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					National   Roofing   Contractors      Association




    Tame Your Training Fears:
  How to Become a Great Trainer

            Self-study Training Program




            Self-study Guide
  Tame Your Training Fears:
How to Become a Great Trainer

      Self-study Training Program




      Self-study Guide
                   National Roofing Contractors Association
                   10255 W. Higgins Road, Suite 600
                   Rosemont, IL 60018-5607
                   (847) 299-9070
                   Fax: (847) 299-1183
                   E-mail: nrca@nrca.net
                   www.nrca.net
Published by the National Roofing Contractors Association
10255 W. Higgins Road, Suite 600, Rosemont, IL 60018-5607
©2007 by the National Roofing Contractors Association
All rights reserved
Published 2007
Printed in the United States of America
No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means or stored in a database or retrieval system
without prior written permission of the publisher.
This material was produced under grant No. 46E5-HT02 from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of
Labor. It does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Department of Labor nor does mention
of trade names, commercial products or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. government.
  Tame Your Training Fears:
How to Become a Great Trainer

      Self-study Training Program




      Self-study Guide
Tame Your Training Fears: How to Become a Great Trainer                                                                                                                                      iv




                                                                 Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION
    Tame Your Training Fears: How to Become a Great Trainer Self-study Guide ................................................................................1
    Training Objectives ........................................................................................................................................................................1
    Guidelines for Self-study ................................................................................................................................................................1

DVD PART 1: MASTERING THE FEAR: BUILDING SKILLS..................................................2

DVD PART 2: THE COURAGE TO GROW: HOW ADULTS LEARN ................................3

DVD PART 3: PREPARED BEATS PETRIFIED ....................................................................................4

DVD PART 4: WINNING TRAINING TACTICS........................................................................................5

DVD PART 5: NO FEAR FACTOR: YOU’RE A TRAINING HERO ....................................7

APPENDIX
    Answers to Review Questions ........................................................................................................................................................9
    Additional Reading ......................................................................................................................................................................11
Tame Your Training Fears: How to Become a Great Trainer                                                                                      1




INTRODUCTION

Tame Your Training Fears: How to Become a Great Trainer Self-study Guide

Have you ever attended a training class that was boring? Have you ever attended a training class that was better than you expected?
What was the difference? Sure, some subjects are more interesting than others, but the way the material is presented and the attitude
of the instructor also can make a huge difference.
This self-study guide is a helpful tool to use with the DVD titled Tame Your Training Fears. It’s divided into five sections that coincide
with segments of the video. Each section contains:
  • Note-taking area for writing down important ideas while you watch the video
  • One key point presented in that section of the video
  • Review exercise or personal study reflective question
The self-study workbook also includes an appendix with answers to review questions and a list of additional recommended reading.

Training Objectives

Tame Your Training Fears is designed to help you become a better trainer. No matter what your experience level, you can probably learn
something new by viewing the DVD and working through the self-study guide. But this program is designed especially for people who
are fairly new to the role of trainer.
With this module, you’ll learn techniques for increasing your self-confidence as a trainer and delivering effective training courses. After
studying Tame Your Training Fears, you should be able to:
  • Identify skills, knowledge and attitudes
  • Explain the importance of incorporating adult-learning principles into training
  • Describe the benefits of training objectives
  • List advantages and disadvantages of different teaching methods
  • Use open-ended questions to promote thought and encourage class participation

Guidelines for Self-study

STEP ONE: Watch a section of the video.
STEP TWO: After you’ve watched a section of the video, jot down your own notes and observations before reading anything else. Even
though some of the information is summarized in the self-study guide, you’ll remember more if you take your own notes immediately
after you watch each part of the video.
STEP THREE: Do the review exercise or answer the reflective question. Answers to the review questions are in the appendix. There are
no right or wrong answers to the reflective question. It provides an opportunity for you to record how your own experiences relate to
the information presented.
Tame Your Training Fears: How to Become a Great Trainer                                                                                   2




DVD PART 1: MASTERING THE FEAR:
            BUILDING SKILLS
Notes:




Key point: Training is done to increase the skills, knowledge and attitudes of employees to help them do a better job. It’s somewhat dif-
ficult to separate these concepts because there is some overlap among them. But here’s an example of all three: Imagine you are driv-
ing down the road and get a flat tire. You pull over to the side of the road, look at the tire and see a nail embedded in it.
  • Knowledge is information. In this example, you understand that the nail in your tire caused the flat tire.
  • Skills are procedures that can be demonstrated. In this example, changing the tire is a skill.
  • Attitudes are states of mind, feelings and general disposition. Your flat tire could result in a variety of attitudes. For example,
    you could be worried about being late to an appointment or you could fear for your safety while you are changing the tire on the
    side of the road.
Safety training often involves all three—teaching new knowledge and skills, as well as changing attitudes.
Review exercise: Match the following attributes to examples that apply to effective safety trainers. The answers are in the Appendix.


 Knowledge ________                                                   A. Confident, supportive, open-minded

 Skills ________                                                      B. Asking review questions, creating visual aids, providing
                                                                      positive reinforcement verbally

 Attitudes _______                                                    C. Adult-learning principles, instructional methods, annual rates
                                                                      of occupational fatalities for an industry
Tame Your Training Fears: How to Become a Great Trainer                                                                                  3




DVD PART 2: THE COURAGE TO GROW:
            HOW ADULTS LEARN
Notes:




Key point: As you prepare to conduct safety training, it’s important to understand how adults learn. You might be inclined to believe
trainees should learn what you tell them because you, or some other authority figure, require it. That’s what learning was like when you
were a child in school. But with adults, it doesn’t necessarily work that way. Adults learn differently. A lot of research has been done to
determine the most effective methods for teaching and training adults that will change behavior. After all, changing behavior—in this
case improving job performance—is the reason you conduct training.
Some of the adult-learning principles you learned in this section are:
  • Adults want to learn information that’s immediately applicable. In other words, they are most interested in learning things they can
    put to use right away.
  • Adults dislike one-way communication that reminds them of grade school. They come to a training class with a lifetime of experi-
    ences and want to share those that are relevant to the training topics.
  • Adults learn in different ways, so it’s a good idea to use a variety of teaching methods, including speaking, showing visual aids,
    doing demonstrations and conducting class discussions. And remember, people who work with their hands usually learn most
    effectively with hands-on practice.
Reflective question: Think about a recent educational experience in which you were the learner. It could be workplace training, a class
offered by your local community center or a college-level course. What experiences—positive and negative—are most pronounced in
your memory and how do they relate to the adult-learning principles presented in this section?
Answer:
Tame Your Training Fears: How to Become a Great Trainer                                                                                    4




DVD PART 3: PREPARED BEATS PETRIFIED
Notes:




Key point: If you don’t know where you’re going, you won’t know when you get there. When conducting training, objectives tell the
trainer and the participants where they’re headed. Training objectives answer these questions: What should the training accomplish?
What should the participants know or be able to do at the end of training?
Objectives are usually written using descriptive verbs that clearly define what participants should be able to do after training. If you are
doing classroom training that introduces first-time roof applicators to different types of low-slope roof systems, you might want the
students to be able to recognize each type of system by the end of the introductory training. To do so, they need to see the systems.
Therefore, training should include photos, videos or actual samples of the membranes.
After conducting more training, you’ll expect the new roof applicators to actually apply single-ply membranes. For trainees to gain this
skill, they need to watch someone do it while explaining each step of the process—either in person or on a video. Just reading a
description of how to apply single-ply membranes might prepare someone to describe the installation techniques, but it’s definitely not
the best way for the person to learn how to use them.
Review exercise: List three benefits of training objectives for trainers and trainees.

 Training objectives benefit trainers…                                  Training objectives benefit trainees…

 1.                                                                     1.




 2.                                                                     2.




 3.                                                                     3.
Tame Your Training Fears: How to Become a Great Trainer                                                                                    5




DVD PART 4: WINNING TRAINING TACTICS
Notes:




Key point: Each teaching method has advantages and disadvantages. The best method(s) to use to help trainees gain knowledge, learn a skill
or change an attitude will depend on many factors. Here are some of the things you should consider when choosing a teaching method:
  • The amount of time allotted for the training. In a lecture format, the trainer does all or most of the talking. An advantage of this
    method is that it allows a lot of information to be transmitted from the trainer to the students. A significant disadvantage of this
    teaching method is that trainees don’t have the opportunity to ask questions to get clarification or clear up a misunderstanding.
    And typically, people don’t remember much of what they hear during one-way communication.
  • The objectives of the training. A demonstration allows learners to observe the performance of a task or procedure. The demonstra-
    tion may be live or on video. If an objective of training is that trainees can actually do a task or demonstrate a skill, this teaching
    method shows them exactly how to do it. Although it’s not always feasible to do live demonstrations or show a video, for most
    trainees other teaching methods won’t be as effective for achieving this kind of objective.
  • The facilities and materials available. The physical space and the tools available put limits on what can be done. A video produced
    by a nationally known management consultant may be a great teaching method to include in a session on leadership—but it also
    has a hefty price tag.
  • The characteristics of the trainees. It’s critical to know the characteristics of trainees and consider them when choosing teaching
    methods. For example, a handout may be an inexpensive teaching tool, but sometimes trainees can’t read well. If that’s the case,
    you shouldn’t assume they’ll understand the information on the handout and be able to apply it in real-life scenarios.
Review exercise: You’re planning a training session for roofing workers on rescue and self-rescue after an arrested fall. One of the
objectives is:
    After participating in the training, a trainee should be able to demonstrate the foot-wrap technique.
Explain the advantages and disadvantages of each teaching method described below. Possible answers are in the Appendix.
1. Trainees watch a video of a roofing worker falling from a roof wearing a personal fall-arrest system and doing a foot-wrap technique
to relieve suspension trauma. A narrator describes each step of the foot-wrap technique while the fallen worker does it.
Advantages of this method:




Disadvantages of this method:
Tame Your Training Fears: How to Become a Great Trainer                                                                                6



2. A trainer hands out a written description of the steps involved in doing the foot-wrap technique and has the students read it.
Advantages of this method:




Disadvantages of this method:




3. A trainer distributes a handout with a series of pictures showing the steps for doing the foot-wrap technique and explains each step.
Advantages of this method:




Disadvantages of this method:




4. A trainer demonstrates and explains the foot-wrap technique while being suspended from a confined-space tripod. Afterward, each
trainee practices doing it.
Advantages of this method:




Disadvantages of this method:
Tame Your Training Fears: How to Become a Great Trainer                                                                               7




DVD PART 5: NO FEAR FACTOR:
            YOU’RE A TRAINING HERO
Notes:




Key point: Asking good questions may be the most critical skill a trainer needs to master. Questions aid learning in several ways. They
promote thought, encourage participation and help you know whether the trainees understand the information.
Closed-ended and open-ended questions
A closed-ended question can be answered with a simple “yes” or “no” or another one-word answer.
An open-ended question is the opposite. It requires more than a one-word answer. An open-ended question usually requires trainees to
think more deeply about a subject than a closed-end question. For example, a question could be used to make them think about why
something is done the way it is or what could happen if something isn’t done correctly.
Examples
Closed-ended: How many nails are typically used to install a three-tab shingle?
Open-ended: What do you need to consider when deciding the number of nails to use for installing three-tab shingles?
Review exercise: Write an open-ended question to replace each closed-ended question. Possible answers are in the Appendix.
    1. Closed-ended question: What type of fall-protection system may only be used on steep-slope roof systems?
         A: Slide guards
Open-ended question:

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
    2. Closed-ended question: At what depth must trenches have entrance and exit areas such as ladders, stairways or ramps?
         A: Trenches greater than 4 feet deep
Open-ended question:

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Tame Your Training Fears: How to Become a Great Trainer                                                                        8



    3. Closed-ended question: Do unguarded belts, pulleys or chains pose risks for getting clothing or jewelry caught?
      A: Yes
Open-ended question:

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
    4. Closed-ended question: What safety measure does OSHA require when debris is dropped more than 20 feet to any point outside
       the exterior walls of a building?
      A: An enclosed chute must be used
Open-ended question:

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
    5. Does OSHA consider a roof with a slope of 4:12 to be low-slope or steep-slope?
      A: Low-slope
Open-ended question:

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Tame Your Training Fears: How to Become a Great Trainer                                                                                      9




                                                        APPENDIX
                                           Answers to Review Questions

PART 1: MASTERING THE FEAR: BUILDING SKILLS

Review exercise: Match the following attributes to examples that apply to effective safety trainers.
Answers:

 Knowledge: C                                                           A. Confident, supportive, open-minded

 Skills: B                                                              B. Asking review questions, creating visual aids, providing
                                                                        positive reinforcement verbally

 Attitudes: A                                                           C. Adult-learning principles, instructional methods, annual rates
                                                                        of occupational fatalities for an industry

PART 2: THE COURAGE TO GROW: HOW ADULTS LEARN

There are no right or wrong answers to this question. The response is based on your own experiences as a learner.

PART 3: PREPARED BEATS PETRIFIED

Review exercise: List three benefits of training objectives for trainers and trainees.
There are several possible answers. They include:


 Training objectives benefit trainers…                                  Training objectives benefit trainees…

 1. by reminding them of what should be accomplished during             1. by telling them at the beginning of the class what the training
 the training so they can keep the class on track.                      is about.

 2. by pointing them toward specific training methods to use in         2. by giving them an idea of what the training isn’t about. If
 the class. For example, if an objective includes a requirement         trainees are expecting to learn something during training that is
 that a trainee recognize roof system components, the trainer will      never going to be covered, it can be distracting to them; they
 need to show pictures, videos or real-life examples of each com-       keep waiting for the subject to be raised. Reviewing the class
 ponent during the training.                                            objectives at the beginning of a class helps everyone understand
                                                                        what to expect.

 3. by pointing them toward methods for determining if trainees         3. by helping them understand the specific information they
 have met the goals for the class. Using the example above, if an       should focus on during training.
 objective is to recognize roof system components, one of the
 review activities should give trainees an opportunity to show
 whether they can recognize them.
Tame Your Training Fears: How to Become a Great Trainer                                                                                10



PART 4: WINNING TRAINING TACTICS

Review exercise: You’re planning a training session for roofing workers on rescue and self-rescue after an arrested fall. One of the
objectives is:
    After participating in the training, a trainee should be able to demonstrate the foot-wrap technique.
Explain the advantages and disadvantages of each teaching method described below.
There are several possible answers. They include:
1. Trainees watch a video of a roofing worker falling from a roof wearing a personal fall-arrest system and doing a foot-wrap technique
to relieve suspension trauma. A narrator describes each step of the foot-wrap technique while the fallen worker does it.
Advantages of this method:
  • The video shows the foot-wrap technique in the context where it will be used. This will help trainees understand the circumstances
    and conditions that might be in place if they have to use the technique.
Disadvantages of this method:
  • It’s not always feasible for trainees to watch a video because of equipment or space limitations.
  • lf employees watch the video on their own, without an instructor, they won’t have the opportunity to ask questions.
2. A trainer hands out a written description of the steps involved in doing the foot-wrap technique and has the students read it.
Advantages of this method:
  • A written description is an inexpensive teaching tool.
  • Reading can be done almost anywhere.
Disadvantages of this method:
  • Many trainees are not proficient readers and won’t understand everything they read.
  • It will be difficult—even for good readers—to visualize each step of the foot-wrap technique and know exactly how to do it.
3. A trainer distributes a handout with a series of pictures showing the steps for doing the foot-wrap technique and explains each step.
Advantages of this method:
  • The trainee can see and hear the steps for doing the foot-wrap technique.
  • While the trainer is explaining the steps, trainees have the opportunity to ask questions about anything they don’t understand.
Disadvantages of this method:
  • Pictures will help trainees visualize the steps, but some may have trouble connecting all the steps and understanding the entire
    process.
4. A trainer demonstrates and explains the foot-wrap technique while being suspended from a confined-space tripod. Afterward, each
trainee practices doing it.
Advantages of this method:
  • The trainer can demonstrate the technique several times, if necessary, and can explain the steps in different ways until everyone
    understands.
  • The trainer can confirm whether each trainee can actually do the foot-wrap technique.
Disadvantages of this method:
  • A confined-space tripod is large, heavy and relatively expensive.
  • Allowing all students to practice the foot-wrap technique will take a lot of time.
Tame Your Training Fears: How to Become a Great Trainer                                                                               11



PART 5: NO FEAR FACTOR: YOU’RE A TRAINING HERO

Review exercise: Write an open-ended question to replace each closed-ended question.
There are many possible answers. Here are some examples:
    1. Closed-ended question: What type of fall-protection system may only be used on steep-slope roof systems?
      Open-ended question: The Interim Fall Protection Compliance Guidelines for Residential Construction allow the use of slide
      guards for fall protection in some situations. Can you think of examples of roofing projects you’ve worked on where the building
      meets OSHA’s definition of “residential construction” and the building was not a home?
    2. Closed-ended question: At what depth must trenches have entrance and exit areas such as ladders, stairways or ramps?
      Open-ended question: What potential hazards could you face working in a deep trench that does not have the types of entrance
      and exit areas required by OSHA?
    3. Closed-ended question: Do unguarded belts, pulleys or chains pose risks for getting clothing or jewelry caught?
      Open-ended question: What kinds of equipment do you use in your job that pose a danger of getting your fingers, hands, arms
      or legs caught in moving belts or other parts?
    4. Closed-ended question: What safety measure does OSHA require when debris is dropped more than 20 feet to any point outside
       the exterior walls of a building?
      Open-ended question: We’ve learned that OSHA requires an enclosed chute when dropping debris more than 20 feet to any point
      outside the exterior walls of a building. What else can we do to keep workers and the public on the ground safe?
    5. Closed-ended question: Does OSHA consider a roof with a slope of 4:12 to be low-slope or steep-slope?
      Open-ended question: What are some of the main differences in OSHA’s fall-protection requirements for low-slope and steep-
      slope roofs?

                                                    Additional Reading

    Gagne, R. and Medsker, K.L. (1996). The conditions of learning: training applications. Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace and Co.

    Knowles, M. (1973). The adult learner: a neglected species. Houston: Gulf Publishing.

    Mager, R.F. (1997). Making instruction work. Atlanta: Center for Effective Performance.

    Schwarz, R. (2002). The skilled facilitator. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

    Stolovitch, H.D. and Keeps, E.J. (2002). Telling ain’t training. Alexandria, VA: American Society for Training and Development.
10255 W. Higgins Road
Suite 600
Rosemont, IL
60018-5607
(847) 299-9070
Fax: (847) 299-1183
E-mail: nrca@nrca.net
www.nrca.net

				
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