ASEAN Scoping Study

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					CSO analysis and
recommendations on ASEAN
policies and programs on Food
Security and Climate Change
  CSO analysis and Presentation
        Outline of
  on ASEAN policies and programs on
   Food Security and Climate Change
1. ASEAN Brief Background
2. Agriculture in ASEAN
3. ASEAN and Food Security Policies and
4. ASEAN and Climate Change
5. CSO Analysis /Reflection, Advocacy and
   Action Points
    CSO analysis and recommendations
      ASEAN Background Information
    on ASEAN policies and programs on
     Food Security and Climate Change
History: Established in August 1967 by Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines,
   Singapore and Thailand; Brunei and CLMV joined later

Objective: regional cooperation to achieve economic growth, social
  progress, cultural development and regional peace and stability; and to
  promote greater collaboration on maters of common interest

Structures and Processes
   ASEAN Summit
   ASEAN Coordinating Council
   ASEAN Community Councils – based on three ASEAN pillars :
       ASEAN Political Security Community Council
       ASEAN Economic Community Council
       ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community
Agriculture in ASEAN
Share of Agriculture to GDP of ASEAN Countries is minimal.

          Share of Sectors to GDP of ASEAN Countries, 2007

            80%   42.4     41.1   43.2                                    40.4
                                         51.9   49.9
            70%                                          66.8
            40%                   43
            30%    56.6                  40.7
            20%                                          33.2
            10%                   13.8
                                          7.4   17.4     0.1
                   1.1                                            8.8

                          Agriculture    Industry      Services
Agriculture continues to be a major source of employment in
many ASEAN countries

           Share of Agriculture to Employment in ASEAN
                          Countries, 2005





        Malaysia             15.8

      Indonesia                                       44

       Cambodia                                                  60.3

                    0       20           40                60           80
                                    (in per cent)
   Challenges faced by and recommendations
   CSO analysissmall men and women farmers and
                   agricultural producers
   on ASEAN policies and programs on
            Security private investment in
    Food public and and Climate Change
• Limited
• Impacts of trade and investment
 India FTA, Asean Korea FTA, ASEAN
 Australia and New Zealand FTA
• Climate change
ASEAN and Food Security
        ASEAN’s long and recommendations
   CSO analysis term policy objectives on
   on ASEAN policies and programs on
               agriculture and food security

    Food Security and Climate Change
Mandate and Policy Guidance from the Ministerial Understanding on ASEAN
  Cooperation in Food, Agriculture and Forestry, 1993

1. Strengthening food security in the region
2. Promotion and facilitation of intra-ASEAN trade
3. Generation and transfer of technology to increase
4. Agricultural rural community and human resource
5. Private sector involvement and investment
6. Management and conservation of natural resources for
   sustainable development
7. Strengthening ASEAN cooperation and joint approaches
   in addressing international and regional issues
              SECURITY (AIFS)
Strategic Thrust                                    Action Programme
Strengthen food security arrangements               Strengthen national food security programs
                                                    Develop food security reserves and mechanisms

Promote conducive market and trade                  Promote initiatives supporting sustainable food
                                                    trade (ATIGA)
Strengthen food security mechanism to forecast,     Strengthen the ASEAN Food Security Information
plan and monitor supply and utilization of          System
Promote sustainable food production                 Improve agriculture infra system development to
                                                    secure production, minimize post harvest losses
                                                    and reduce transaction costs
                                                    Efficient utilization of resource potential for
                                                    agricultural development
                                                    Promote agricultural innovation and research
                                                    Promote close collaboration for technology
Encourage greater investments in food and agro-     Promote food and agro-based development
based industry
Identify emerging issues related to food security   Address the development of biofuels with
                                                    consideration to food security
                                                    Address impacts of climate change on food
 How analysis and into concrete plans of
 CSOare these translatedrecommendations
 on ASEAN policies and programs on
            action for agriculture?

  Food Security and Climate Change
•Series of Strategic Plan of Action on ASEAN
Cooperation in Food, Agriculture and Forestry
      (1994 – 2004, 2005-2010)

•Shift of focus from cooperation in food production
and supply to facilitating intra and extra ASEAN
trade in agriculture, fishery and forestry products

Buzzwords – international competitiveness, food
security, updated information on commodity
supply demand and trade
      CSO analysis and recommendations
          Some policies and programs
      on ASEAN reflections / analysis on
•      Food Security and Climate Change
      ASEAN policy declaration reflect general calls of food security,
    sustainable agricultural development, climate change mitigation and
    adaptation, among others

    But ASEAN programs and activities do not ...

• The only binding aspect of ASEAN policies are those that relate to the

• SPAs formed through top down process (and by technocrats) and, as
  such, are not reflective of the agenda of small men and women
  farmers and agricultural producers
       CSO Advocacy and Action Points
Advocacy                          Work to be done                Bodies, venues and process to
                                                                 engage in ASEAN
An effective and updated ASEAN Evaluate EAERR                    AMAF (SOM and Ministerial
Rice Reserve Mechanism                                           level), SAP-FS, AIFS
                               Development of rules and
                               guidelines for a regional rice
                               reserve mechanism

Development of an ASEAN Rice      Consultations to develop and
Policy that helps interested      validate CSO proposal on the
Members attain food self-         ASEAN Rice Policy

                                  Advocacy and Lobbying
ASEAN and Climate Change
     CSO analysis and recommendations
          ASEAN and Climate Change on
     on ASEAN policies and programs
•     Food Members account for a Change
     ASEANSecurity and Climate small
    portion of global GHG Emission
• Southeast Asia most vulnerable to
 climate change because of the region’s
 location and geo-physical characteristics
• Region highly unprepared to cope with
 climate change
• Food security threatened by climate change
    CSO analysis and recommendations
      ASEAN’s work on Climate Change
    on ASEAN policies and programs on
•    Food Security and Climate Change
    Declaration on Climate Change in 2007
• Calls for closer cooperation on mitigation and
• Focus of individual national communication is
 mitigation more than adaptation
• Terms of Reference of the Climate Change
 Initiative, created an ASEAN Working Group on
 Climate Change
• Vietnam pushing for ASEAN association to the
  Copenhagen Accord; opposed by other countries
                      ASEAN Position vs.
                     Copenhagen Accord
ASEAN Position                               Copenhagen Accord
A legally binding agreement                  Voluntary, political agreement only

Limit the average global temperature rise    Unclear means to achieve target of
to below 2C above the pre-industrial level   limiting temperature rise to 2C
                                             Ghg emission reduction based on
                                             individual targets (bottom-up), not on
                                             aggregate target
Richer nations to provide developing         No financial commitments from rich
countries with scaled-up, new, additional,   countries, only financial pledges
adequate and predictable financing to        Financial mechanism will not be
combat the effects of climate change         accountable to the COP of the UNFCCC
Developed countries to take the lead         Based on “burden sharing” among
based on the principle of common but         countries, according to capacity
differentiated responsibilities
CSO Engagement with ASEAN
                CSO Engagement in ASEAN
Organization          Area of Advocacy           Work                      Policy, body, process
                                                                           engaged in ASEAN

AFA                   Food security, Climate     Consultations cum         ASEAN Secretariat, AIFS
                      change, agricultural       agenda building with
                      trade, sustainable         farmers, research,
                      agriculture                advocacy, trainings

Asiadhrra             Food security,             Research, trainings and   ASEAN Secretariat, AIFS
                      sustainable agriculture,   capability building,
                      ASEAN process              advocacy

APFNS                 Food sovereignty           Advocacy, research        ASEAN Secretariat

EARWG                 Food Security,             Research, advocacy,       ASEAN secretariat,
                      sustainable agriculture,   training and capability   national government
                      agriculture trade,         building
                      climate change

Focus on the Global   Food security, climate     Research, advocacy        ASEAN Secretariat,
South                 change, ASEAN Process                                ASEAN Summit

Oxfam                 Food security, climate     Research, advocacy,
                      change, sustainable        funding

Searice               Sustainable agriculture    Advocacy, research,
                                                 training and capability

Seafish               Agricultural trade,
                      sustainable resource
                      management, Climate
     CSO analysis and recommendations
           Civil policies and programs
     on ASEANSociety Advocacies on
•     Food Security and Climate Change
     Food sovereignty: the right of peoples to healthy and
    culturally appropriate food produced through ecologically
    sound and sustainable methods, and their right to define
    their own food and agriculture systems

•     Support for community-based conservation and
    development of seeds

•     Support for sustainable community-based food production,
    marketing and distribution, also as a strategy for climate
    change adaptation and mitigation

•    Promotion of appropriate farming systems
     CSO analysis and recommendations
            Civil policies and programs
     on ASEANSociety Advocacies on
•     Food pressure for a legally-binding agreement on
     SustainedSecurity and Climate Change
    climate change mitigation, adaptation and delivery of
    commitments by developed countries under the principle of
    common but differentiated responsibilities

•     Pursue multilateral engagement in the UNFCCC process,
    not under the Copenhagen Accord which does not conform
    with the ASEAN positions

•     Participation of farmers, food producers/providers and
    consumers in decision-making in food and agriculture at
    different levels
       CSO Advocacy and Action Points
Advocacy                            Work to be done                     Bodies, venues and process to
                                                                        engage in ASEAN
Regional program on climate         Modelling                           AMAF. ASEAN Ministerial
change                              Capability building, advocacy and   Meeting on the Environment,
Technology transfer and sharing     lobbying                            TWG on Climate Change, Multi-
-production, pest management,                                           sectoral framework on climate
watershed and other resource                                            change
-disaster risk reduction and
-policies and initiatives on loss
and damage
-weather forecasting and

Funds for regional adaptation
initiatives (can be integrated
with common agri fund

Farmers input into the multi-
sectoral framework on climate
change for agriculture, fisheries
and forestry (under AMAF)

Common position at least on
adaptation and financing in COP

Support to PO/CSO participation
in NAPA and NAMA creation
    CSO Advocacy and Action Points
Advocacy                        Work to be done                  Bodies, venues and process to
                                                                 engage in ASEAN
Farmers’ participation in ASEAN Creation of Farmers’ and         AMAF (SOM and Ministerial
Policy Formulation/ Creation of Fisherfolks’ Parallel Forum      level)
an ASEAN Farmers and Fisheries
Advisory Council                Formal and informal interaction Next Meeting in Cambodia
                                with AMAF

                                Lobby AMAF minister to endorse
                                parallel forum and stakeholder
                                participation in the AMAF

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