MasterKey Steel Sections Design by ps94506

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									       4 MasterKey: Integrated Steel Sections Design

       4.1 Getting Started With MasterKey Steel Sections


       MasterKey I-Sections, MasterKey Hollow Sections and MasterKey Angles,
       Channels and Tees are interactive programs providing comprehensive design of
       sections (UB, UC, RSJ, UBP, IPE, HE, HL, HD, HP, IPN, W, CHS, SHS, RHS, Ang,
       channels and Tees) to BS 5950. The three programs are interactively linked to
       MasterFrame to provide a fully integrated analysis, design and drafting suite. EC3 and
       SABS 0162 design code versions are also available.
       To access MasterKey: Integrated Steel Design

       1. From the MasterSeries Start Up screen select
          Frames> MasterFrame: Analysis Design and
          Drafting


                                       2. Generate your structure inside MasterFrame defining
                                          geometry, section sizes and loading. Analyse the
                                          frame.


                                                    3 MasterFrame: Plane, Grillage and Space Frame
                                                    Analysis


                                       3. From the Design menu inside MasterFrame select
                                          Steel Design


       The Basic Principles of MasterKey Integrated Steel Sections Design

       MasterKey Steel Sections Design operates on the following basic steps.

       1. Apply design briefs to the members of the frame. A design brief is a particular set of
          design checks, which are performed on the member to which a brief is applied. The
          program displays clear and concise design output for the current design brief, which
          informs the Engineer what action needs to be taken to achieve the most optimum
          design.

       2. From the information given in the design output the Engineer can decide to optimise
          the steel section sizes either by manually selecting an alternative section size or by
          using the automated section sizing functions provided by the program.

       3. Print the design output for all or a selected number of design briefs.

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       The design brief also contains the basic design parameters, e.g. effective lengths and
       restraint conditions. Changes to the design brief information are instantaneously taken
       into account in the design output, providing a truly interactive design environment.



       4.2 Integrated Design Briefs
       When you firstly enter MasterKey Steel Section Design with a new file no design briefs
       are applied to the structure, therefore no design checks have been performed. It is then
       the Engineers responsibility to apply the appropriate design briefs to the members in the
       frame in order that the adequate design checks are carried out.
       The range of integrated design briefs is available from the Integrated Design menu.
       Below is a brief description of the design checks performed by each integrated design
       brief. Each of these design briefs are applied to a single member. It is recommended
       that you apply the appropriate design brief(s) to each member in the structure that you
       wish to design.

       Beam and Beam Portion: Ignores axial loading. Checks for single axis local moment
       capacity, lateral torsional stability, shear capacity, deflection, and slenderness ratio. The
       user can specify the restraint condition and locations, effective lengths, deflection limits,
       slenderness limits etc. as input data.

       Axially loaded with moments: Performs local capacity checks, as well as overall
       buckling checks using both the simplified and more exact approaches. Includes
       compression resistance check. Considers biaxial (major and minor axis) forces. The
       user can specify the input data as per the Beam and Beam Portion design brief. Carries
       out serviceability deflection and slenderness ratio checks.

       Appendix G: Stability checks: Performs local torsional stability checks on the
       unrestrained compression flange. The user can specify positions of torsional stays in
       the input data if required.

       Columns in Simple Construction: Suitable for simply supported (pinned) columns.
       Performs simple axial and shear capacity checks. Also calculates the nominal moments
       created from the eccentricity of the shear forces of adjoining beams at the top and
       bottom of the column.

       Discontinuous Struts and Ties: Performs simple axial capacity, buckling check (strut
       only) and slenderness ratio checks.

       It is possible to apply more than one design briefs to a member. A typical example of
       this might be a rafter in a portal frame with both an Axially loaded with moments design
       brief and an Appendix G design brief.




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       4.2.1 Applying integrated design briefs to members
       To apply an integrated design brief to a member;
       1. Select one of the above design briefs from the Integrated Design menu.
           The Section AutoDesign tab at the bottom left of the screen now indicates that one
           design brief has been added. The       button at the top left of the frame geometry
           window should be automatically pressed down, which means Apply To mode is
           active. While in Apply To mode, when we click on a member from the frame
           geometry area, the current design brief is applied to that member.
       2. Click on the member in the frame geometry area to which you wish to apply the
          design brief.
       The design output produced by the design brief for the selected member is now
       displayed in the main design output window on the left side of the screen.

       This process may be repeated to apply further design briefs to other members in the
       Frame.
       The Automatic Design menu also provides several automated functions for applying a
       detailed design brief to all the members in the current view. Two options are available
       based on two generic types of structure,
       Add-All Multi Storey Continuous Construction (Current View) – Applies a default ‘Axially
       Loaded Member with Moments’ design brief to all members in the current view.
       Add-All Multi Storey Simple Construction (Current View) – Applies a default ‘Beam and
       Beam Portion’ check to all non-vertical members in the current view and a default
       ‘Columns in Simple Construction’ check to all vertical members in the current view.


       4.2.2 Design brief input data
       The design checks performed by each integrated design brief are based on a particular
       set of default design parameters. It is important that the engineer is aware what these
       defaults are and is able to change them if necessary for the current design brief.
       After applying a design brief as described above in section 4.2.1, that design brief
       becomes the current one, i.e. it is selected the design brief drop list in the Section
       AutoDesign tab. The tabs at the bottom on the screen contain the design parameters for
       the current brief. For example an Axial with Moments design brief will display the input
       data tabs related to that brief, as shown below. The Section AutoDesign tab is common
       to all design briefs. A description of the currently selected input parameter is given in
       the mouse pointer tool tip. Simply hover the mouse pointer over the input parameter
       and the tool tip will appear.




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       Changes to the design brief information are instantaneously taken into account in the
       design output, providing a truly interactive design environment. Any information
       changed in the editing tabs applies only to the currently selected brief and the
       member(s) to which the brief is applied.
       A detailed description of all the parameters in each integrated design brief is given in
       section 4.10.


       4.2.3 Managing integrated design briefs
       It is recommended that you apply the appropriate design brief(s) to each member in the
       structure that you wish to design. It is therefore useful to be able to easily navigate and
       manage these design briefs, particularly as the number of design briefs increase with
       larger structures.


       Navigating design briefs
       Having assigned design briefs to many members in the structure, there are several ways
       in which you can view that particular design brief and more importantly the design
       results it produces.


       From the Section Auto Design tab at the bottom
       left of the screen there is a drop list of design
       briefs above which it indicates which design
       brief number is currently selected and how
       many design briefs there are in total.
       The member to which the selected design brief is applied to is highlighted in red in the
       frame geometry area. Also the title of the design output will indicate which member
       number(s) that the design output refers to.

       To move between design briefs you can either,
       1. Select a design brief from the design brief drop list in the Section AutoDesign tab, or

       2. Use the right / left blue arrow buttons          to move to the previous / next brief, or

       3. Ensure that the Search for Next Brief button is pressed down, then click on a
          member in the frame geometry area to move to the first brief applied to that

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            member. Consecutive clicking on the member will move to other briefs applied to
            that member. In Search mode members that do not have a design brief applied to
            them are coloured grey and when you click on them nothing occurs.


       Moving design briefs from one member to another
       A design brief applied to a member may be removed from that member and applied to
       another member using Apply To mode.
       1. While in Search for next brief mode ( button pressed down) click on the member
          which contains the design brief that you wish to remove from that member and apply
          to another member.

       2. Change to Apply To mode by pressing down the               button.
       3. Click on the member to move the brief to.

       4. Change back to Search mode by clicking on the              button to avoid moving the
          design brief to other members you click on.
       Apply a new design brief to another member by copying an existing brief
       Using Copy To mode the current design brief may be copied to other members, creating
       further design briefs.
       1. While in Search for next brief mode click on the member that contains the design
            brief that you wish to copy to another member.

       2. Change to Copy To mode by pressing down the button               .
       3. Click on the member to copy the brief to. You can click on other members to
          continue copying the brief to those members.
       4. When finished, change back to Search mode to avoid unintentionally copying the
          design brief to other members you click on.


       This method of applying a design brief to a member has several advantages over
       selecting to apply a new default design brief from the Integrated Design menu. For
       example if we had a structure comprising ten beams that where fully laterally restrained
       we could
       1.    Apply a default Beam and Beam Portion design brief from the Integrated design to
             member 1
       2.    Change the default design parameters of effective length for buckling from 1.00 L
             to Full Rest.
       3.    Change to Copy To mode and click once on each of the remaining nine beams
       4.    Change back to Search mode



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       Thus ten design briefs have been created very quickly containing customised design
       brief parameters.
       Note! It is important that when you are not applying, moving or copying briefs that you
       remain in Search for Next Brief mode       .


       Sorting and deleting design briefs – Section AutoDesign tab
       A design briefs can be removed by moving to the unwanted design brief as described in
       navigating design briefs above, then clicking on the Delete button in the Section Auto
       Design tab.
       The Sort button presents the
       complete list of design briefs.
       From this list a single brief may be
       selected and erased. The order in
       which the design briefs appear in
       the design briefs drop list can be
       sorted by clicking on an item in
       the list and dragging it (holing the
       mouse button down and moving)
       to the desired location in the list.


       The spin button     to the right of the Sort button in the Section AutoDesign tab can also
       be used to move the current design brief up or down the design brief listing by one
       position per click.




       4.2.4 Using the Auto Check – Group Check

       The integrated design “AutoCheck –Group Check” option is used to gain an overview of
       the suitability of a group of trial section sizes. Unlike other more detailed integrated
       design briefs that are applied to a single member, the AutoCheck – Group Check is
       applied to a group of members. The design output given for this group of members is
       simply a list with a single line for each member detailing the local capacity and overall
       buckling capacity unity ratios together with the effective lengths used and most critical
       load cases found to arrive at these ratios.
       The unity ratios given by the Auto Check – Group Check are based entirely on the input
       parameters defined in the Auto Check tab. No account is taken of any detailed design
       briefs that have been applied to the members or the specific information in those briefs
       such as restraint conditions or effective lengths. Therefore where the overall ratio has
       exceeded 1.0 and warnings are presented, this may not be significant providing a more
       detailed design brief with the correct restraint conditions etc. shows that the design is
       satisfactory.

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       The Auto Check – Group Check is therefore most useful for giving an overview of how a
       group of members are performing and also highlighting in that group the most critical
       members.
       To apply an Auto Check – Group Check’
       1. Select Auto Check – Group Check from the integrated design menu.
       2. Click on the members in the frame geometry are that you wish to add
       3. In the input data area define the design parameters. Members will be checked for
           their full lengths assuming the end restraint conditions specified. To check a specific
           portion along the members then define the Start At position and the Ly value for the
           portion length.
       In the frame geometry area members that are coloured red have failed in local capacity,
       while members that are coloured cyan have failed in overall capacity only. Black
       coloured members have passed both checks and grey members have not been added
       to the current Auto Check – Group Check brief.
       If you have included a
       sway stability loading
       case in your analysis, the
       Auto Check – Group will
       present the linear elastic
       critical load factor crit
       calculated from the
       deflections in the sway
       stability loading case.




       4.3 Ultimate Design Loading Cases and Serviceability Design Loading Cases
       A default arrangement of loading combinations are automatically created by
       MasterFrame. The Engineer may also have specified a number of additional loading
       cases during frame generation. MasterKey Steel Sections Design intelligently identifies
       Ultimate Design loading cases by examining for load factor values greater than 1.0.
       Serviceability Design loading cases then form the remainder of loading cases, i.e. those
       having all load factor values less than or equal to 1.0.




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       The drop list on the right of the Section
       AutoDesign tab lists the ultimate design loading
       cases that the program is considering.

       With Auto Case button below this drop list turned on (pressed down) the program will
       automatically detect the most critical load case for both ultimate and serviceability
       checks in the current design brief. Turning the Auto Case function off, the user has the
       freedom to select the ultimate design loading case, therefore allowing you to examine
       the design output for any ultimate loading case. The Auto Case function is a local
       setting to each individual design brief.
       Where there is large number of loading cases the ‘Check Critical
       Cases only’ option will improve the speed at which the AutoCase
       function finds the most critical case. This may result in significantly
       increased Automatic Design speeds.
       MasterKey Steel Sections Design also provides a facility whereby the user can explicitly
       specify which loading cases are to be considered as ultimate and which are to be
       considered as serviceability, therefore overriding the categorisation of loading cases
       made by the program as described above. This is done using the ‘Design and
       Deflection Loading Cases’ brief. This is a specification brief and is added to the brief
       drop list in the Section AutoDesign tab along with the design briefs.
       To add a Design and Deflection Loading Cases brief,
       1. Select Design and Deflection Loading Cases from the Integrated Design menu, or
       2. Click on the Design Cases button in the Section AutoDesign tab
       A Design /Deflection Loading Cases item has
       bee added to the Design Brief drop list and is
       the current brief. The top right area of the
       screen now contains two windows listing all
       loading cases. The loading cases highlighted
       in the top window are the ultimate limit state
       design cases, while those highlighted in the
       bottom window are the serviceability limit state
       cases. A loading case cannot be designated
       as both ultimate and serviceability; therefore
       items highlighted in a list are exclusive.
       To exit the Design/Deflection Loading Cases brief click on the Close button in the
       Design/Deflection Loading Cases area. This function simply selects the next design
       brief in the list. If the Design/Deflection Loading Cases brief is the only item in the list
       then the close button will not function. To remove the Design/Deflection Loading Cases
       brief, click on the Delete button as shown above. The Reset button will automatically
       reselect the ultimate and serviceability loading cases based on the program defaults.
       The position of the Design/Deflection Loading Cases entry in the design brief drop list is
       important since its specification only applies to all design briefs that follow it in the list of
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       briefs. Hence if you wish the Desgin/Deflection Loading Cases specification to apply to
       all design briefs it must be the first item in the list, i.e. brief No. 1. To reposition the
       Desgin/Deflection Loading Cases brief, click on the Sort button in the Section
       AutoDesign tab, then click and drag it to the desired location in the list.



       4.4 The Design Output

       4.4.1 The Detailed Design Output
       The design output is presented in a detailed and concise format. The various deign
       checks are clearly divided into headed sections. The results produced by the detailed
       design briefs are generally displayed over four columns, in the format;
       Column 1 – Description of calculation, item or numerical value.
       Column 2 – Design data or calculation.
       Column 3 – Calculation result or permissible values.
       Column 4 – Design check verdict, OK or Warning.
                                                                     The design output displayed is
                                                                     for the currently selected design
                                                                     brief. The nature of the design
                                                                     output depends on the type of
                                                                     design brief. The detailed
                                                                     design results are formatted on
                                                                     the screen exactly as they will
                                                                     appear in the printed or exported
                                                                     design output.

                                                                     When the background of the
                                                                     design output window is white
                                                                     coloured all design checks in the
                                                                     current brief are passing. If any
                                                                     design checks are noncompliant
                                                                     then background of the design
                                                                     output window is coloured Cyan.
       Axial with Moment, Beam and Beam Portion, Appendix G and Strut & Tie design briefs
       also display graphical and tabular data in addition to the detailed design results. The
       graphic at the top right of the design output window is the member diagram showing the
       bending moment diagram of the current member in blue/grey and the moment capacity
       of the member in red. The vertical red line on the bending moment diagram indicates the
       most critical position in the current portion and the design forces in the design output are
       taken from this position.



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       To the left of the member diagram the ultimate loading case combination is displayed
       along with the MasterFrame member loads applied to the currently selected member.
       The top row of the tabular output indicates the design loading case used and if the
       design brief has serviceability checks it also indicates the serviceability loading case.
       The forces presented in the table are the member end forces and not necessarily the
       current design forces. The maximum moments along the length of the member may
       also be given if they are greater than the end moments.

       The loading information and the tabular data can be hidden/displayed by the          button
       below the frame geometry window.

       In Axial with Moment, Beam and Beam Portion and Appendix G design briefs it is
       possible to split a member up into a number of portions by specifying points of lateral or
       torsional restraint. The locations of these restraints then appear on the member
       diagram. In these design checks the design output refers only to the currently selected
       member portion. The portion of the member that the current design output refers to is
       given in,
       1. The title of the design output,
       2. The portion drop list on the right of the Section AutoDesign tab, and
       3. Shown graphically as the highlighted portion in the member diagram.
       The results for other portions may be viewed by clicking on the portion in the member
       diagram, or by using the portions drop list in the Section AutoDesign tab.


       4.4.2 Design Summary Area




       The design summary area permits immediate evaluation of the fundamental design
       checks carried out by the current design brief. The unity ratios are dynamically updated
       with any alteration of information in the editing area. When a unity ratio exceeds 1.0
       then the design check that it refers to has failed and the ratio number is highlighted in
       red.
       By clicking on any of the items in the design summary area, the corresponding detailed
       design output is displayed. The paragraph and section navigator spin buttons also
       provide useful tools for scrolling the detailed design output.


       4.4.3 Design Codes
       MasterKey Steel Section Design accommodates design to a number of international
       design codes, namely BS 5950 (1990 and 200 version), EC3 (European) and SAB 0162
       (South African). The design code may be changed from the Codes menu at any stage

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       during design with all data being transposed from one code to another and all design
       results updated instantaneously.
       If the design code is BS5950 the                button below the frame geometry area
       provides a shortcut for switching between the 1990 and 2000 version of the code. The
       caption on the button reflects which version of the code is currently being used. The
       chosen design code is a global setting that applies to all design briefs.




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       4.5 Changing Section Sizes
       Having applied the appropriate design briefs to members in the frame and obtained the
       design results for the current section sizes the Engineer may decide to change the
       section sizes to achieve the most optimum design. Changes to section sizes are carried
       out interactively in MasterKey Steel Sections Design and can be done using several
       methods with varying degrees of automation.


       4.5.1 Manual changing of individual section sizes
       A detailed design brief such as those listed in section 4.2 is applied to a single member
       and the design results produced by that brief are displayed in the design output window.
       The section size of the member to which the current design brief is applied may be
       changed using the following process.

       1. Ensure that you are in Search for Next Brief Mode by pressing down the            button
          at the top the frame geometry window.
       2. Click on the member you wish to design. This member must have a design brief
          applied to it. The design results of this member are then presented on the screen.
       3. Ensure that design brief parameters contained in the editing tabs at the bottom of
          the screen are appropriate, e.g. effective lengths, restraint conditions ect.
       4. Move to the Section AutoDesign tab at the bottom left of the screen. The section
          type, grade and size drop lists are available below the design brief drop list and are
          set to the members current section properties. The list of sections in the drop list is
          by default sorted by serial size. The sort by weight button         below the sections
          drop list will sort the section list from the lightest to the heaviest.
       5. Change the section by selecting an alternative section from the sections drop list.
          The change in section size is automatically saved and the design results are
          updated instantaneously. The spin button      to the right of the sections drop list
          steps up and down by one item in the list and is most convenient for fine tuning to
          find the most optimum section size. The section type and grade can also be
          changed.


       This process may be repeated for other members in the frame.


       For members with haunch definitions (as
       applied in MasterFrame) the haunch details
       can also be modified.




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       4.5.2 Automatic sizing of individual members

       The                              button in the Section AutoDesign tab can be used to
       automatically select the most optimum section for the current design brief. The process
       is identical in every aspect as described above in section 4.6.1 above, but with step 5
       replaced with a single click on the Auto Size Current Member button.
       The Auto Size Current Member considers the list of sections for the current section type
       and grade and will attempt to choose either,
       the lightest then the deepest section of the same weight if sorted by weight,
       or the shallowest, then the lightest of the same section size if not sorted by weight,


       Specifying values for minimum and/or maximum section height
       simply curtails the list of available sections in the section size
       drop list to serial sizes within this range. Hence the Auto Size
       Current Member selection process does not consider sections
       outside this range.


       4.5.3 Automatic sizing of groups of members

       MasterKey Steel Sections Design provides several functions for the automatic sizing of
       all the visible members in the frame geometry area. Hence by setting up the frame
       geometry area to view only a certain set of members, those members can be
       automatically sized in one operation.
       Any member that you wish to automatically size must have a either an Axial with
       Moment, Beam and Beam Portion, Column in Simple Construction or Strut and Tie
       design brief applied to it.
       Click on the    button below the frame geometry area to display/hide the automatic
       design functions in the Section AutoDesign tab.




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       The key to using the AutoSize all visible member functions efficiently is setting up the
       view in the frame geometry area to include only the members you wish to Auto Size in
       one operation. This can be done by using the following tools in conjunction with each
       other.
           1. The ‘Visible member filtering tools’ as shown above. Display only certain parts of
              the structure based on current section sizes, member orientations and user
              defined member groups in MasterFrame.
           2. The Zooming function as used in MasterFrame.
           3. The Frame Views drop list on the top tool bar to display user-defined views.
       For example to view only the columns in a particular grid line of a building the user may
       firstly Zoom into the grid line or more conveniently call a predefined frame view, then
       using the visible member filtering tools select Vertical from the Orientations drop list.
       Following the appropriate member filtering, the visible members of the structure can be
       automatically sized using the following methods.
               Auto Size all visible members to use independent section sizes. The members
               are sized with the objective of finding the most optimum section size for each
               individual member within each member’s current section type and grade.
              Auto Size all visible members to use a common section size. The current visible
              members are sized with the objective of finding a single common section size
              that satisfies all the members. The set of visible member may be a mixture of
              different section types and grades; therefore a dialog box appears asking for the
              common type and grade to be used.
       Both auto sizing functions will attempt to choose either,

       a) the lightest then the deepest section of the same weight if sorted by weight, or
       b) the shallowest, then the lightest of the same section size if not sorted by weight


       The all visible member auto sizing functions are also available from the Automatic
       Design menu.




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       4.5.4 Viewing the section size changes

       MasterKey Steel Sections Design retains a
       record of all section size changes since
       the structure was last analysed.

       Click on the         button in the sections
       drop list in the Section AutoDesign tab to
       view the list of original section sizes and
       new section sizes. The last section
       change can be undone by clicking on the
       Reset button, while Reset All will undo all
       section changes since the last analysis.


       The View Section Changes area can also be used for applying the change of section
       size on the current member to other members in the frame. This function is useful if you
       wish to apply a section change not just to one member but to a known group of
       members. To use the View Section changes in this fashion,
       1. Ensure that you are in Search for Next Brief Mode by pressing down the            button at
          the top the frame geometry window.
       2. Click on the member that contains the new section size you wish to apply to other
          members. This member must have a design brief applied to it.

       1. Click on the View Section Changes button             .
       2. Select the scope of the section changes,
             a. Current Block. Can be used if sections are applied using the Leader-Follower
                principle, i.e. specific sections are only applied to some members (leaders) while
                other members (followers) assume the section properties of the last specifically
                defined section property. A block of members ranges from one leader to last
                members before the next leader.
             b. Current Group. All members having the same original section size at the
                member selected in step 2.
             c. Current Design Group. All members in the same steel design group (if any have
                been defined) as the current member. Applies to 3D Model Manager user only.
             d. Selected Members. Allows graphical selection of any group of members
                offering maximum flexibility.
           The frame geometry area will show the selected members highlighted in red.
       3. Click on the Change button to apply the New Section size to all members
          highlighted in red. The list will be updated to show the original and new section
          sizes.



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       4.5.5 Re-analysing the frame with the new section sizes

       In all the above methods of resizing the steel sections, the new section sizes are
       automatically saved. However the design forces used in each design brief are those
       obtained from the original analysis using the original section sizes. The design forces
       may change as a result of changes to section sizes due to varying member stiffness and
       self-weight. It is therefore important that the structure is re-analysed to update the
       design forces before accepting the final design. To prevent such oversights from
       occurring MasterKey Steel Sections Design deactivates all printing and exporting of
       design results facilities until the structure had been re-analysed an no further section
       changes have taken place.
       Re-analysis can be carried out at any stage, however it is recommended that the
       Engineer should analyse at regular intervals through out the section sizing process. The
       structure can be reanalysed within MasterKey Steel Section Design using one of the
       following methods.
           1. Click on the Elastic Analysis button. This button is located in the Section
              AutoDesign tab and is only visible if the Automatic Design tools are hidden.

           2. Click on the on the reanalyse button          if the automatic design tools are
              displayed
           3. Select Re-Analyse from the File menu


       4.5.6 Rechecking the design of the structure with the new section sizes

       Depending on the difference between the original section sizes and the new section
       sizes, the change in the magnitude of the design force may be significant. All design
       briefs should be checked again for non-compliance.
       By simply clicking on the       button in the Section
       AutoDesign tab, the program will scan all design
       briefs in the current view, and produce a report on
       how many of these members are failing.
       To investigate these failures you can scroll through the failing design briefs by clicking
       on the         button on the Section AutoDesign tab. The process of changing section
       sizes for the failing members may be repeated. The             button will not be active
       unless the above ‘scan for failures’ operation has be carried out. If no failures have
       occurred then the         button will remain inactive.
       After re-analysis it may also be then case that further efficiency could be obtained. This
       may be ascertained by reviewing the design output, at which stage the Engineer may
       decide to make further changes to section sizes to achieve maximum optimisation.


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       4.6 Deflection Checks

       4.6.1 Nodal Displacements
       Nodal displacements for all loading cases can be obtained from the MasterFrame
       analysis output, however for convenience and completeness nodal displacement for
       serviceability and sway stability loading cases can be viewed and checked from within
       MasterKey Steel Sections design. To access the nodal displacements design check
       select ‘List of Selected Nodal Displacements’ from the Edit-View menu.




       To view nodal displacements;
       1. Click inside a Nodes cell on a free row to place the cursor.
       2. Select the node(s) from the frame geometry area to include for the displacement
          check.
       3. Enter a description of the displacement check in the next cell. This will be used
          during export or printing.
       4. Clicking in the Case cell displays a drop list of all serviceability and sway stability
          loading cases. Select the appropriate loading case to extract displacements from.
       5. From the Directions cell select the nodal displacements direction.
       6. The maximum displacement of the selected nodes is given in the Value cell in mm
          units.
       7. You can enter a displacement limit in the Limit cell, which will produce the design
          check verdict in the next cell.


       The Nodal displacement design checks can be either printed or exported to Word using
       the controls provided on the tab          .


       4.6.2 In-member deflections

       The Axial with Moment and Beam and Beam Portion design briefs include in-member
       deflection checks. The in-member deflection is the maximum departure of either the
       major or minor axis from a straight line between the two displaced end node points. If

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       the AutoCase function is activated (Section AutoDesign tab) the program will select the
       most critical loading case for the deflection check. A single value for the deflection limit
       for all loading cases may be specified in the design brief input parameters, e.g. 360
       (L/360). Alternatively up to twenty deflections limit patterns may be specified, which
       allow different deflection limits to be specified for different loading cases. When a value
       between 1 and 20 is entered in the Def Limit input parameter the program refers to the
       associated deflection limit pattern.
       To define the deflection limit patterns, select Deflection Limits from either the Integrated
       Design menu or the Options menu. Choose a pattern number (No. column) and enter
       the deflection limits for the different types of serviceability loading cases. The title given
       to the pattern is used in the detailed design output. The program checks each
       serviceability loading case against the specified deflection limit and presents the results
       from all checked serviceability cases in the design output. Where a deflection limit of
       zero is entered for a serviceability load case in a pattern, that load case is not checked
       for deflections.




       Note: In member deflections for super members are only calculated for the analysis
       super member type.




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       4.7 Description of MasterKey Steel Sections Main Menu

       The File Menu
       The Files Menu allows you to open an existing file, save the
       current file, save the modified file under another name and
       continue working with the current file. Also save the modified
       frame under a new name leaving the original file as it was last
       saved.
       The menu also allows you to re-analyse the frame (automatic
       save), exit the program or end the session.



                                     Edit-View
                                     The AutoCheck and Nodal Displacements menu items
                                     move to the associated design briefs (described in section
                                     4.3) and displays the briefs input data tabs.
                                     The Find Next Fail function will scan through all applied
                                     design checks and locates design failures.
                                     The Edit Frame function returns to MasterFrame Editor
                                     area for modification of the frame.


       The Integrated Menu

       The Integrated Design Menu provides tools for complete
       member design briefs. These checks are most efficient and
       require a very small amount of input data (in some
       instances none).
       Please note that you can use the button in the top left-hand
       side of the frame geometry area to enlarge and restore the
       size of the graphics area.


                                            The Automatic Design Menu
                                            This menu gives you tools to automatically apply
                                            integrated design briefs to all or part of the
                                            members in your structure and also to automatically
                                            design for the optimum section sizes.




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                                 The Print Menu
                                 This menu allows you to access the printer set-up, edit the job
                                 references, print the frame geometry, print output for the
                                 current design check or load the print manager for selective
                                 printing of all the design briefs.
                                 Print Data File, View/Print Analysis Output, and Bending,
                                 Shear Deflection facilities are as those provided in
                                 MasterFrame described in section,

                                               3.15 Viewing and Printing Results

       The PowerPad Menu
       This menu allows you to export the current screen and selective
       design output to a PowerPad document.


                         The Codes Menu
                         This menu allows you to switch between the licensed design codes.
                         You can input the data for a design brief using one design code and
                         then switch to view results in other codes.



       The Options Menu
       The Options Menu provides you with ability to display
       and print bending, shear and deflected shape
       diagrams.
       You can also use this menu to display the plastic
       hinges form for semi-automatic positioning of plastic
       hinges.
       Facilities are provided for copying and appending the
       current design brief and converting an integrated
       check to an independent one.




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       4.8 Plastic Hinges
       In MasterFrame plastic hinges may be placed at the ends of members by specifying the
       loading case, member number, member end and plastic moment. In MasterKey Steel
       Design this information can be automatically determined by the program where the local
       capacity unity ratio at the end of a member is greater than 1.00. Therefore, in a location
       where you wish to create a plastic hinge the following conditions must be satisfied.
       1. There must a node point. Plastic hinges are actually modelled as a member end
          release in the major axis with an applied moment equal to the plastic moment.
          Hence if you wish to model a plastic hinge at a particular location along the length of
          a member you must split the member to create a node, hence facilitating the
          application of a plastic hinge.
       2. Either an Axial with Moments or a Beam and Beam Portion design brief must be
          applied to the member where the plastic hinge is required.
       3. To enable MasterKey Steel Sections Design to automatically link the plastic hinge
          information a steel section size must be applied which produces a local capacity
          unity ratio greater than 1.00 at the desired plastic hinge location. It is recommended
          to attempt to achieve a local capacity unity ratio of approximately 1.20, hence
          producing sufficient overstressing to create reasonable plastic moment
          redistribution, while also limiting the plastic hinge rotation to an acceptable amount.


       To place plastic hinges:
       1. Use the AutoCheck option to direct you to the position of plastic hinges (member with a
          local capacity greater than 1).
       2. Ensure that you are in Search for Next Brief
            Mode by pressing down the      button at the
            top of the frame geometry window.
       3. Click on the overstressed member in which you
          want to place the plastic hinge. This member
          must have a detailed design brief applied to it.
       4.   In the member diagram area at the top right of
            the design output window, click in the portion
            containing the local capacity unity ratio greater
            than 1.00.




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       5. From the Options menu, select Plastic Hinges
       6. The Plastic Hinges form which appears will
          automatically be completed with the loading
          case, member number and member end in
          which the overstressing has occurred and also
          the Plastic Moment based on the plastic
          capacity of the steel section.
       7. Click on the Add button to add the plastic
          hinge to the frame (the caption on the Add
          button now changes to Update to allow you to
          change the value of the moment at a later
          stage if required)
       8. Click on the ‘x’ button on the plastic hinges form to exit
       9. Repeat steps 1 to 8 for the addition of further plastic hinges
       10. Re-analyse the frame to activate the plastic hinges. This can be done by selecting
           Re-analyse from the file menu, or by clicking on the Elastic Analysis button in the
           Section AutoDesign tab. The major axis moment at the location of the plastic hinge
           is limited to the value of the plastic moment, hence the local capacity unity ratio is
           reduced to 1.00 at this location and the excess moments have been distributed
           elsewhere in the frame.


       To remove a plastic hinge:
       1. From the Options menu, select Plastic Hinges;
       2. From the combo list, select the plastic hinge you wish to delete;
       3. Press the Delete button.
       4. Repeat step 2 and 3 to delete further plastic hinges
       5. Re-analyse the frame to reassess the member forces taking into account the removal
          of the plastic hinge(s)




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       4.9 Detailed Description of Integrated Design Briefs
       In this section the input parameters of each integrated design brief are explained in full.

       4.9.1 Axially Loaded Member With Moments

       Axial With Moments tab
       Parameter Description                                         Default Setting
       Lx            Length between restraints to the Major x-       If nothing is specified, i.e. 0.0,
                     x axis, units in metres. Lx is only used        then a default value equal to the
                     for calculating Pcx for compression             length of the member is
                     resistance.                                     assumed.
       Ly            Length between restraints to the Minor y-       If nothing is specified, i.e. 0.0,
                     y axis, units in metres. Ly is only used for    then a default value equal to the
                     calculating Pcy for compression                 length of the current portion
                     resistance.                                     being designed is assumed.
       Kx            Effective length coefficient for                1.0
                     compression resistance. Lex = Kx × Lx.
       Ky            Effective length coefficient for                1.0
                     compression resistance. Ley = Ky × Ly.
       Lamda limit The slenderness ratio ( ) limit used to           180
                   check against both x and y values.
       Spacing       Space between double members, e.g.              0.0
                     back to back angles or channels. Units in
                     mm.
       Lv            Length between connected points is              If nothing is specified, i.e. 0.0,
                     double members. Units in metres.                then a default value equal to the
                                                                     length of the member is
                                                                     assumed.
       FL/UL         Factored / Unfactored load ratio. Used to       1.2
                     overwrite the 1.2 factor in the equation
                     Mc=pyS but 1.2pyZ. See clause 4.2.5.
       Def limit     Span/Def limit value is used to check           360
                     against maximum in member
                     displacement from worst serviceability
                     loading case. Up to 20 Deflection Limit
                     patterns can be specified (Options menu)
                     which allows different deflection limits for
                     different load cases, hence entering a
                     value between 1 and 20 adopts the
                     associated pattern.


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       F-Holes No. Number of holes to be deducted from one           0
                   flange for modification of effective area
                   Ae. Only used in tensile capacity checks.
       F-Diameter Diameter of flange holes. Entering a               0
                  value here also indicates a connected
                  flange in struts and tie members
       W-Holes No.As per F-Holes but for section web.                0
       W-Diameter As per F-Diameter but for section web.             0
       Drop list     End 1effective length factor of all portions    1.00 L
                     in the member used for calculating the
                     effective length for lateral buckling
                     checks. Various factors can be selected
                     from the drop list. Full Rest is also
                     available, in which case lateral buckling is
                     ignored.
       Drop list     As above but for End 2. In effect the           As End 1
                     average of End 1 and End 2 is taken for
                     the final effective length factor.
       Drop list     Select table to be used for the calculation AutoSelect
                     of the slenderness correction factor n and
                     equivalent uniform moment factor m.
                     Using AutoSelect the program selects the
                     appropriate table, however in situations of
                     ambiguity the user has control to select
                     which table is used.
       Drop list     Specify whether the load is normal or           Normal Load
                     destabilizing. See clause 4.3.4.
       Drop list     For asymmetrical sections such as angles Flange in Tension
                     you may alter the orientation for design
                     purposes by setting the flange of the
                     section to be in either tension or
                     compression. The correlates to the major
                     axis bending of the section. For
                     symmetrical sections this setting is
                     ignored.
       Drop list     For asymmetrical sections such as angles Web in Tension
                     and channels you may alter the
                     orientation for design purposes by setting
                     the web of the section to be in either
                     tension or compression. The correlates to
                     the minor axis bending of the section. For
                     symmetrical sections this is ignored.

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       Auto Change Beam Check to C&M Check – With this option selected the program will
       automatically determine whether a Beam and Beam portion check or an Axial with
       Moment check produces more critical results. The design brief is then converted to the
       most critical. When this option is not selected the user has the freedom to toggle
       between the two checks using the C&M to Beam button.
       Add loads to those obtained directly from the frame analysis – Selecting this option will
       display a fourth tab allowing you to enter additional member end forces, i.e. major and
       minor axis moments and shears for end 1 and end 2 of the member, plus additional axial
       force.


       Lateral Restraint tab
       This tab allows the user to define positions of lateral restraint to the minor x-x axis of the
       member. Use the Start at, Portion 1, Portion 2, etc. to define the positions of lateral
       restraints.




       The entries of lateral restraint in the above example are best explained with reference to
       the diagram below.



             1
                         2
                                   3
                                              4
        0.0 m                                            5
                 1.0 m                                               6
                              2.5 m                                                 7
        Running                        3.25
        Dimensions                                4.25                                      8
                                                             5.0 m                                 9
                                                                         6.25
                                                                                7.0 m
                                                                                        8.0 m
                                                                                                9.5 m
                                                                                                        10.0




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       Since portion 4 above does not have a Start at value it continues from portion 3,
       however portion 7 has a Start at value of 7.0 m. The start and end dimensions of each
       of the portions can be viewed from the portions drop list int the Lateral Restraints tab.

       For members with equal spacing between lateral restraints as a shortcut you need only
       to specify the equal spacing in the Portion 1 value. If portions 4 and 7 follow on from the
       previous portions then you will not need to specify the Start at value preceding these
       portions. The number of portions available is limited to 9.
       The value in the cells may be changed using the spin buttons by the amount specified in
       the Increments cell.


       4.9.2 Beam and Beam Portion
       The Beam and Beam Portion design brief input parameters are as per the Axially
       Loaded Member with Moments check. However in this design check axial load is not
       considered, therefore all parameters relating to compression resistance are omitted.


       4.9.3 Strut and Tie Check
       Only axial compressive and tensile forces are considered in this check. Bending
       moments are ignored. Many of the input parameters are as per the Axially Loaded
       Member with Moments check. The three drop lists on the right side of the Strut and Tie
       tab have the following significance.
       Select the number of rows of bolts connecting the ends of the member. One bolt
       represents a pinned end while two represents a degree of rotational fixity. Affects the
       effective length of a strut.
       Select the clause used for the calculation of effective area for simple tension members.
       For angle members select which leg of the angle is connected, long, short or both.


       4.9.4 Column in simple construction
       Checks for compression resistance, slenderness ratio and also calculates and checks
       for the nominal moments caused by the eccentricity of beam shear forces at the top and
       bottom of the column. Any moments in the member resulting from the frame analysis
       are ignored.

       Columns in simple construction tab
       As per the compression resistance input parameters in the axial with moments check.


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       Self Weight and Loads Eccentricity
       The program automatically calculates the eccentricity of shear force loads form in
       coming beams on all four faces of the column for the both the top and bottom of the
       column. The user can overwrite these by entering values in the ex and ey cells. The
       default eccentricity of load from the minor axis of the column is t/2+100 mm, i.e. the in
       coming beam is assumed to connect to the web of the column. If a toe plate thickness
       value Tp is entered then the eccentricity of the eccentricity of load to the minor axis is
       now B/2+Tp+100 mm since the beam is connected to the toe plate across the flanges.




       4.10 Printing and Exporting Design Output


              From the main menu Print: Print Current Screen Only. Prints the current
              design brief.
              From the main menu Print: Print Design Output. Selection of design output
              from all member portions to print.
              From the main menu PowerPad: Export Current Screen Only. Exports the
              current design brief output to Word.
              From the main menu PowerPad: Export Design Output. Selection of
              design output from all member portions to export to Word.


       To print/export the design output:
       1. From the Print menu, select Project Title and Job Reference, check and modify the
          information as required;
       2. Select the print or export design output options as described above. A list of all
          design checks on each portion the members are listed.




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       3. Select the design output items to print/export using the following tools;
       Include All: select all the design checks.
              Exclude All: deselect all checks.
              Auto Select: automatically select the worst portions from the highlighted checks.
              Use Include All firstly to highlight all checks.
              All above: use Include All to highlight all checks. All above auto selects checks
              with utilisation values above the specified value.
              Click on individual checks in the list to select or deselect them.

       4. Click Print/Export List (Summary): print or export the design checks list as is appears.

       5. Additional print/export options are available above the design check listing;

              Member Forces: Include the member forces for each design check in the design
       output.
              Graphics: Include the member diagram, which illustrates both member capacity
              and applied major axis moment.
              Visible Members: Firstly select include all, then check the visible members option
              to exclude all non-visible members in the above frame geometry area.
              Print One per Page: Take a new page for each printed/exported design check.

       6. Print Selected Checks: Displays the standard printing form as described in section
          3.15.3. Check and modify the job reference information including the start page
          number (if the page number is zero then the page numbers will not be printed). Prints
          design output for the selected checks.
       7. Export Selected Checks: Export the design output for the selected checks to a
          PowerPad template Word document.
       ! Note: Nodal displacement design checks are printed or exported from within the Nodal
       Displacements tab




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