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					Diversity & Inclusion in
  the New Millennium

       Georgia Coffey
    Deputy Assistant Secretary
     for Diversity & Inclusion
      Historical Perspective

               Civil Rights >>> Inclusive Workplace
                                                         Inclusive Workplace
                                                  Managing Diversity
                                    Respecting Diversity
               Affirmative Action

        Equal Employment Opportunity

Civil Rights Movement

Melting Pot                                                            Salad Bowl
(Assimilation)                                                  (Multiculturalism)

<<<     1960   1965   1970   1975   1980   1985   1990   1995   2000   2005   >>>
 Equal Employment Opportunity
   The laws, regulations, and policies that guarantee everyone’s right to equal
   opportunity in the workplace, irrespective of race, color, religion, national origin, sex,
   sexual orientation, age, or disability.
 Affirmative Action
   Efforts to address the effects of past discrimination by measuring the representation
   of demographic groups in the workforce in order to identify and remove barriers to
   equal opportunity.
   All the ways in which we are similar and different and valuing the unique
   characteristics of individuals and groups in the workforce.
   Empowering and leveraging the diversity in all individuals to enable them to fully
   participate and contribute to the mission of the organization.
Workforce Diversity – A State of Being

  Diversity is about valuing and promoting differences,
  similarities and unique characteristics of groups and
  individuals in the workforce.

  Diversity includes the full spectrum of human differences,
  including but not ,limited to race, gender, sexual
  orientation, color, ethnicity, religion, age,
  physical/cognitive ability, socioeconomic status, family
  status, lifestyle, organizational affiliation, and intellectual
Primary & Secondary Dimensions of
                                      The Loden Diversity Wheel
According to Marilyn Loden, the
inner circle contains the primary
dimensions, the core of an
individual’s diversity identity.

Secondary dimensions, the
outer circle, represent an
essential dimension of group

When ignored, devalued, or
misunderstood by others,
primary and secondary
dimensions of diversity are more
likely to lead to culture clash and

                                        Reprinted with permission from Loden Associates..
• 80% entering workforce are women, people of color or

• Women outnumber men in medical school applications for
  two years in a row

• 60% of those enrolled in college are now women

• Women now serve on submarines and in cockpits
  enabling them to become Admirals and Generals due to
  removing barriers
Demographic Change – US Population
Projection: Percent of US Population By
Race and Hispanic Origin
                                                                         1990        2050
80%   75.7%
30%                                                                                 22.5%
                    12.3%                         1.1%         10.3%            9.0%
10%                                                         3.0%
      White (Non-   Black and African   American Indian,    Asian and Pacific   Hispanic (Any
       Hispanic)        American         Eskimo, Aluet          Islander            Race)

                                                           Source: US Census Bureau
 Imperatives For Diversity Within VA

•Changing Veteran Population
  –More women
  –More racial/ethnic diversity

•Changes in Delivery systems and Models of Care
  –Community based care

•Changing external environment
  –Assimilation v Multiculturalism
  –Transfer of purchasing power
US Veteran Demographic Profile 2000 vs
2036 Projections – Racial/Ethnic Minorities
        15.43%                                 4/1/2000      9/30/2036
      9.59%                                                        8.74%
6%                  1.28%      2.04%      0.36%       1.39% 4.83%
2%               0.68%      1.07%      0.12%       1.26%
        Black    American     Asian      Pacific   Two Or More   Hispanics
                  Indian                Islander     Races
Minority Buying Power (Billions of Dollars)

     Source: Selig Center for Economic Growth, Terry College of Business, The University of Georgia, July 2008.
Workplace Inclusion – A State of Mind

  Inclusion is the process of enabling full
  participation of all individuals in the workplace so
  they may contribute to the mission.

  Inclusion requires a proactive, deliberate
  strategy to leverage individual differences and
  diverse talents as an asset of the organization.
  Systems Influence the Degree to Which the
  Workplace Climate is Inclusive
  Changing an organizational
  culture is about doing many small                                                    Communications
  things to enable full participation.                                      Coaching

  As you look at your organization,
  ask yourself:                                                 Career
  “What are we doing, in ways                                 Development

  large or small, to move from                                                           Inclusive
  yesterday's diversity to today's                                                      Environment

  need for inclusion?”                                           Work                                              Managers’
                                                              Assignments                                         Accountability

                                                                            &                             Mentoring
Source: “From Diversity to Inclusion.” Katharine Esty, PhD.
Northeast Human Resources Association. April 30, 2007
Cultural Competence

What is Culture?

The institutional values, beliefs, standards, language,
  thinking patterns, behavioral norms, and communications
  styles that influence decisions and actions of an

What is Cultural Competence?

A set of congruent behaviors, practices, attitudes and
  policies that come together in a system or agency or
  among professionals, enabling individuals to work
  effectively across cultures

 Cultural Competence Continuum

                                                          Cultural Proficiency

                                                 Cultural Competence

                                           Cultural Pre-competence

                               Cultural Blindness

                     Cultural Incapacity
           Cultural Destructiveness

  Cultural Competence Definitions
• Cultural Destructiveness: forced assimilation, subjugation, rights
  and privileges for dominant groups only
• Cultural Incapacity: racism, maintain stereotypes, unfair hiring
• Cultural Blindness: differences ignored, “treat everyone the same”,
  only meet needs of dominant groups
• Cultural Pre-competence: explore cultural issues, are committed,
  assess needs of organization and individuals
• Cultural Competence: recognize individual and cultural differences,
  seek advice from diverse groups, hire culturally unbiased staff
• Cultural Proficiency: implement changes to improve services based
  upon cultural needs, do research and teach

Knowledge Check
Q1. Inclusion is about…
     A. Valuing and promoting individual and group
        differences and similarities
     B. Empowering and leveraging individual
        differences as an organizational asset
     C. Prohibiting discrimination
     D. Being able to work effectively across cultures
We know there is a legal imperative, but is there a…

  Business Imperative
    Does workforce diversity have a quantifiable effect on business/performance

  Economic Imperative
    Is there a financial/economic benefit to workforce diversity?

  Human Imperative
    What is the human cost? How does organizational culture impact one’s
    contributions to the mission?

                             What does the research show?
What does the research show?

    Workforce diversity correlates with business performance outcomes.
    Racial diversity is associated with higher performance in organizations that
    leverage diverse perspectives.
    Gender diversity is associated with higher performance, creativity and
    more effective group processes in people-oriented performance cultures.
    Diverse teams are more creative and perform better problem solving.
    Diversity in workforce and processes results in better decision-making.
    Students who attend racially/ethnically diverse medical schools indicate
    they are better equipped to care for diverse patient populations. (UCLA 2008)

  NOTE: The effects of diversity are dependent on the conditions in the
    organization; absent facilitating conditions, the outcomes are reversed.

  Diversity Research Network, 2002; Center For Creative Leadership, 1994
What does the research show?

    Racial and gender diversity are positively associated with higher
    establishment productivity, product quality, and economic benefits.
    (The Conference Board, 2001)

    Organizations with diverse executive teams generate greater
    revenues and profits than those with the lowest percentage of
    women on their executive teams. (U.S. Banker, 2008)

    Diverse companies generate 18% higher productivity than US
    economy overall (Urban League, 2004)
What does the research show?

 •   Workplace conflict results in 22-53% lost productivity. (UNC
     Business School)

 •   Poor diversity mgt results in 25-40% of workforce attrition rate and
     5-20% in lost productivity.

 •   Employee turnover costs 75-150% of the replaced employee’s

 •   Average EEO complaint costs the government about $60,000 in
     the administrative stage alone.

 By 2042, there will be no single majority demographic; people of color
 will comprise more than 50% of the U.S. population; the majority of
 new entrants into the labor market will globally diverse. (U.S. Census)

 Only 46% of employees who experienced intolerance/discrimination
 indicated they would remain with the organization vs. 71% of
 employees who had not. (Gallup)

 Defining diversity solely as race and gender can have a dterimental
 effect; inclusion and multidimensionality are essential to gain
 acceptance. (Nkomo, 1999)
A Culture of Engagement
Gallup Survey: Employee engagement is a validated predictor of
organizational performance; diverse workplaces with culturally
competent workforces have the highest employee engagement.

   54 percent of employees in the United States are not engaged and

   17 percent are disengaged. Only 29 percent are engaged. -- Gallup
   Study on Employee Engagement

Sirota Survey: Key motivators for employees are equity, achievement,
and camaraderie.

Conclusion: Empirical data show a quantifiable link between diversity
and employee engagement and performance outcomes.
Q2. My immediate organization is flexible
and inclusive.

• A. Strongly Agree

• B. Agree

• C. Disagree

• D. Strongly Disagree
Q3 The VA organizational culture is flexible
and inclusive.

• A. Strongly Agree

• B. Agree

• C. Disagree

• D. Strongly Disagree
VA All Employee Survey Results
% Respondents who disagree or strongly disagree:

• Managers in my facility are warm and caring – 29.4%

• People treat each other with respect – 19.4%

• Disputes or conflicts are resolved fairly – 21.5%

• This organization does not tolerate discrimination – 13%

• Differences are respected and valued – 15.3%

• It is safe to take a risk – 30.0%

Two Survey Questions with a high incidence of
“Neither Agree or Disagree”

• “It is safe to take a risk”

• “My manager is warm and caring”

Responses to these questions were 10-15% more likely to
  be “Neither Agree or Disagree” compared to other
  questions within Diversity Acceptance.

 Eliminating Barriers

  “This Organization Does Not Tolerate Discrimination”
• 13% of employees do not agree

• Additional 14.7% neither agree nor disagree

In an organization of 10,000 that could amount to 1,300
   employees who believe discrimination is tolerated and
   1,470 who are “on the fence”

On the Fence?
Those who neither agree nor disagree
• Managers are warm and caring – 29.6%

• People treat each other with respect – 15.6%

• Disputes or conflicts are resolved fairly – 20.4%

• It is safe to take a risk – 28.3%

• This organization does not tolerate discrimination – 14.7%

      What does this answer truly represent? Is this truly a
       “neutral” answer?

on Organizational Cultures
SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY – Challenger/Columbia Shuttle Tragedies

INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY - 9/11 Intelligence Failures

ECONOMIC COMMUNITY – Enron/Lehman Bros Bankruptcies

POLITICS – Shirley Sherrod

What they had in common: organizational cultures that were rigid,
 siloed, suppressed dissent, restricted communication, eschewed
 divergent thought, and maintained the status quo.

                          in other words –
                       Non-inclusive cultures
Require intentionality
• Leadership commitment     • Shared accountability

• Equity in opportunities   • Continuous learning

• Strategic outreach        • Diversity education

• Deliberate inclusion      • Participatory processes

• Accommodation             • Interdisciplinary teams

• Transparent               • Constructive conflict mgt
The Millennials Have Arrived –
Intergenerational Impact on the workplace

• 50,000 Government Entry Level Jobs – Mostly Millennials

• Fresh new perspectives; new mental paradigm

• Wired Generation; ability to leverage social media

• Different value system; different motivators

• sense of impatience – desire to move up the ladder

• “Why are you doing it that way dude?”
         Enhanced Cultural Competency Required
• More than 150,000 Veterans are expected to submit Agent Orange
  claims in the next 12 to 18 months
• Review of over 90,000 previously denied claims
• Less documentation/evidence required to file claims
• Average age of current Vietnam Veterans is 58
• Disproportionate African American representation in the emerging
• Increased ethnic diversity in the Veteran populations will mean
  cultural/linguistic challenges
• Veterans will be increasingly served by millennials
How do we measure success of our diversity &
inclusion efforts?

Workforce composition
  • Workforce demographics vs. RCLF/CLF
  • Analysis of promotions, separations, hiring…

Workplace culture
  • Climate/employee surveys
  • EEO complaints, grievances, disciplinary actions…

Organizational performance
   • Line of business objectives
   • Outcome metrics: claims processing time, quality of patient
   care, client satisfaction, employee satisfaction
Diversity & Inclusion Strategic Plan

           VA D & I Strategic Goals:
              – Create a diverse and high performing
                workforce that reflects the communities
                we serve by identifying and eliminating
                barriers to equal opportunity.

              – Cultivate an inclusive workforce that
                enables full participation through
                strategic outreach and retention.

              – Facilitate outstanding customer service
                and stakeholder relations by promoting
                cultural competency, accountability,
                education, and communication.
Final Thoughts…
Q4 Are Diversity and Inclusion issues still relevant and
     important in the federal government?

       A. No, we are in a “post-racial society and
          diversity measures are no longer needed
       B. Yes, we still have barriers to EEO in federal
       C. Yes, but only if we define diversity and
          inclusion broadly, beyond the protected
       D. I don’t know

          U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs
             Office of Diversity and Inclusion

                       Web site


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