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Youth and unemployment

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					Youth and employment in
 Europe : a dead-end?
   ETUC Youth conference
  by Marie-Anne Robberecht
   Madrid 26-28 August 2010
              Target group: Youth
  Definition
  « Youth may be considered as a transition phase, between a world of rather
  secure development to a world of choice where individuals have to choose
  and plan their own social integration» (Eurostat)‫‏‬

• The passage from a dependant childhood to
  independant adulthood:

 Milestones: age, age-limit for child-benefits, voting age,
  end‫‏‬of‫‏‬compulsory‫‏‬education…‫‏‬

 This report focuses on population aged between 15 and
  29.
Demography: close to 100 million young
       people live in the EU
   Key figures relating to demography

• Currently 96 million young people aged 15-29
  live in the EU.

• Young people aged 15-29 constitute 19,4% of
  the total population within the EU (a fifth).

• Projected share of young people in 2050: 15,3%
  of the total population.
          Education

Many pathes lead to the labour market
    Useful concept and definitions by the International
         Standard of Classification of Education
                        (ISCED)‫‏‬
•    Level 1 and 2 : Primary and Lower-secondary education (compulsory
     education)‫‏‬


•    Level 3 : (Upper) secondary education: begins at the end of compulsory
     education. Entrance age: 15 or 16.

•    Level 4: Post-secondary non tertiary education: pre-degree foundation
     courses or short vocational programs

•    Level 5: First stage of tertiary education: theoretically based programms
     (history, philosophy, mathematics, etc); giving access to professions with
     high skill requirements (medecine, dentistry, architecture..)‫‏‬

•    Level 6: Second stage of tertiary education: leading to an advanced
     research qualification
         Most young people are entering upper-
          secondary education after the end of
                compulsory‫‏‬education…




Note: At the age of 19, more than 60% of young people are still in formal education
      By ISCED 3, choosing the programme:
             general or vocational?
  Source: ISCED, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
                           Organization
   General education
 Education which is mainly designed to lead participants to a deeper understanding of
  a subject, especially with a view to preparing participants for further education at the
  same or a higher level.
 Succesfull completion may or may not provide the participants with a labour-market
  relevant qualification.
 These programmes are typically school-based.


   Vocational education
 Education which is mainly designed to lead participants to acquire the practical skills,
  know-how and understanding necessary for employment in a particular occupation or
  trade.
 Successful completion of such programmes lead to a labour-market relevant
  vocational qualification recognised by the competent authorities in the country in
  which‫‏‬it‫‏‬is‫‏‬obtained‫(‏‬e.g.‫‏‬Ministry‫‏‬of‫‏‬Education,‫ ‏‬employers’‫‏‬associations,‫‏‬etc.).
A gender gap in upper secondary education:
more women than men in general education

                      • Attending general programmes:
                       54% of girls
                       43% of boys



                      • Attending vocational programmes:
                       46% of girls
                       53% of boys
A great part of 19 years old are engaged in ISCED
                      3 and 6
More students in the knowledge triangle:
  education, research and innovation

                       • Notes:

                        The number of tertiary
                         education students has
                         increased by nearly 25 %
                         between 1998 and 2006.

                        In 2006: 19 million students
                         in the tertiary field in the EU
Notes:
 15 % of the population aged between 18
   and 34 attend tertiary education

 More than half of the countries show
  attendance rates higher than 15%

 Low rates for Cyprus, Malta and
  Luxemburg: young people are studying
  abroad

 More women than men

 Young people in tertiary education are full-
  time students, which leads to higher
  dependance
                Learning foreign languages :
                  « a key for the future! »

•   Many mother tongues are « the ability to understand and communicate in more
    than one language is a desirable life-skill for all Europeancitizens. It enables
    people to take advantage of the freedom to work or study in another Member
    State » (European’s‫‏‬Commission‫ ‏‬communication‫ ‏‬on‫‏‬a‫‏‬New‫‏‬Framework‫‏‬Strategy‫‏‬for‫‏‬
    multilinguism (2005)

•   At EU level: less than 10% of pupils in upper-secondary education (ISCED 3) do not
    learn any foreign language

•   Pupils in vocational education at ISCED 3: 64% learn one language, 24% learn two
    languages

•   Pupils in general education at ISCED 3: nearly all pupils learn at least one language

•   Note: in Portugal and the UK, 40% do not learn any foreign language!
« Learning mobility should be provided to all
         young people in Europe »
•   Since 1987, Erasmus has supported more than 2 million students
The phenomenon of « early school
    leavers »‫‏‬is‫‏‬decreasing…
…but‫‏‬still‫‏‬exists

         Countries with the highest values:
          Malta, Portugal, Spain, Italy and
           Cyprus



         Countries with the lowest values:
          Slovenia, Slovakia, Poland and
           Czech Republic



          The average of ESL is now
           standing at 14,8% in the EU
          Employment

More difficulties to enter the labour-
     market for young people
Transition from school to work takes place
            between 18 and 24
                     •   Half of 20 year-old young people were
                         on the EU labour market in 2007

                     •   In 2007, the majority of 15 year olds
                         were in education and economically
                         inactive (exception: Denmark)‫‏‬

                     • Transition time: between 18 and 24
                      Among 18 year olds, 59% were
                       exclusively in education
                      At the age of 24, the majority were
                       active

                     •   In a majority of Member States, 70%
                         of 29 year olds were economically
                         active and no longer in education
Employment rate is higher by age group 25-29
          than by age group 15-24
Focus on activity
Studying while working
       Precarity of contracts
Temporary work: stepping-stone or trap?
Precarity of contracts
    Part-time jobs
 Young entrepreneurs : being self-sufficient is
attractive, but too much administrative barriers
                     remains
The higher the level of education, the lower
        the risk of unemployment

                        Notes :
                      • High educated people:
                        16% are economically
                        inactive

                      • People with a most
                        secondary lower
                        education : 65% are
                        economically inactive
Young people are much more concerned by
unemployment than their elders at EU level
Unemployment in the Member States:
      a very large spectrum
                  Unemployment rates, age group 15-24
                   the lowest : Netherlands and Denmark
                   below 10% : Austria, Ireland and
                     Lithuania
                   above 20% : Greece, Italy, Poland,
                     Romania, Slovakia
                   Raise of 5%: Sweden, Portugal, Hungary
                     and Luxemburg

                  Unemployment rates, age group 25-29
                   above 10%: Greece, Portugal, Italy,
                     Spain, France
                     Raise of 7% in Portugal!

                  Both groups
                   Gender gap: more women than men are
                     unemployed
                 Long-term unemployment and NEET:
                        risk of social exclusion




•   NEET: Not currently Engaged in Employment, Education or Training
   In 2007, more than on third of young people aged 15-24 were NEET
One in five young people living at risk of poverty (share of persons
     with an income below 60% of the national median income)
Living conditions : difficult to become independent!
Thank you for your attention !

				
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