                                                                   FSM data are collected by
                                                                   the Department for Children,
                                                                   Schools and Families (DCSF)
                                                                   as part of the pupil level
                                                                   School Census, which
                                                                   contains information on
                                                                   personal characteristics of
                                                                   pupils in maintained schools.
                                                                   The DCSF collates all of
                                                                   the data, enabling it to be
                                                                   matched to the National
                                                                   Pupil Database.
Return            Percentage points                Decimal         One
Format                                             Places
Reporting         DCSF based on data reported by local authorities
organisation
Spatial level     Single tier and county council
Further           Guidance for Local Authorities on setting Education Performance Targets –
Guidance          issued August 2007.
                  Information on the National Curriculum
                  http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/management/atoz/n/nationalcurriculum/
136 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 103: Special Educational Needs – statements issued within 26 weeks
 Is the data provided by the LA or                                  Y        Is this an existing indicator?   N
 a local partner?
 Rationale                   To monitor and encourage the prompt completion of statements.
 Definition                  A) Percentage of final statements of special education need issued
                             within 26 weeks excluding exception cases as a proportion of all such
                             statements issued in the year.
                             B) Percentage of final statements of special education need issued
                             within 26 weeks as a proportion of all such statements issued in the
                             year.
                             The exceptions are those set out in the Education (Special Educational Needs)
                             (England) (Consolidation) Regulations 2001, sections 12(5), 12(7) and 12(9).
                             The regulations are reproduced in Annex A of the SEN Code of Practice
                             2001. See www.teachernet.gov.uk/SEN.
                             This indicator covers statements issued for the first time (not reassessments)
                             within the financial year.
                             The start of the 26 week period is the date on which a request for
                             assessment is received from a responsible body – parents, school or early
                             years setting – or the date on which the authority issues a notice to parents
                             that	a	statutory	assessment	is	being	considered;	this	is	‘Day	1’.	A	referral	
                             from another agency, such as Health, is not a request from a responsible
                             body. In these circumstances, the timescale would start from the date that
                             the authority issues a notice to parents that a statutory assessment is being
                             considered. The 26 week period comprises Day 1 + 181 calendar days.
                             The end of the period is the date on which the authority issues the final
                             statement or the date on which the authority notifies the parent that a
                             statement is not necessary. Only count Day 1 as the date that the authority
                             issues a notice to parents if the request for a statement is not received from
                             a ‘responsible body’ – e.g. a health authority.
                             A Note in Lieu is not part of the statutory requirement but the Code of
                             Practice makes it clear that it is good practice to issue one following the
                             notice to parents.
                             Refusal to assess: Where a request is refused, it should not be included in the
                             count. If an order to carry out an assessment is later made by the SEN and
                             Disability Tribunal (SENDIST), the authority must notify the child’s parent that
                             they will make an assessment within 4 weeks of the date of the order. (See
                             Part IV, section 25 – (2) of the Consolidation Regulations 2001). In this case
                             the assessment should be included in the count with the date that the child’s
                             parent was notified as the start date.
                             Where an exception is known to apply to the statutory time limits for the
                             assessment, the assessment should only be included in part B. Where no
                             exception is known to apply the assessment should be included in both parts
                             A and B.
                                                                      Annex 2: Children and Young People 137




NI 103: Special Educational Needs – statements issued within 26 weeks (continued)
Formula           A) Percentage of final statements of special education need issued within
                  26 weeks excluding exception cases as a proportion of all such statements
                  issued in the year.
                    x
                      * 100
                    y
                  Where:
                  x = Final statements of special education need excluding exception cases
                  issued within 26 weeks.
                  y = All final statements of special education need issued (excluding exception
                  cases).
                  B) Percentage of final statements of special education need issued within 26
                  weeks as a proportion of all such statements issued in the year.

                    x
                      * 100
                    y
                  Where:
                  x = Final statements of special educational need issued within 26 weeks,
                  including exceptions.
                  y = All final statements of special educational need.
Worked            If, for B, 75 statements   Good             Good performance is typified by
example           of special educational     performance      higher percentages.
                  needs are issued, of
                  which 69 are issued
                  within 26 weeks
                  including exceptions,
                  then:
                  (69/75) * 100 =
                  92.0%.
138 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 103: Special Educational Needs – statements issued within 26 weeks (continued)
 Collection                  Annual for financial                    Data Source                Local authorities will be asked
 interval                    year.                                                              to provide information to the
                             It covers statements                                               Department for Communities
                             issued before the end                                              and Local Government.
                             of the financial year.
                             Where a statutory
                             assessment starts in
                             one financial year
                             but the process is
                             not complete until
                             the subsequent
                             financial year, it
                             should be counted
                             for the purposes
                             of this indicator in
                             the statistics for the
                             subsequent financial
                             year.
 Return                      Percentages (A and B)                   Decimal                    One
 Format                                                              Places
 Reporting                   Local authority
 organisation
 Spatial level               Single tier and county council
 Further                     The exceptions are those set out in the Education (Special Educational Needs)
 Guidance                    (England) (Consolidation) Regulations 2001, paragraphs 12.5, 12.7 and
                             12.9. The regulations are reproduced in Annex A of the SEN Code of Practice
                             2001. See www.teachernet.gov.uk/SEN
                                                                          Annex 2: Children and Young People 139




NI 104: The Special Educational Needs (SEN)/non-SEN gap – achieving Key Stage 2 English and
Maths threshold
Is the data provided by the LA or              Y       Is this an existing indicator?                    Y
a local partner?
Rationale         To encourage improvement in the attainment of children with Special
                  Educational Needs (SEN).
Definition        The percentage point gap between pupils who are identified as
                  having special educational needs who achieve the expected national
                  curriculum level 4 or above in both English and Maths at Key Stage
                  (KS) 2 and their peers (pupils who have not been identified as having
                  special educational needs).
                  KS2 is the stage of the National Curriculum between ages 8 and 11 years.
                  This indicator relates to tests taken by 11 year olds at the end of KS2 within
                  maintained schools in the local authority. Pupils’ attainment is assessed in
                  relation to the National Curriculum and pupils are awarded levels on the
                  National Curriculum scale to reflect their attainment.
                  Those with special educational needs for the purposes of this indicator
                  are those who were identified at the beginning of KS2 (in the first year in
                  which they followed the Key Stage 2 programme of study) as having special
                  educational needs as defined by Section 312 of the Education Act 1996. This
                  includes those at the School Action and School Action Plus levels of provision
                  and those with a statement of SEN maintained by the local authority. Pupils
                  for whom there is no information about SEN at the start of KS2 are not
                  counted within this indicator.
                  This indicator covers pupils at maintained schools, including academies.
Formula                    x1             x2
                  G=            * 100              * 100
                           y1             y2

                  Where:
                  G = achievement gap between pupils identified as having special educational
                  needs and their peers achieving at least level 4 at KS2
                  x1 = number of pupils not identified as having special educational needs and
                  achieving at least level 4 in English and Maths at KS2
                  y1 = number of pupils not identified as having special educational needs and
                  eligible for KS2 assessment
                  x2 = number of pupils identified as having special educational needs and
                  achieving at least level 4 in English and Maths at KS2
                  y2 = number of pupils identified as having special educational needs and
                  eligible for KS2 assessment
                  Note: x1 is a subset of y1 and x2 is a subset of y2
140 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 104: The Special Educational Needs (SEN)/non-SEN gap – achieving Key Stage 2 English and
 Maths threshold (continued)
 Worked                      If 700 pupils not identified Good                                            Good performance is typified
 example                     as having special             performance                                    by lower percentage point
                             educational needs at the                                                     gap between pupils identified
                             start of KS2 achieve at                                                      as having special educational
                             least level 4 in English and                                                 needs and their peers.
                             Maths at KS2 in 2008                                                         It is possible for the
                             and 1,000 pupils not                                                         percentage point gap
                             identified as having special                                                 between SEN and non-SEN
                             educational needs at the                                                     pupils to be lower without
                             start of KS2 are eligible for                                                improving the educational
                             assessment	at	KS2	in	2008;	                                                  attainment of SEN pupils.
                             and                                                                          Therefore good performance
                             if 150 pupils identified as                                                  should also be typified by
                             having special educational                                                   higher percentage of SEN
                             needs at the start of KS2                                                    pupils achieving at least level
                             achieve at least level 4 in                                                  4 in English and Maths at
                             English and Maths at KS2                                                     KS2.
                             in 2008 and 300 pupils
                             identified as having special
                             educational needs at the
                             start of KS2 are eligible for
                             assessment	at	KS2	In	2008;
                             Then the percentage point
                             gap
                             = ((700/1,000)*100) minus
                             ((150/300)*100)
                             = 70.0% – 50.0%
                             = 20.0%
                                  700                  150
                                         * 100                * 100
                                1,000                   300
                                                 20%
                                                   percentage points
                                                                     Annex 2: Children and Young People 141




NI 104: The Special Educational Needs (SEN)/non-SEN gap – achieving Key Stage 2 English and
Maths threshold (continued)
Collection        Annual based on results at      Data Source     Revised KS2 test results
interval          the end of the academic                         as amended by schools
                  year.                                           checking exercise for
                                                                  publication of Secondary
                                                                  Achievement and Attainment
                                                                  Tables
                                                                  SEN data are collected by the
                                                                  Department for Children,
                                                                  Schools and Families (DCSF)
                                                                  as part of the pupil level
                                                                  School Census, which
                                                                  contains information on
                                                                  personal characteristics of
                                                                  pupils in maintained schools.
                                                                  The DCSF collates all of
                                                                  the data, enabling it to be
                                                                  matched to the National
                                                                  Pupil Database.
Return            Percentage point gap            Decimal         One
Format                                            Places
Reporting         DCSF
organisation
Spatial level     Single tier or county council
Further           The SEN Code of Practice
Guidance          (http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/wholeschool/sen/sencodeintro/ ) includes the
                  definition of SEN and related regulations.
                  Guidance for Local Authorities on setting Education Performance Targets –
                  issued August 2007 (http://www.standards.dcsf.gov.uk/ts/)
                  Information on the National Curriculum
                  http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/management/atoz/n/nationalcurriculum/
142 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 105: The Special Educational Needs (SEN)/non-SEN gap – achieving 5 A*- C GCSE inc. English
 and Maths
 Is the data provided by the LA or                                 Y         Is this an existing indicator?   Y
 a local partner?
 Rationale                   To encourage improvement in the attainment of children with Special
                             Educational Needs (SEN).
 Definition                  The percentage point gap between pupils who are identified as
                             having special educational needs who achieve 5 A*-C GCSE grades
                             or equivalent including English and Maths at Key Stage (KS) 4 and
                             their peers (pupils who have not been identified as having special
                             educational needs).
                             KS4 is the stage of the National Curriculum between the ages of 14 and
                             16 years. GCSE is the principal means of assessing pupil attainment at the
                             end of compulsory secondary education. Grades A* to G are classified
                             as passes, grades A* to C as good passes and grades U and X as fails.
                             This measure should cover all pupils at the end of key stage 4 who are in
                             schools maintained by the local authority (including those who are in non-
                             maintained special schools and independent schools by virtue of a statement
                             maintained by the local authority).
                             Those with special educational needs for the purposes of this indicator
                             are those who were identified at the beginning of KS4 as having special
                             educational needs as defined by Section 312 of the Education Act 1996. This
                             includes those at the School Action and School Action Plus levels of provision
                             and those with a statement of SEN maintained by the local authority. Pupils
                             for whom there is no information about SEN at the start of KS4 are not
                             counted within this indicator.
                             This indicator covers pupils at maintained schools, including academies.
                                                                        Annex 2: Children and Young People 143




NI 105: The Special Educational Needs (SEN)/non-SEN gap – achieving 5 A*- C GCSE inc. English
and Maths (continued)
Formula                    x1             x2
                  G=            * 100          * 100
                           y1             y2

                  Where:
                  G = achievement gap between pupils identified as having special educational
                  needs and their peers achieving 5A*-C grades or equivalent including
                  English and Maths at KS4
                  x1 = number of pupils not identified as having special educational needs at
                  the beginning of KS4 and achieving 5A*-C grades or equivalent including
                  English and Maths at the end of KS4
                  y1 = number of pupils not identified as having special educational needs at
                  the beginning of KS4 and eligible for KS4 assessment
                  x2 = number of pupils identified as having special educational needs at
                  the beginning of KS4 and achieving 5A*-C grades or equivalent including
                  English and Maths at the end of KS4
                  y2 = number of pupils identified as having special educational needs at the
                  beginning of KS4 and eligible for KS4 assessment
                  Note: x1 is a subset of y1 and x2 is a subset of y2
144 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 105: The Special Educational Needs (SEN)/non-SEN gap – achieving 5 A*- C GCSE inc. English
 and Maths (continued)
 Worked                      If 700 pupils not identified Good                                        Good performance is typified
 example                     as having special            performance                                 by lower percentage point
                             educational needs at the                                                 gap between pupils identified
                             start of KS4 achieve 5A*-C                                               as having special educational
                             grades or equivalent                                                     needs and their peers.
                             including English and                                                    It is possible for the
                             Maths at KS4 in 2008                                                     percentage point gap
                             and 1,000 pupils not                                                     between SEN and non-SEN
                             identified as having special                                             pupils to be lower without
                             educational needs at the                                                 improving the educational
                             start of KS4 are eligible                                                attainment of SEN pupils.
                             for assessment at KS4 in                                                 Therefore good performance
                             2008;	and                                                                should also be typified by
                             if 150 pupils identified as                                              higher percentage of SEN
                             having special educational                                               pupils achieving 5A*-C
                             needs at the start of KS4                                                grades or equivalent including
                             achieve 5A*-C grades                                                     English and Maths at KS4.
                             or equivalent including
                             English and Maths at KS4
                             in 2008 and 300 pupils
                             identified as having special
                             educational needs at the
                             start of KS4 are eligible for
                             assessment	at	KS4;
                             Then the percentage point
                             gap =
                                 700                   150
                                         * 100                * 100
                                1,000                  300
                                                 20%
                                                   percentage points
                                                                     Annex 2: Children and Young People 145




NI 105: The Special Educational Needs (SEN)/non-SEN gap – achieving 5 A*- C GCSE inc. English
and Maths (continued)
Collection        Annual based on results at   Data Source       Revised KS4 test results as
interval          the end of the academic                        amended by schools checking
                  year.                                          exercise for publication of
                                                                 Secondary Achievement and
                                                                 Attainment Tables
                                                                 SEN data are collected by the
                                                                 Department for Children,
                                                                 Schools and Families (DCSF)
                                                                 as part of the pupil level
                                                                 School Census, which
                                                                 contains information on
                                                                 personal characteristics of
                                                                 pupils in maintained schools.
                                                                 The DCSF collates all of
                                                                 the data, enabling it to be
                                                                 matched to the National Pupil
                                                                 Database.
Return            Percentage point gap         Decimal           One
Format                                         Places
Reporting         DCSF
organisation
Spatial level     Single tier and county council
Further           The SEN Code of Practice
Guidance          (http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/wholeschool/sen/sencodeintro/ )
                  includes the definition of SEN and related regulations.
                  Guidance for Local Authorities on setting Education Performance Targets –
                  issued August 2007 (http://www.standards.dcsf.gov.uk/ts/)
                  Information on the National Curriculum
                  http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/management/atoz/n/nationalcurriculum/
146 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 106: Young people from low income backgrounds progressing to higher education
 Is the data provided by the LA or                                  N        Is this an existing indicator?   N
 a local partner?
 Rationale                   To increase the proportion of young people from low income backgrounds
                             progressing to Higher Education (HE). This fits with the overall aims of
                             DCSF’s PSAs 10 & 11, which seek both to raise standards for all and narrow
                             attainment gaps.
 Definition                  The indicator takes the form of the gap between the proportions of 15
                             year olds eligible for free school meals (FSM) and those not eligible for FSM
                             progressing to higher education at the age of 18 or 19.
                             The two progression rates to HE will be quoted alongside the gap to provide
                             context.
                             Eligible for free school meals
                             Children are entitled to FSM if their parents receive any of the following:
                             •	 Income	Support	
                             •	 Income-based	Jobseeker’s	Allowance	
                             •	 Support	under	Part	VI	of	the	Immigration	and	Asylum	Act	1999	
                             •	 Child	Tax	Credit,	provided	they	are	not	entitled	to	Working	Tax	Credit	
                                and have an annual income (as assessed by HM Revenue & Customs) that
                                does not exceed £14,155
                             •	 The	Guarantee	element	of	State	Pension	Credit	
                             Children who receive Income Support or income-based Job Seeker’s
                             Allowance in their own right qualify as well.
                             Higher education (HE) students are those students on programmes of study
                             for which the level of instruction is above that of level 3 of the National
                             Qualifications Framework, i.e. courses leading to the Advanced Level of the
                             General Certificate of Education (GCE A-levels), the Advanced Level of the
                             Vocational Certificate of Education (VCE A-levels) or the Advanced Higher
                             Grade and Higher Grade of the Scottish Qualifications Authority (SQA)
                             Advanced Highers/Highers).
                             This indicator is calculated using National Pupil Database (NPD) School
                             Census records and Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA) Student
                             Records, which have been matched allowing the progress of pupils from
                             schools to higher education institutions to be tracked.
                             Students are selected who are/are not eligible for FSM at age 15 (i.e. in Year
                             11), and then of those students we determine how many are found in the
                             HESA Student Record during the two academic years at the start of which
                             they were aged 18 and 19. For example, pupils selected who were aged 15
                             at the start of academic year 2001/02, would be found in the HESA Student
                             Record aged 18 at the start of 20 04/05 and/or aged 19 at the start of
                             2005/06 if they progressed to HE.
                                                                   Annex 2: Children and Young People 147




NI 106: Young people from low income backgrounds progressing to higher education (continued)
Definition       To calculate the indicator, we select those students who were in receipt of
(continued)      FSM aged 15, then we determine the number of those students who were
                 recorded in the HESA Student Record as studying for an HE qualification
                 during the years that those students were aged 18 and 19. Using these
                 numbers, we provide a percentage of the 15 year olds, who are in receipt of
                 FSM, who go on to attend HE aged 18 or 19. This is repeated for students
                 who were not in receipt of FSM, and the FSM percentage is subtracted from
                 the non-FSM percentage to provide a gap in progression to HE.
                 Figures can be calculated nationally, and will be broken down to provide the
                 two progression rates and ‘gap’ for each Local Authority. The Local Authority
                 is that to which each pupil’s school, at Key Stage 4 level, reported.
                 Notes:
                 1. The School Census collects information on FSM status for pupils in
                    maintained schools.
                 2. The HESA Student Record does not record students studying HE courses
                    at any of the following:
                 •	 Private	HE	providers
                 •	 Overseas	HE	institutions
                 •	 Further	education	colleges	(unless	part	of	a	franchise	arrangement	with	a	
                    UK HE institution)

Formula



                 Where:
                 X1 = number of young people eligible for FSM at age 15 who are in HE
                 at age 18 or 19.
                 Y1 = number of young people eligible for FSM at age 15.
                 X2 = number of young people not eligible for FSM at age 15 who are in HE
                 at age 18 or 19.
                 Y2 = number of young people not eligible for FSM at age 15.
148 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 106: Young people from low income backgrounds progressing to higher education (continued)
 Worked                      Suppose that there are                   Good                        Gap reduction in broader
 example                     4,000 young people                       performance                 context of improvement for all
                             in a Local Authority
                             aged 15 at the start
                             of the academic year.
                             1,000 are claiming free
                             school meals and 3,000
                             are not. 150 of those
                             on free school meals
                             and 750 of those not
                             on free school meals
                             are found to have
                             progressed to HE aged
                             18 or 19. Then for this
                             Local Authority the
                             indicator would look
                             like the following.
                               750           150
                                    100            100
                              3000          1000
                             = 25% 15%
                             = 10% percentage points
                             This would give a 10
                             percentage point gap.
 Collection                  Annual (academic year                    Data Source                 Linked NPD-HESA data
 interval                    basis)                                                               This data source matches data
                                                                                                  from:
                                                                                                  NPD: National Pupil Database
                                                                                                  HESA: Higher Education
                                                                                                  Statistics Agency
 Return                      Percentage points                        Decimal                     None
 Format                                                               Places
 Reporting                   DIUS
 organisation
 Spatial level               Single tier and county council
 Further
 Guidance
                                                                         Annex 2: Children and Young People 149




NI 107: Key Stage 2 attainment for Black and minority ethnic groups
Is the data provided by the LA or            Y     Is this an existing indicator?                       N
a local partner?
Rationale         It is widely accepted that good literacy and numeracy are key to employability
                  and further study, and that more needs to be done both to improve general
                  performance in these areas and to narrow attainment gaps for those groups
                  of minority ethnic pupils for whom performance gaps are currently large. The
                  Government is committed to ensuring that more children master the basics and,
                  within that, attainment gaps close.
                  This is an important indicator of progress in narrowing the gap between end of
                  Early Years Foundation stage and end of primary education, as well as providing
                  an indicator of likely attainment at GCSE.
Definition        Percentage of pupils in a cohort of Key Stage 2 pupils from a minority ethnic
                  group containing more than 30 pupils who achieve level 4+ in English and
                  Mathematics.
                  The size of the cohort is calculated across the local authority. Where a particular
                  black and minority ethnic (BME) group has more than 30 pupils an indicator value
                  is calculated /reported for that group.
                  Minority ethnic groups measured for the purposes of this indicator include any
                  ethnic group where there are over 30 pupils from that group in any particular
                  cohort.
                  There are 18 main census groups: Under the overarching ‘White’ category
                  there are the following groups – White British, Irish, Traveller of Irish heritage,
                  Gypsy/Roma, and Any Other White Background. Under the overarching ‘Mixed’
                  category there are the following groups – White and Black Caribbean, White and
                  Black African, White and Asian, and Any Other Mixed Background. Under the
                  overarching ‘Asian’ category there are the following groups – Indian, Pakistani,
                  Bangladeshi, and ‘Any Other Asian Background. Under the overarching ‘Black’
                  category there are the following groups – Black Caribbean, Black African and
                  Any Other Black Background. The final 2 categories are ‘Chinese’ and ‘Any Other
                  Ethnic Group’. In addition, there are sub-categories of the 18 main census groups
                  above which LAs may choose to use locally.
                  Key Stage (KS) 2 is the stage of the National Curriculum between ages 8 and 11
                  years. This indicator relates to tests taken by 11 year olds at the end of KS2.
                  Pupils’ attainment is assessed in relation to the National Curriculum and pupils are
                  awarded levels on the National Curriculum scale to reflect their attainment.
150 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 107: Key Stage 2 attainment for Black and minority ethnic groups (continued)
 Formula                        x
                                  * 100
                                y
                             Where:
                             X = of the pupils in the denominator the number who achieve level 4+ in English
                             and Mathematics.
                             Y = the cohort of Key Stage 2 pupils from a minority ethnic group containing
                             more than 30 pupils with valid test results at KS2.
 Worked                      For each minority ethnic                 Good                        Good performance is typified by
 example                     group identified, if of                  performance                 higher percentages accompanied
                             600 pupils in the cohort                                             by a narrowing of the attainment
                             group 450 achieve level                                              gap between minority ethnic
                             4+ in both English and                                               pupils and all pupils.
                             Maths ,
                             (450/600) * 100
                              = 75.0%
 Collection                  Annual for the academic                  Data Source                 Pupil Level Annual School Census
 interval                    year.                                                                (PLASC) and revised KS2 test
                                                                                                  results as amended by schools
                                                                                                  checking exercise for publication
                                                                                                  of Secondary Achievement and
                                                                                                  Attainment Tables.
 Return                      Percentage                               Decimal                     One
 Format                                                               Places
 Reporting                   DCSF
 organisation
 Spatial level               Single tier and county council
 Further                     Guidance for Local Authorities on setting Education Performance Targets – issued
 Guidance                    August 2007. Further clarification will be published In March 2008. Information
                             on the National Curriculum http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/management/atoz/n/
                             nationalcurriculum/
                             Guidance on minority ethnic pupils’ attainment
                             http://www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/ethnicminorities/
                                                                         Annex 2: Children and Young People 151




NI 108: Key Stage 4 attainment for Black and minority ethnic groups
Is the data provided by the LA or            Y     Is this an existing indicator?                       N
a local partner?
Rationale         Key Stage 4 achievement is an essential measure of pupil attainment at the end
                  of statutory education. The relative attainment of some minority ethnic groups
                  demonstrates a specific and persistent attainment gap. Although, for most
                  groups, this gap has narrowed, far more progress remains to be made before it
                  closes. This indicator shows progress made in closing the gap between Key Stages
                  2 and 4.
Definition        Percentage of pupils in a cohort of Key Stage 4 pupils from a minority ethnic
                  group containing more than 30 pupils who achieve 5 A*-C, including English and
                  mathematics.
                  The size of the cohort is calculated across the local authority. Where a particular
                  black and minority ethnic (BME) group has more than 30 pupils an indicator value
                  is calculated / reported for that group.
                  Minority ethnic groups measured for the purposes of this indicator include any
                  ethnic group where there are over 30 pupils from that group in any particular
                  cohort.
                  There are 18 main census groups: Under the overarching ‘White’ category
                  there are the following groups – White British, Irish, Traveller of Irish heritage,
                  Gypsy/Roma, and Any Other White Background. Under the overarching ‘Mixed’
                  category there are the following groups – White and Black Caribbean, White and
                  Black African, White and Asian, and Any Other Mixed Background. Under the
                  overarching ‘Asian’ category there are the following groups – Indian, Pakistani,
                  Bangladeshi, and ‘Any Other Asian Background. Under the overarching ‘Black’
                  category there are the following groups – Black Caribbean, Black African and
                  Any Other Black Background. The final 2 categories are ‘Chinese’ and ‘Any Other
                  Ethnic Group’. In addition, there are sub-categories of the 18 main census groups
                  above which LAs may choose to use locally.
                  Key Stage 4 is the stage of the National Curriculum between ages 14 and 16
                  years. This indicator relates to examinations taken at the end of the Key Stage.

Formula             x
                      * 100
                    y
                  Where:
                  X = of the pupils in the denominator the number who achieve 5 A*-C, including
                  English and mathematics.
                  Y = the cohort of Key Stage 4 pupils from a minority ethnic group containing
                  more than 30 pupils with valid test results at KS4.
152 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 108: Key Stage 4 attainment for Black and minority ethnic groups (continued)
 Worked                      For each minority ethnic Good                                        Good performance is typified
 example                     group identified, if of  performance                                 by higher percentages of pupils
                             70 pupils in the cohort                                              attaining 5 A*-C, including English
                             group 32 achieve 5 A*-C,                                             and mathematics, accompanied
                             including English and                                                by a narrowing of the attainment
                             mathematics, then                                                    gap between minority ethnic
                             (32/70) * 100 = 45.7%                                                pupils and all pupils.

 Collection                  Annual for the academic                  Data Source                 Pupil Level Annual School
 interval                    year.                                                                Census (PLASC) and National
                                                                                                  Curriculum Assessments, GCSE
                                                                                                  and Equivalent Attainment and
                                                                                                  Post-16 Attainment by Pupil
                                                                                                  Characteristics, in England.
 Return                      Percentage                               Decimal                     One
 Format                                                               Places
 Reporting                   DCSF
 organisation
 Spatial level               Single tier and county council
 Further                     Guidance for Local Authorities on setting Education Performance Targets – issued
 Guidance                    August 2007. Further clarification will be published In March 2008. Information
                             on the National Curriculum http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/management/atoz/n/
                             nationalcurriculum/
                             Guidance on minority ethnic pupils’ attainment
                             http://www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/ethnicminorities/
                                                                        Annex 2: Children and Young People 153




NI 109: Delivery of Sure Start Children’s Centres
Is the data provided by the LA or            Y      Is this an existing indicator?                     Y
a local partner?
Rationale          To measure progress against the national target to deliver 3,500 Sure Start
                   Children’s Centres – one for every community – by 2010.
Definition         Total number of Sure Start Children’s Centres designated as a percentage of
                   the total number of centres required to reach all under 5s
                   Children’s Centres provide integrated services for under fives and their
                   families. These services include (depending on local need)
                   •	   integrated	full	day	care	and	early	learning,
                   •	   health	and	family	support	services,
                   •	   outreach	to	the	most	disadvantaged	groups,
                   •	   links	with	Job	Centre	Plus,	and
                   •	   links	to	childminder	networks.
                   Targets relate to new build/refurbished/existing settings that are designated
                   by Together for Children as Sure Start Children’s Centres once they meet
                   agreed criteria. Details of the criteria for designation are set out in the Sure
                   Start Children’s Centres: Phase 3 Planning and Delivery Guidance which
                   can be found at: http://www.surestart.gov.uk/surestartservices/settings/
                   surestartchildrenscentres/planningguidance/
                   Further guidance is also available in the Planning and Performance
                   Management Guidance at:
                   http://www.surestart.gov.uk/publications/index.cfm?document=1852
                   Local authorities were given targets for the number of centres to be
                   designated by March 2008 and have been given indicative numbers for the
                   remaining centres that are needed, by 2010, in order to reach the remaining
                   children under 5 in their area and to provide a Sure Start Children’s Centre
                   for every community. These numbers will be confirmed in July 2008
                   following discussion between local authorities and Together for Children
                   (TfC).
                   TfC – a consortium appointed by DCSF – is supporting local authorities to
                   help them plan and deliver their children’s centre programme. TfC monitor
                   progress on an ongoing basis using an online tracker tool which is updated
                   by LAs and is also accessible by DCSF.
Formula
                        x
                          * 100
                        y
                   Where:
                   x = Number of centres designated
                   y = Total number of centres required to reach all under 5s
154 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 109: Delivery of Sure Start Children’s Centres (continued)
 Worked                      If of 32 centres                         Good                      Good performance is typified by
 example                     required, 26 centres                     performance               higher % of designations against
                             are designated, then                                               centres required.
                             (26/32) * 100 = 81%.
 Collection                  Monthly.                                 Data Source               DCSF/TfC
 interval                    TfC submit formal
                             monthly reports to
                             the Department on
                             numbers of centres
                             designated. Progress
                             can also monitored on
                             an ongoing basis via
                             TfC’s online tracker tool
                             which is accessible by
                             DCSF and updated daily
                             by TfC to record new
                             designations.
 Return                      Percentage                               Decimal                   None
 Format                                                               Places
 Reporting                   DCSF based on Together for Children’s online tracking tool and local
 organisation                authorities’ report on progress to TfC. TfC is the consortium appointed by
                             DCSF as the delivery agent working with local authorities on the delivery of
                             Children’s Centres.
 Spatial level               Single tier and county council
 Further                     Planning and Performance Guidance for children’s centres can be found at
 Guidance                    http://www.surestart.gov.uk/publications/?Document=1852
                             Sure Start Children’s Centres: Phase 3 Planning and Delivery Guidance
                             can be found at http://www.surestart.gov.uk/surestartservices/settings/
                             surestartchildrenscentres/planningguidance/
                                                                                Annex 2: Children and Young People 155




NI 199: Children and young people’s satisfaction with parks and play areas
For introduction in 2009/10
Rationale         To ensure that local authorities invest in safe and stimulating play facilities, leading
                  to an increase in satisfaction (and take-up amongst children) in local authorities.
Background        The indicator already exists, as it is one of the questions asked in Ofsted’s
and update        TellUs survey. It was asked in the first year of the survey, and in this year’s version
on indicator      it is question 17, as follows: What do you think of the parks and play areas in
development       your area?
                     Very good     Fairly good   Neither good     Fairly poor       Very poor        Don’t know
                                                   nor poor



                  The Tellus survey is completed by a sample of children in years 6, 8 and 10, and
                  it provides robust data at local authority level. We think that this question will
                  provide a good indication of whether the investment that we are making in play
                  areas is making a difference.
Expected          The indicator is collected by the TellUs survey which already provides a number
collection        of indicators for the National Indicator set. The collection interval is annual
arrangements      (academic year) and the the spatial level is top tier local authorities (single tier and
and spatial       country council). The reporting organisation is Ofsted, and the return format is
level             as a percentage. See www.ofsted.gov.uk for full guidance on this year’s TellUs
                  survey (Tellus 3).
Timetable for     The definition for this indicator is fully developed but will not be introduced
development       until 2009/10 to allow for consultation together with other delayed national
                  indicators.
156 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 110: Young people’s participation in positive activities
 Is the data provided by the LA or                                  Y        Is this an existing indicator?     N
 a local partner?
 Rationale                   To measure and drive improved performance around the participation of young
                             people in positive activities.
                             What young people do, or don’t do, out-of-school matters. Research
                             demonstrates that the activities young people participate in out-of-school have a
                             significant bearing on their later life outcomes. Positive activities are a good use of
                             young people’s time because they provide opportunities to:
                             •	 acquire,	and	practice,	specific	social,	physical,	emotional	and	intellectual	skills
                             •	 contribute	to	the	community
                             •	 belong	to	a	socially	recognised	group
                             •	 establish	supportive	social	networks	of	peers	and	adults
                             •	 experience	and	deal	with	challenges
                             •	 enjoy	themselves
                             UK and international evaluations of out-of-school activities find programme
                             participation to be linked to improvements in academic, preventative and
                             development	outcomes.	This	includes	outcomes	such	as:	school	performance;	
                             avoidance	of	drug	and	alcohol	use;	and	increased	self-confidence	and	self-
                             esteem. In this way, positive activities can also help support other indicators for
                             young people.
                             Current research suggests participation tends to be higher among those from:
                             higher	social	groups;	living	in	less	deprived	areas;	and	with	access	to	a	car.	
                             Participation	tends	to	be	lower	among:	Pakistani	and	Bangladeshi	young	people;	
                             those	living	in	council	and	housing	association	rented	accommodation;	and	
                             where household finances are described as ‘getting into difficulties’.
                             The indicator provides a local measure directly related to the national indicator on
                             positive activities in the DCSF led PSA 14 to ‘increase the number of children and
                             young people on the path to success’.
                                                                            Annex 2: Children and Young People 157




NI 110: Young people’s participation in positive activities (continued)
Definition         The proportion of young people in school year 10 responding ‘yes’ to the
                   question “In the last 4 weeks, have you participated in any group activity led by an
                   adult outside school lessons (such as sports, arts or a youth group)?” based on the
                   analysis of the weighted TellUs survey data.
                   The TellUs survey data are weighted and grossed up to match local area profiles
                   based on school censes data.
                   Positive activities include a wide range of sporting, cultural and recreational
                   activities and opportunities for volunteering. The key is that activities are
                   structured, good quality, adult led and support development towards the ECM
                   outcomes. Activities can take place in a wide variety of settings including youth
                   clubs, sports clubs, outdoor recreation centres, museums and libraries. The 2006
                   Education and Inspections Act sets out a local authority’s duties in respect of
                   securing access to activities.
                   This is a new indicator and a programme of development is ongoing to finalise
                   the method of calculation. This includes further consultation with colleagues
                   across government and the youth sector.
                   The indicator will be calculated for all local authorities and at a national level. The
                   indicator will be made available to all Local Authorities as part of the TellUs survey
                   findings annual report.
                   These findings will be set within the context of a more specific question in
                   the TellUs survey asking about participation in particular activities. Responses
                   for individuals can be confirmed using this second question. The DCSF is also
                   developing additional contextual measures, using CCIS and Taking Part survey
                   data, to enable individual Authorities to triangulate their indicator.
Formula            Using TellUs survey data which has been weighted and grossed up to match local
                   area profiles based on School Census data.
                     x
                       * 100
                     y
                   Where:
                   X = the number of young people in school year 10 answering ‘yes’ to the question
                   ‘In the last 4 weeks, have you participated in any group activity led by an adult
                   outside school lessons (such as sports, arts or a youth group)?‘, according to the
                   weighted TellUs data, and
                   Y = the number of young people in School Year 10 responding to the survey
                   based on the weighted TellUs data.
158 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 110: Young people’s participation in positive activities (continued)
 Worked                      In a given local authority,              Good                        Good performance is typified by
 example                     using the weighted and                   performance                 a high and increasing percentage
                             grossed up TellUs survey                                             of young people participating in
                             data, we estimate there                                              activities.
                             are 4,000 young people
                             in school year 10 and
                             2,950 of these young
                             people have participated
                             in a positive activity in the
                             last 4 weeks.

                             [ ]
                               2,950
                               4,000
                                     *100 = 74%

                             This gives an indicator
                             value of 74%.
 Collection                  Annual (academic year).                  Data Source                 The TellUs survey.
 interval
 Return                      Percentage                               Decimal                     None
 Format                                                               Places
 Reporting                   Ofsted
 organisation
 Spatial level               Single tier and county council
 Further                     The TellUs survey is voluntary and the data are grossed up and weighted to match
 Guidance                    local area profiles based on School Census data.
                                                                         Annex 2: Children and Young People 159




                                   This is an APACS indicator
NI 111: First time entrants to the Youth Justice System aged 10-17
SPI 11.3/NI 111         First time youth offending
Full title              Number of first time entrants to the Youth Justice System aged
                        10-17
Formula                 Total number of first time entrants = x + y
                        x = number receiving their first pre-court disposal (reprimand or final
                        warning)
                        y = number receiving their first court disposal (only for those who go
                        directly to court)
Definitions             The number of first-time entrants to the youth justice system, where first-
                        time entrants are defined as young people (aged 10-17) who receive their
                        first substantive outcome (relating to a reprimand, a final warning with or
                        without an intervention, or a court disposal for those who go directly to
                        court without a reprimand or final warning).
                        See YJB counting rules for 2007/08 as indication of current arrangements
                        http://www.yjb.gov.uk/en-gb/practitioners/MonitoringPerformance/
                        CountingRules/

How data is reported to the Home Office
Data Item            Collection          Collection level     Data format            Source
                     Frequency
Number of first      Quarterly (by the Local Authority        Number                 Ministry of
time entrants        end of the 4th                                                  Justice’s extract
receiving            month after the                                                 from the
their first pre-     end of the quarter                                              Police National
court disposal       – i.e. October,                                                 Computer
(reprimand or        January, April and
final warning)       July)
Number of first      Quarterly (by the Local Authority        Number                 Ministry of
time entrants        end of the 4th                                                  Justice’s extract
receiving their      month after the                                                 from the
first court          end of the quarter                                              Police National
disposal (only for   – i.e. October,                                                 Computer
those who go         January, April and
directly to court)   July)
160 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 111: First time entrants to the Youth Justice System aged 10-17 (continued)
 SPI 11.3/NI 111                      First time youth offending
 Notes                          At present, at national level, this indicator is directional (no target attached),
                                although the Children’s Plan committed DCSF to defining a numerical target, to
                                be published through the forthcoming Youth Crime Action Plan. Consideration
                                is currently being given to how such a target should be expressed.
                                For the latest guidance for this indicator, including any corrections or
                                clarifications, please consult the APACS technical guidance which is available at:
                                http://police.homeoffice.gov.uk/performance-and-measurement/assessment-
                                methods/assessment-technical-guidance/
                                                                    Annex 2: Children and Young People 161




NI 112: Under 18 conception rate
Is the data provided by the LA or         N     Is this an existing indicator?                     Y
a local partner?
Rationale        There is a national target to reduce the under 18 conception rate by 50%
                 by 2010 (compared to the 1998 baseline rate) as part of a broader strategy
                 to improve sexual health. (Target shared between the Department of Health
                 and the Department for Children, Schools and Families.)
Definition       The change in the rate of under-18 conceptions per 1,000 girls aged 15-17
                 years resident in the area for the current calendar year, as compared with the
                 1998 baseline rate, shown as a percentage of the 1998 rate.
                 Under 18
                 The rate includes all conceptions under 18 but uses the ONS mid-year
                 population estimates for females aged 15-17 as a denominator to calculate
                 the rate (as 95% of under 18 conceptions occur within this age group).
                 Conception rate
                 This is defined as the number of conceptions under 18 per 1000 females
                 aged 15-17
                 National target
                 The national target will be assessed following the release by ONS of annual
                 conception data in February each year. A final assessment of the target will
                 be made in February 2012 [reflecting data for 2010].
Formula           X       Y
                              * 100
                      Y

                 Where:
                 X = The rate of under-18 conceptions per 1,000 girls aged 15-17 years
                 resident in the area for the current calendar year.
                 Y = The rate of under-18 conceptions per 1,000 girls aged 15-17 years
                 resident in the area in 1998 (baseline year).
Worked           Suppose there were 39     Good               Good performance is typified
example          under 18 conceptions      performance        by a higher percentage
                 per 1,000 in the                             reduction from the baseline
                 baseline year and 28 per                     year. (A reduction is quoted as a
                 1000 in the current year,                    negative figure.)
                 then the percentage
                 change from the
                 baseline year is
                 [(28 – 39)/39]*100
                 = -28.2%
162 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 112: Under 18 conception rate (continued)
 Collection                  Calendar Year                             Data Source                 ONS conception statistics.
 interval                                                                                          Teenage Pregnancy Unit
                                                                                                   calculates progress towards
                                                                                                   national and local reduction
                                                                                                   targets.
 Return                      Percentage                                Decimal                     One
 Format                                                                Places

 Reporting                   ONS supply data to DCSF
 organisation
 Spatial level               Single tier and county council
 Further                     There is a 14 month time-lag in the release of conception statistics, as they
 Guidance                    are partly compiled from birth registration data (which may not be available
                             up to 11 months after the date of conception).
                             For performance management processes requiring reporting by financial
                             year (e.g. 2008/09 LAA/CAA reporting) the calendar year which includes
                             the majority of the financial year should be reported. For example, for
                             the financial year 2008/09, under-18 conception data for 2008 would be
                             reported as it covers the period April – December 2008.
                             Additional under-18 conception data are available by county district area and
                             census ward area. These data are disseminated by the Teenage Pregnancy
                             Unit (DCSF) to local areas to support the implementation and targeting of
                             local teenage pregnancy strategies. Under-16 conception statistics are also
                             available by local authority area. Further guidance on the use of local data is
                             available on the Teenage Pregnancy Unit website:
                             www.everychildmatters.gov.uk/teenagepregnancy/
                                                                        Annex 2: Children and Young People 163




NI 113: Prevalence of Chlamydia in under 25 year olds
Is the data provided by the LA or          No      Is this an existing indicator?                      N
a local partner?
Rationale         Sexual health is an important public health issue for young people. Sexually
                  transmitted infections are increasing, particularly genital chlamydia trachomatis,
                  the most common STI and particularly among young people. Chlamydia is
                  the single most preventable cause of infertility in women. A reduction in the
                  prevalence of Chlamydia would indicate young people’s improved management
                  of their sexual health and reflect an increase in self-efficacy and resilience. A
                  reduction in prevalence would also save public money spent on future infertility.
                  A national screening programme for Chlamydia was included in the Department
                  of Health’s National Strategy for Sexual Health and HIV. The programme focus is
                  on offering screening to asymptomatic (i.e. those without obvious symptoms of
                  chlamydia) men and women under the age of 25 in a variety of clinical and non-
                  clinical settings where they would not ordinarily be offered Chlamydia screening.
                  From April 2008 the Chlamydia screening programme will have national
                  coverage.
Definition        Year 1 – Chlamydia Screening will be used as a basis of performance.
                  This indicator will concentrate on increasing screening volumes in young people
                  aged 15 to 24 and thus form a baseline to monitor prevalence In preceding
                  years. Chlamydia is both symptomatic and asymptomatic and in this initial year
                  the National Chlamydia Screening Programme will concentrate on increasing
                  opportunistic screens thus ensuring adequate recording of prevalence in the
                  asymptomatic population as well as the symptomatic population. Thus
                  year 1 will concentrate only on part 1 of the indicator
                  Part 1
                  Definition : ‘Percentage of the resident population aged 15 -24 accepting a test/
                  screen for chlamydia’
                  Year 2-3 – Performance will be based both on screening volumes and
                  chlamydia prevalence (number of positive diagnoses of chlamydia in the 15 – 24
                  population)
                  Part 1
                  Definition : Percentage of the resident population aged 15 -24 accepting a test/
                  screen for chlamydia’
                  Part 2
                  Definition : Number of positive diagnoses for Chlamydia in the resident
                  population aged 15 -24
164 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 113: Prevalence of Chlamydia in under 25 year olds (continued)
 Definition                  Definition for Part 1
 (continued)                 Line 1: The number of resident 15-24 year olds screened or tested for chlamydia.
                             Line 2: The resident population aged 15-24
                             Definitions for Part 2
                             Line 3: The number of resident 15-24 year olds screened or tested for chlamydia
                             where the diagnosis was positive.
                             Line 4: The resident population aged 15-24
                             •	 The	number	screened	refers	to	the	number	of	screenings	of	15-24	year	olds	
                                resident in the LA population during the period.
                             •	 Age	is	defined	at	the	time	of	the	screen/test.
                             •	 Population	is	calculated	using	mid-year	population	estimates	from	the	Office	
                                of National Statistics (ONS)
                             •	 Diagnosis	refers	to	all	diagnoses	of	chlamydia	for	this	age	group	during	the	
                                period.
                             Please Note: All data will be collected, collated and published by the National
                             Chlamydia Programme (NCSP) based at the Health Protection Agency (HPA).
 Formula                     Part 1
                                x
                                  * 100
                                y
                             Where:
                             x = number of Chlamydia screens/tests for 15 to 24 year olds, males and
                                 females
                             y = local population of 15 to 24 years olds, male and female

                             Part 2
                                x
                                  * 100
                                y
                             Where:
                             x = number of new diagnoses of chlamydia in15 to 24 year olds, males and
                                 females
                             y = local population of 15 to 24 years olds, male and female
                                                                       Annex 2: Children and Young People 165




NI 113: Prevalence of Chlamydia in under 25 year olds (continued)
Worked            If there are 1,000 people        Good             Good performance for
example           aged 15 to 24 tested for         performance      screening volumes is typified
                  Chlamydia and there are                           by increasing percentages to
                  10,000 people aged 15 to                          required threshold. Failure to
                  24 then the proportion of                         reach target on part 1 of the
                  the population screened is                        indicator will result in failure in
                  1,000/10,000 = 10.0%                              part 2.
                                                                    Good performance for
                                                                    prevalence is typified by
                                                                    decreasing percentages.
Collection        The collection interval is       Data Source      All data is collected and
interval          quarterly                                         collated through the National
                  April – June                                      Chlamydia Screening
                  July – Sept                                       Programme, at the Health
                  Oct – Dec                                         Protection Agency (HPA).
                  Jan – March                                       The HPA will also collate
                  Reporting will be on                              population data using ONS
                  a quarterly basis, and                            mid year population estimates
                  cumulatively throughout the                       (Single year and sex by LA)
                  year to an annual total (April                    Current screening data for
                  to March).                                        PCTs is available at
                                                                    www.chlamydiascreening.
                                                                    nhs.uk/
                                                                    From April 2008, data will also
                                                                    be available grouped by local
                                                                    authority.
Return            Percentage                       Decimal          One
Format                                             Places
Reporting         Health Protection Authority funded by DH
organisation
Spatial level     PCT and single tier and county council
Further           Annual reports of the National Chlamydia Screening Programme in England,
Guidance          2003/04, and 2004/05, are available from the HPA website at
                  http://www.hpa.org.uk/infections/topics_az/hiv_and_sti/Default.htm
                  Chlamydia Screening Programme Roll Out Data Manual is available at
                  http://www.dh.gov.uk/assetRoot/04/07/44/60/04074460.pdf
166 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 114: Rate of permanent exclusions from school
 Is the data provided by the LA or                                 N         Is this an existing indicator?                        Y
 a local partner?
 Rationale                   General indicator for DSO6: increase the number of children & young people
                             on the path to success.
 Definition                  The number of permanent exclusions from school in the academic year
                             expressed as a percentage of the school population. School defined as
                             maintained	primary,	secondary	(inc	those	with	sixth	forms);	special	schools;	
                             city technology colleges and academies (although CTC and academy figures
                             do not appear in LA level figures).
 Formula                        X
                                      *100
                                Y
                             Where:
                             X = the number of permanent exclusions.
                             Y = the school population.
 Worked                      If the school population                       Good                          Good performance is typified
 example                     is 350 and 2 pupils are                        performance                   by lower percentages.
                             permanently excluded then
                             [2/350] * 100 = a rate of
                             0.57%
 Collection                  Collected on a termly                          Data Source                   Data collected at the pupil
 interval                    basis (two terms in arrears)                   (if external)                 level and reported by schools
                             but published annually                                                       to the DCSF.
                             providing figures for a full
                             academic year.
 Return                      Percentage                                     Decimal                       Two
 Format                                                                     Places
 Reporting                   DCSF, based on data provided by schools via the Schools Census
 organisation
 Spatial level               School and single tier and county councils
 Further                     Department of Children, Schools and Families website. Also
 Guidance                    http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/wholeschool/behaviour/exclusion/
                                                                        Annex 2: Children and Young People 167




NI 115: Substance misuse by young people
Is the data provided by the LA or           Y     Is this an existing indicator?                       N
a local partner?
Rationale        To measure progress in reducing the proportion of young people frequently
                 misusing substances – including illegal drugs, alcohol and volatile substances such
                 as glue, gas or solvents. Substance misuse by young people is strongly linked with
                 involvement in crime or anti-social behaviour, increased risk of failing at school
                 and damage to both mental and physical health.
                 The indicator provides a local measure directly related to the national indicator on
                 young people’s substance misuse in the DCSF led PSA to ‘increase the number of
                 children and young people on the path to success’.
Definition       The percentage of young people reporting either frequent misuse of drugs/
                 volatile substances or alcohol, or both.
                 The TellUs survey is voluntary and the data are weighted to match local area
                 profiles based on school census data.
                 •	 “Young	people”	–	the	measurement	of	this	indicator	will	cover	young	
                    people pupils in years 6, 8 and 10, aged from 10 years up to, and including,
                    15 years old
                 •	 “Frequently”	–	frequent	use	is	defined	as	being	drunk	twice	or	more	in	the	last	
                    4 weeks and/or have taken illegal drugs or volatile substances twice or more in
                    the last 4 weeks
                 •	 “Misuse”	–	frequent	use	of	any	substance,	or	use	which	may	result	in	harm	
                    (e.g. poor outcomes such as school exclusion, criminal involvement, health
                    problems)
                 •	 “Substances”	–	this	refers	to	all	illicit	drugs,	consumption	of	alcohol	and	
                    volatile substances such as solvents, glue or gas
Formula          The TellUs survey is voluntary and the data are weighted to match local area
                 profiles based on school census data.
                   X
                        *100
                   Y

                 x = the number of young people in years 6, 8 and 10 that the TellUs survey
                 estimates have used drugs and/or alcohol at least twice in the last 4 weeks from
                 the local population.
                 y = total number of young people in years 6, 8 and 10 in the local population,
                 based on the school census data.
168 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 115: Substance misuse by young people (continued)
 Worked                      Worked example of the                          Good                          Good performance is typified
 example                     calculation:                                   performance                   by lower numbers [given that
                             •	 Total	of	9000	young	                                                      there is likely to be significant
                                people in the relevant                                                    local and regional variation, the
                                school year groups in                                                     best performance is where the
                                a given local authority                                                   prevalence rate reduces over
                                (based on school census                                                   time].
                                data).
                             •	 TellUs	estimates	that	1400	
                                young people in the LA
                                have been drunk more
                                than once in the last 4
                                weeks, TellUs estimates
                                that 200 young people in
                                the LA have taken drugs
                                more than once in the last
                                4 weeks, TellUs estimates
                                that an additional 320
                                young people in the LA
                                have been drunk more
                                than once and also taken
                                drugs more than once in
                                the last 4 weeks
                             •	 This	would	equate	to	


                             [   1400+200+320
                                     9,000
                                              *100 =    ]
                             21% of young people
                             frequently misusing
                             substances (actual figure
                             is 21.3%, but shown here
                             with no decimal point as the
                             indicator will be reported)
 Collection                  Annual (Academic year)                         Data Source                   TellUs survey of pupils
 interval                                                                   (if external)
 Return                      Percentage                                     Decimal                       None
 Format                                                                     Places
 Reporting                   Ofsted
 organisation
 Spatial level               Single tier and county council
                                                                         Annex 2: Children and Young People 169




NI 115: Substance misuse by young people (continued)
Further          Currently the TellUs survey does not ask pupils in year 6 about their use of drugs
Guidance         therefore the year 6 data contributing to this indicator will only consider alcohol
                 misuse.
                 When the Department looks at these indicators other factors will also be
                 considered, such as the non-response rate, statistical neighbours and other locally
                 available data sources about substance misuse and closely related issues. This will
                 build a more complete local picture of young people’s substance misuse.
                 The TellUs survey is voluntary and the data are weighted to match local area
                 profiles based on school census data.
170 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 116: Proportion of children in poverty
 Is the data provided by the LA or                                 N         Is this an existing indicator?                       N
 a local partner?
 Rationale                   The Government has set itself a challenging target to half the number of
                             children in poverty by 2010-11, and end child poverty by the year 2020.
                             Local Authorities have a key role to play in helping to achieve this ambition.
                             This role includes the delivery of the key public services that are critical to
                             improving	poor	children’s	life	chances;	coordination	of	activities	by	key	
                             players	to	reduce	worklessness	and	poverty;	the	tailoring	of	solutions	to	
                             meet	needs	of	local	people;	and	ensuring	engagement	of	individuals	and	
                             groups at risk of being marginalized.
 Definition                  The proportion of children who live in families in receipt of out of work benefits.
                             The national PSA target to half the number of children in poverty is measured
                             by the number of dependent children who live in households whose equivalised
                             income is below 60% of the contemporary national median.
                             The data for national indicator is collected through the annual Family Resources
                             Survey.	The	sample	size	is	not	large	enough	at	local	authority	level;	therefore	
                             alternative sources of data for an income based measure will be developed for
                             use from April 2009.
                             Until data for an income based local poverty measure is available, the indicator
                             will be based on an interim measure of the proportion of children who live in
                             families where out of work benefits are received.
                             Out of work benefits include: Job Seekers Allowance, Incapacity Benefit
                             Income Support, Pension Credit
                             Children are defined as individuals under the age of 16.
                             The count of children is established from child benefit/child tax credit claims,
                             which cover c98% of children.
                             The source of data for this interim measure is from administrative records from
                             Department of Work and Pensions.
 Formula
                                  x
                                           100
                                  y
                             Where:
                             x = number of children in poverty (or households receiving out-of-work
                             benefits)
                             y = Total number of children.
 Worked                      24,300 x 100 = 37.3%                           Good                          Good performance is typified
 example                     65,200                                         performance                   by falling proportion
                                                                         Annex 2: Children and Young People 171




NI 116: Proportion of children in poverty (continued)
Collection        Annual (in April)                Data Source        DWP data services
interval
Return            Percentage                       Decimal            One
Format                                             Places
Reporting         DWP
organisation
Spatial level     Single tier and county council
Further           Further information on national measure
Guidance          Equivalisation of income, weights household income according to the
                  household composition. This process reflects the common sense notion that a
                  family of several people needs a higher income than a single person in order for
                  both households to enjoy a comparable standard of living.
                  For example:
                  Three households have the same income (£200/week):
                  A single person,
                  A couple
                  A couple with two children aged fourteen and ten
                  Equivalisation gives an income of £299 to the single person, £200 to the couple,
                  but only £131 to the couple with children, to account for the differences in their
                  costs.
172 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 117: 16 to 18 year olds who are not in education, employment or training (NEET)
 Is the data provided by the LA or                                           Is this an existing indicator?
                                                                   Y                                          Y
 a local partner?
 Rationale                   Non-participation in education, employment or training between the ages
                             of 16 and 18 is a major predictor of later unemployment, low income,
                             depression, involvement in crime and poor mental health.
 Definition                  The percentage of 16 to 18 year olds who are not in education, employment
                             or training (NEET).
                             Data are collected monthly. However, this indicator and NEET targets use an
                             annual result which is based on three one month snapshots at the end of
                             November, December and January each year.
                             Data relates to young people who were aged 16-18 on the day of the count.
                             Young people aged 16 to 18 years are counted as either:
                             Education, employment or training (EET) if they are in:
                             •	 Education	(Including	gap	year	students	who	have	an	agreed	deferred	HE	
                                entry date)
                             •	 Government	supported	training;
                             •	 Employment;
                             Not in education, employment or training (NEET) if they are not engaged in
                             one of the EET activities above, including those:
                             •	 Undertaking	a	personal	development	opportunity,	voluntary	work	or	
                                activity agreement
                             •	 Seeking	or	waiting	to	start	work	or	learning
                             •	 Not	yet	ready	for	work	or	learning
                             •	 Not	available	to	the	labour	market	(including	those	experiencing	ill	health,	
                                caring for a child, or out of the country)
                             Neither EET or NEET if they are:
                             •	 currently	residing	in	a	custodial	institution
                             •	 a	refugee	or	asylum	seeker	who	has	not	yet	been	granted	citizenship
                             Young people neither EET or NEET are excluded from the calculation.
                             Current situation not known if:
                             •	 their	current	situation	is	not	known
                             •	 they	cannot	be	contacted
                             •	 they	refuse	to	disclose	their	current	activity
                             •	 their	records	are	no	longer	current
                             An adjustment is made to the numbers EET and NEET to allow for young
                             people whose records are no longer current. This is described below.
                             More detailed definitions of the activities above can be found in the CCIS
                             requirement and data catalogue
                             http://www.everychildmatters.gov.uk/search/IG00229/
                                                                      Annex 2: Children and Young People 173




NI 117: 16 to 18 year olds who are not in education, employment or training (NEET) (continued)
Formula           Raw NEET figures are adjusted to allow for young people whose records
                  (currency) have expired using the formula below:
                  x1 = (x2 + (x3 * 0.58) + (x4 * 0.08))
                  where:
                  x2 = number of young people known to be NEET
                  x3 = number of young people who were previously known to be NEET, but
                  whose record (currency) has expired
                  x4 – number of young people who were previously known to be EET, but
                  whose record (currency) has expired.
                  NB Local CCIS systems may perform this adjustment.
                  NEET is monitored using the average % NEET at the end of November,
                  December and January of each year.
                  The average number of 16-18 year old NEET (adjusted) between
                  November to January is calculated as follows;
                  x = (x5 + x6 + x7)
                           3
                  Where:
                  x5 = number of 16-18 year olds NEET (adjusted) in November
                  x6 = number of 16-18 year olds NEET (adjusted) in December
                  x7 = number of 16-18 year olds NEET (adjusted) in January
                  The number of young people EET is calculated as follows:
                  y1 = (y2 + (y3 * 0.42) + (y4 * 0.92))
                  where:
                  y2 = number of young people known to be EET
                  y3 = number of young people who were previously known to be NEET, but
                  whose record (currency) has expired
                  y4 – number of young people who were previously known to be EET, but
                  whose record (currency) has expired.
                  NB Local CCIS systems may perform this adjustment.
174 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 117: 16 to 18 year olds who are not in education, employment or training (NEET) (continued)
 Formula                     The average number of 16-18 year olds in education, employment
 (continued)                 and training (EET) (adjusted) between November to January is
                             calculated as follows;
                             y = (y5 + y6 + y7)
                                            3
                             Where:
                             y5 = number of 16-18 year olds EET (adjusted) in November
                             y6 = number of 16-18 year olds EET (adjusted) in December
                             y7 = number of 16-18 year olds EET (adjusted) in January
                             The percentage of NEET is calculated as follows:
                                    x
                                            * 100
                                y       x

                             Where:
                             x = average number of 16-18 year olds NEET (adjusted) between November
                             to January
                             y = average number of 16-18 year olds in EET (adjusted) between November
                             to January
                                                                      Annex 2: Children and Young People 175




NI 117: 16 to 18 year olds who are not in education, employment or training (NEET) (continued)
Worked            To calculate NEET                Good            A lower percentage of NEET
example           (adjusted)                       performance     shows better performance.
                  Nov 1,000                                        Areas with a historically
                  Dec 800                                          high level of NEET should
                  Jan 1,200                                        be expected to make
                  (1,000 + 800 + 1,200)                            significantly greater
                                                                   reductions than those
                            3                                      starting from a low baseline.
                  Average NEET = 1,000
                  To calculate EET
                  (adjusted)
                  Nov 8,000
                  Dec 7,000
                  Jan 6, 000
                    8,000 7,000 6,000
                            3

                  Average EET = 7,000
                  So to calculate the %
                  NEET =
                        1,000
                                * 100
                    7,000 1,000

                  = 12.5%
Collection        Data are collected monthly. Data Source          Client Caseload Information
interval          However, this indicator uses                     System (CCIS) maintained by
                  an annual result which is                        local authorities/connexions
                  based on three one month                         providers.
                  snapshots at the end of
                  November, December and
                  January each year.
Return            Percentage                       Decimal         One
Format                                             Places
Reporting         DCSF based on aggregate of data received from local authorities/Connexions
organisation      providers.
Spatial level     Single tier and county council
                  CCIS requirement and data catalogue
Further
                  http://www.everychildmatters.gov.uk/search/IG00229/
Guidance
                  Ward and constituency level data may be available locally.
176 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 118: Take up of formal childcare by low-income working families
 Is the data provided by the LA or                                 N         Is this an existing indicator?   N
 a local partner?
 Rationale                   Driving take-up of formal childcare by low income families brings benefits to
                             children’s learning and development. Formal childcare has positive benefits
                             for children in terms of their social and emotional development as well as
                             giving young children a head start in life and is a key indicator in closing the
                             gap in attainment between children from low income families and their more
                             affluent peers. Research from the Effective Provision of Pre-School Education
                             (EPPE) project shows there is a strong body of evidence that indicates that good
                             quality childcare and pre-school provision, especially from age 2 upwards, has
                             positive benefits on children’s all round development and that these benefits
                             last through primary school to age 10/11. For older children, research has
                             shown that the benefits of participation in out of school hours activities are
                             considerable, regardless of the activity undertaken. It shows that young people
                             who participate in activities do better than would have been expected from
                             baseline measures in academic attainment. In addition, participants often show
                             an improvement in their behaviour and attendance in school, and increased
                             confidence and self-esteem. This indicator is linked to PSA 11 (Narrow the gap in
                             educational achievement between children from low income and disadvantaged
                             backgrounds and their peers) but is also a key driver for PSA 9 (Halve the number
                             of children in poverty by 2010-2011, on the way to eradicating child poverty by
                             2020).
                             Provision for childcare is a key enabler to work and contributes to successful entry
                             into the labour market and sustained employment opportunities.
 Definition                  The number of working families benefiting from the childcare element of
                             Working Tax Credit (WTC) as a percentage of the number of working families
                             receiving more than the family element of Child Tax Credit (CTC).
                             The indicator measure
                             The childcare element of WTC will be used as the measure to show how many
                             families are benefiting from financial help with the cost of formal childcare.
                             The childcare element of WTC is part of the wider tax credit system and is
                             dependent on families being eligible for claiming both Child Tax Credit (CTC) at
                             more than the family element and being in work. The take up of both of these
                             elements is crucial for low income families to claim as part of the package of
                             support to lift families and children out of poverty.
                             Childcare costs can be a financial burden for families on low income and
                             especially for those families who may be moving from benefit into work.
                             The childcare element is income dependent and for those on the lowest incomes
                             80% of eligible childcare costs can be claimed each week up to a maximum claim
                             of £140 for 1 child and £240 for 2 or more children.
                                                                          Annex 2: Children and Young People 177




NI 118: Take up of formal childcare by low-income working families (continued)
Definition        Success will be an increase in the numbers benefiting from the childcare element
(continued)       of WTC. Such an increase and an upward trajectory of the childcare element
                  figures will demonstrate that childcare is flexible and affordable for parents and
                  will also ensure that the children from low income/poor families are not deprived
                  of the early education and/or the Extended Schools/formal childcare provision
                  that is enjoyed by more affluent peers and which has a positive impact on
                  outcomes and attainment.
                  Formal Childcare
                  Formal childcare is defined as care that has been registered by Ofsted including
                  that which is registered on the voluntary Ofsted childcare register (vOCR). Formal
                  childcare is care that is usually paid for but does include the free early education
                  for all 3 and 4 year olds. To access work, parents may need to supplement the free
                  hours with additional paid for childcare which will need to be registered on the
                  Ofsted and/or the vOCR for the childcare to be eligible for the childcare element
                  of Working Tax Credit (WTC). For the measurement of this indicator, formal
                  childcare does not include the free early education offer as parents cannot claim
                  the childcare element of WTC for it. Take up of the free early education offer is
                  high nationally, whereas the latest published national average figure of families
                  benefiting from the childcare element of WTC for this indicator (2005-2006) is
                  low at 16%. Therefore, it is evident that affordability of childcare is a key barrier
                  for parents and will have impact on entry into the labour market.
                  Eligibility rules for Tax Credits and the childcare element can be found in Child Tax
                  Credit and Working Tax Credit – a guide. This is available on the HMRC website at
                  http://www.hmrc.gov.uk/leaflets/wtc2.pdf.
                  Low Income Families
                  Low income families, for the purpose of this Indicator, are all those with
                  incomes that are eligible for the childcare element of WTC. Families will need
                  to be accessing the CTC at higher than the family element to be eligible for the
                  childcare element of WTC.
178 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 118: Take up of formal childcare by low-income working families (continued)
 Definition                  Data eligibility
 (continued)                 The denominator will include working families who are potentially eligible to
                             claim the childcare element of WTC. These are all working families – lone parents
                             and couple families – with children aged 0-14 years inclusive. Families where the
                             youngest child has reached their 15th birthday will be excluded. This reflects the
                             remit of the 10 year childcare strategy.
                             The denominator will continue to include potentially eligible couple families
                             where only 1 partner is working. About half of children in relative poverty live in
                             working households and it is recognised that it takes 1.5 salaries at the minimum
                             wage to lift a family out of the poverty trap.
                             Data excludes those not working but with changes to lone parent conditionality,
                             and a push for lower income couple families to increase working hours as part of
                             work to reduce child poverty, the number of families moving into the tax credit
                             system will increase. Any increase in families moving into work using formal
                             childcare will have a positive impact on this indicator. It is therefore crucial that
                             local authorities make families aware of the availability of childcare and affordable
                             options that are there to support families with the costs of childcare. This reflects
                             the duty on LAs from the Childcare Act 2006. Section 3 states the LA must take
                             steps to identify and encourage parents to take advantage of early childhood
                             services and Section 12 puts a duty on LAs to provide information, advice and
                             assistance to parents on all issues relating to childcare.
                             Before parents can claim the childcare element of WTC, they must first be in
                             receipt of the CTC at a rate higher than the family element. Over 2.4m families
                             in work are receiving more than the family element and would be eligible for the
                             childcare element of WTC.
 Formula                        X
                                       *100
                                Y

                             x = the number of working families benefiting from the childcare element of
                             Working Tax Credit (WTC) which gives financial support for formal childcare –
                             i.e.	childcare	that	is	paid	for	and	registered	by	Ofsted;
                             y = the number of working families receiving more than the family element of
                             Child Tax Credit (CTC).
                                                                      Annex 2: Children and Young People 179




NI 118: Take up of formal childcare by low-income working families (continued)
Worked            If 1,100 claimant families are   Good            For local authorities that are at
example           benefiting from the childcare    performance     or above the national average
                  element and 8,000 families                       figure, good performance
                  are benefiting from more                         will mirror the average
                  than the family element                          England percentage increase in
                  of Tax Credits, then the                         numbers benefiting each year.
                  proportion =                                     For local authorities that are
                    X                                              currently below the national
                         *100 = 13.8%                              average, good performance
                    Y
                                                                   will show them reaching the
                                                                   national average within 2
                                                                   years and then maintaining
                                                                   an upward trajectory at the
                                                                   national average.
                                                                   The data is a tool to identify
                                                                   those local authorities where
                                                                   there is best practice and
                                                                   will enable progress to be
                                                                   measured and tracked. By
                                                                   releasing LA level data, we will
                                                                   be able to identify those LAs
                                                                   where the challenge is difficult
                                                                   and where additional support,
                                                                   advice and guidance and
                                                                   challenge may be necessary.
180 National Indicators for Local Authorities and Local Authority Partnerships: Handbook of Definitions




 NI 118: Take up of formal childcare by low-income working families (continued)
 Collection                  Finalised awards at LA level                   Data Source                   HMRC Tax Credit
 interval                    are published once a year                      (if external)                 administrative data.
                             after the finalisation data is                                               Baseline data is from
                             received and analysed, so the                                                2005-2006.
                             2006/2007 finalised awards
                             statistics will be published                                                 The data will be released by
                             in May 2008. This gives the                                                  HMRC to DCSF on an annual
                             number of families (and                                                      basis in May each year. The
                             children) receiving Child                                                    release in May 2008 will relate
                             Tax Credit of more than the                                                  to the period 2006-07. The
                             family element, as well as                                                   data is based on finalised
                             the number benefiting from                                                   awards for the period covered
                             the childcare element and                                                    and will be released at national,
                             also the disabled workers                                                    regional and local authority
                             element.                                                                     level.
                             Lower Super Output Area                                                      The data is 100% data, not
                             level data shows the number                                                  sample data
                             of families with CTC awards
                             at 31st August in each LSOA
 Return                      Percentage                                     Decimal                       One
 Format                                                                     Places
 Reporting                   HM Revenues and Customs
 organisation
 Spatial level               Single tier and county council
                                                                           Annex 2: Children and Young People 181




NI 118: Take up of formal childcare by low-income working families (continued)
Further           There	is	no	requirement	for	LAs	to	collect	any	tax	credit	data;	this	will	be	collected	
Guidance          in the usual way by HMRC from tax credit recipients.
                  Data at SOA level will be released 6 monthly at December and June and will
                  be based on indicative awards but will support local authorities in targeting
                  resources.
                  Additional data will be released to local authorities to support them in
                  understanding the client group. This will include at local authority level the
                  number of families who are eligible for the childcare element plus the distribution
                  by single or couple families: and the average weekly award at national and
                  regional level.
                  Child Tax Credit and Working Tax Credit – a guide –
                  http://www.hmrc.gov.uk/leaflets/wtc2.pdf
                  The Parent Childcare Survey 2005 said take-up of formal childcare by low income
                  families is lower than families with higher incomes (46% of families in the least
                  deprived quintile used formal childcare against 36% for the most deprived
                  quintile). 77% of 3 and 4 year olds in BME groups used early education provision
                  in the past week in 2004-2005, compared to 88%. Take up is considerably lower
                  amongst Pakistani and Bangladeshi families and some black groups.)

								
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