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									Demographic and Employment
Data for Employers: Evidence
    from National Surveys

       David Wittenburg
                  Overview

   Available data and disability information
   Demographic and employment statistics
   Job entries and exits
   Other data sources
   Conclusions
Available Data and Disability
        Information
             National Surveys
   Several national survey provide health and
    employment information
     – Health focused
         e.g., National Health Interview Survey
     – Employment/Program Focused
         e.g., Survey of Income and Program
          Participation
     – Medical expenditures
         e.g. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey
     – Administrative data
         Social Security
Disability Definitions and Statistics
   Definition of “disability” has strong influence
    on the size of the population
     – (e.g., 54 million people cited by the ADA
       legislation vs. 12 million SSA disability
       beneficiaries)
   Alternative disability definitions will produce
    differences in
     – Demographic composition
     – Employment rates
     – Needs
     – Trends
Demographic and Employment
        Statistics
Demographic Characteristics from
           the SIPP
Employment Rates (Work Limitations
         from the SIPP)
   Employment rates of people with disabilities
    vary depending on employment definition
     – Any annual employment (41%)
     – Full time annual employment (15%)
     – Any monthly employment (27%)

   Implications
     – People with disabilities more likely to work
       part-time/part-year
     – Need for understanding the definition in
       interpreting employment rates
    Statistics from other Surveys
   Cornell Statistics RRTC provides User
    Guides for several data sources
    – American Community Survey
    – Census
    – Current Population Survey
    – National Health Interview Survey
    – Panel Survey of Income Dynamics

   Available for download at
    – http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/EDI/p-srrtc-
      resources.cfm
Job Entries and Exits
      Dynamics of Employment

   Exits and entries are influenced by labor
    supply and demand factors

    – Business cycle: Exits and entries are
      sensitive to business cycle
    – Severity of disability
    – Demographic characteristics
    – Competing incentives (e.g., disability
      programs)
    Dynamics of Job Exits and Entries
   Stapleton, Wittenburg and Maag (2006)

     – Labor market changes sweep people with
       disabilities out of the labor force
     – Relative effects of job exit are not as
       strong as job reentry
         not necessarily “first fired, but they are
          last rehired”
     – Policy: while job retention is important, an
       important key in increasing employment is
       focusing on job entry policies.
          Barriers to Job Entries
   Need for accommodations limits employment
    prospects among adults with disabilities
    (Loprest and Maag (2001))
    – One-third of non-workers needed
      accommodations
    – Types of accommodations most needed
        E.g., worksite features (e.g.,
         transportation), specifically, designed
         work stations, and flexible work
         schedules.
    – Biggest issue appears to be finding jobs
Worker Needs: Preventing Job Exits
   Accommodations increase labor force
    attachment

    – Burkhauser, Butler, and Weathers (2002):
      provision of accommodations increased
      employment and reduced entry onto SSA
      programs
       Limitations for Employers



   Inverse relationship in surveys between
    employment data and health data
   Limited information at the local level
   Limited information on needs of specific
    populations, especially mental impairments
Other Data Sources
     Other Available Resources for
        Employers on Practices
   Employer specific surveys
    – Schur, Kruse, and Blanck (2005):
      Emphasizes important roles of corporate
      culture
    – Bruyere (2000)
        Employers increasing reporting
         accommodations
        Reported challenges in serving people
         with mental impairments
    – Curcio (2006)
        Created metrics for employers to
         measure disability
Conclusions
                    Conclusions
   Existing surveys provide general information on
    demographic and employment rates
     – Rates sensitive to definition
     – Limited information on disability status in surveys
       focused on employment
   General information
    – job entries and exits
    – Needs for accommodations
   Limitations
     – Limited local data
         Survey data general constrained to the state
          level
     – Limited information on impairment groups
         Conclusions (continued)
   Directions for future research using survey data
     – More need for use of administrative data linked
       with survey data
         SSA data: Narrow target population, but
          information at local level on specific
          impairment groups
    – Enhancing surveys with detailed employment
      information
        Barnow (2006)

   Other data sources likely necessary to address
    emerging employer issues
     – Employer surveys
     – Employer administrative tracking (Curcio 2006)

								
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