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					National   Roofing   Contractors   Association




           Instructors Guide
Fall Protection for the Roofing Industry
      Employee Training Program

       Fall Protection Investigation Series




                        Includes:
     Episode 1: Fall Protection—Terms and Definitions
     Episode 2: Fall Protection for Low-slope Roofing
     Episode 3: Fall Protection for Steep-slope Roofing




          Instructors Guide
                   National Roofing Contractors Association
                   10255 W. Higgins Road, Suite 600
                   Rosemont, IL 60018-5607
                   (847) 299-9070
                   Fax: (847) 299-1183
                   E-mail: nrca@nrca.net
                   www.nrca.net
Published by the National Roofing Contractors Association
10255 W. Higgins Road, Suite 600, Rosemont, IL 60018-5607
©2007 by the National Roofing Contractors Association
All rights reserved
Published 2007
Printed in the United States of America
No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means or stored in a database or retrieval
system without prior written permission of the publisher.
This material was produced under grant No. 46E5-HT02 from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S.
Department of Labor. It does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Department of Labor nor does mention
of trade names, commercial products or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. government.
Fall Protection for the Roofing Industry
      Employee Training Program

      Fall Protection Investigation Series




        Instructors Guide
Fall Protection for the Roofing Industry Employee Training Program—Fall Protection Investigation Series                                                                                 iv




                                                              Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION
    Roofing Industry Fall Hazards..........................................................................................................................................1

FALL PROTECTION INVESTIGATION SERIES FORMAT
    Program Material ............................................................................................................................................................1
    Instructors Guide ............................................................................................................................................................1
    Training Objectives ..........................................................................................................................................................2
    Directions for Conducting the Training ............................................................................................................................2
    Videos ..............................................................................................................................................................................3
    Classroom Schedule ........................................................................................................................................................4
    Target Audiences..............................................................................................................................................................4

TRAINING TIPS
    Your Role as the Trainer ..................................................................................................................................................4
    Transfer of Training to the Job ........................................................................................................................................5

TRAINING MATERIALS

       EPISODE 1: FALL PROTECTION—TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
         Directions for Conducting the Training ............................................................................................................................6
         Fact Sheet ........................................................................................................................................................................9
         Certificate of Attendance ................................................................................................................................................10

       EPISODE 2: FALL PROTECTION FOR LOW-SLOPE ROOFING
         Directions for Conducting the Training ..........................................................................................................................11
         Fact Sheet ......................................................................................................................................................................14
         Certificate of Attendance ................................................................................................................................................15

       EPISODE 3: FALL PROTECTION FOR STEEP-SLOPE ROOFING
         Directions for Conducting the Training ..........................................................................................................................16
         Fact Sheet ......................................................................................................................................................................19
         Certificate of Attendance ................................................................................................................................................20
Fall Protection for the Roofing Industry Employee Training Program—Fall Protection Investigation Series                             1




INTRODUCTION

Roofing Industry Fall Hazards

Roofing is a trade that requires skill and craftsmanship, but it also exposes roofing workers to a variety of dangers. High eleva-
tions, unprotected roof edges and steep slopes all pose fall hazards. But hazardous conditions alone do not result in falls.
There has to be a trigger. The most common triggers are environmental conditions, such as wind and wet surfaces; equipment
misuse or failure; and unsafe behavior—especially not using proper fall-protection equipment.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) develops legally enforceable safety standards to protect most U.S.
employees. In fact, federal law requires every employer to provide a place of employment that is free from recognized hazards
that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to employees.
It is employers’ responsibility to comply with the OSHA standards that apply to their workplaces. This includes ensuring
employees have required safety equipment and are trained to use the equipment properly.
If you are reading this instructors guide, you are likely interested in teaching roofing workers about fall protection in compli-
ance with OSHA standards. The Fall Protection Investigation Series was designed to help you accomplish this goal.
The Fall Protection Investigation Series presents federal OSHA standards. OSHA’s federal standards are published in the Code
of Federal Regulations (CFR). The fall-protection standard is Subpart M and can be found in Title 29 of the CFR (29 CFR), Part
1900.500. The entire set of OSHA standards for the construction industry is on OSHA’s Web site, www.osha.gov.
Twenty-six states and jurisdictions in the U.S. operate state plans with some unique requirements. Information about the state
plans also can be found on OSHA’s Web site.

FALL PROTECTION INVESTIGATION SERIES
FORMAT

Program Material

The National Roofing Contractors Association’s (NRCA’s) Fall Protection Investigation Series contains three training modules:
  • Episode 1: Fall Protection—Terms and Definitions
  • Episode 2: Fall Protection for Low-slope Roofing
  • Episode 3: Fall Protection for Steep-slope Roofing
Each module consists of an Instructors Guide and an instructional DVD for classroom use. All training materials are available
in English and Spanish. The Instructors Guides are available to download for free at www.nrca.net. The DVDs also can be
requested online and will be sent free of charge.
If you have questions about the materials or content of the modules, please call NRCA’s Education Department at (800) 323-
9545 or (847) 299-9070, or e-mail Jeanne Schehl, director of education program development, at jeaschehl@nrca.net.

Instructors Guide

This Instructors Guide will support use of NRCA’s Fall Protection Investigation Series of employer-delivered training for fall
protection in the roofing industry. Each episode is a complete training module that can be conducted with employees at your
workplace.
The entire Fall Protection Investigation Series can be taught in one session, or each module can be taught separately. Each
training session takes about 90 minutes to conduct though you are encouraged to spend more time on each module if neces-
sary to ensure trainees understand the material.
We recommend each module be taught separately so that participants aren’t overwhelmed with too much new information.
“Information overload” often results in participants not remembering much of what you taught them.
Fall Protection for the Roofing Industry Employee Training Program—Fall Protection Investigation Series                           2



The Instructors Guide presents general information about the training series, along with specific material for each module,
including:
  • Necessary equipment to conduct the class
  • Recommended demonstration items
  • Suggested discussion questions
  • Directions for conducting the class
  • Answers to review questions posed on the video
  • A fact sheet that can be copied and distributed to participants
  • A certificate of attendance that can be copied and distributed to participants

Training Objectives

After completing all three training modules in the Fall Protection Investigation Series, participants should be able to:

Episode 1: Fall Protection—Terms and Definitions

  • Understand the importance of safe work practices
  • Describe the benefits of using required fall-protection equipment
  • Define “low slope” and “steep slope” as specified by OSHA
  • Recognize fall-protection equipment commonly used in the roofing industry

Episode 2: Fall Protection for Low-slope Roofing

  • Identify proper fall-protection requirements for situations common to low-slope roofing
  • Recognize and avoid fall hazards on low-slope roofing project job sites

Episode 3: Fall Protection for Steep-slope Roofing

  • Identify proper fall-protection requirements for situations common to steep-slope roofing
  • Recognize and avoid fall hazards on steep-slope roofing project job sites
  • Understand the importance of having rescue and self-rescue equipment on job sites

Directions for Conducting the Training

Each module has detailed directions for conducting the training. In most cases, the actions you’ll take in your role as trainer
are in boldface type. For example, you’ll be instructed to ask questions, play videos, show demonstration equipment and
distribute fact sheets.

Discussion questions

Throughout the training, you will be directed to ask discussion questions. In most cases, possible answers are provided. These
usually aren’t the only correct answers; they are just there to help you facilitate classroom discussions. You may also draw on
your own knowledge and experiences to enliven the discussions.
Discussion questions play an important role at the start and end of each training session. During the course introduction, it’s
important to help participants understand how the training will benefit them. The discussion questions give them an opportuni-
ty to relate the training topics to their own experiences.
The discussion questions given for the course wrap-up are intended to drive home the important points of the training. They
encourage participants to think about ways the fall-protection requirements can save their lives.
A key point repeated in each module is that most falls are preventable!
Fall Protection for the Roofing Industry Employee Training Program—Fall Protection Investigation Series                           3



Review questions and answers

There are 10 questions in each video that review facts presented in the module. Five questions are posed about halfway
through the video, and the other five are at the end of the video. These review questions are presented in audio and visual
format using an announcer and on-screen text.
You should pause the video after each question and ask the class to answer the question. It’s important to note that answers to
the review questions are not given in the video. The questions are meant to be discussed by the class. Possible answers are
provided in the Directions for Conducting the Training sections of this Instructors Guide.
When a question and answer relate to a specific OSHA construction industry standard, a reference to that standard is provided
in brackets. In some cases, this Instructors Guide also refers you to OSHA directives or letters of interpretation that provide
fall-protection guidelines with regard to certain circumstances. In each case, you’ll find the URL where the complete document
can be found on OSHA’s Web site.

Optional review questions and answers

The Directions for Conducting the Training sections also include optional review questions and answers. These optional ques-
tions are not included in the videos. They are provided for your discretionary use in the event participants need an additional
challenge. In most cases, the optional review questions require trainees to apply the information they’ve learned rather than
just repeat it. Other times, the optional review questions ask for additional details about OSHA’s fall-protection requirements.
Again, when a question and answer relate to a specific OSHA construction industry standard, a reference to that standard is
provided in brackets. In some cases, this Instructors Guide also refers you to OSHA directives or letters of interpretation that
provide fall-protection guidelines with regard to certain circumstances. In each case, you’ll find the URL where the complete
document can be found on OSHA’s Web site.

Equipment demonstrations

Each module includes recommendations for equipment that can be shown or demonstrated during the training. The Directions
for Conducting the Training sections tell you when to show and describe the equipment.

Fact sheets

Each module also includes a fact sheet to copy and distribute to participants. The fact sheets summarize the important points
of the module. The Directions for Conducting the Training section for each module instructs you to distribute the fact sheet
after the class has finished watching the video. You should review the fact sheet with the class at the end of each training ses-
sion to reinforce the material and, if necessary, to clarify the information.
If you prefer, you may distribute the fact sheets at the beginning of the training sessions and allow the class to use them for
help answering the review questions in the videos.

Videos

The videos in the Fall Protection Investigation Series present a fictional organization called Fall Protection Investigations (FPI),
which hunts down safety violations that could lead to work injuries. This theme should engage your audience because it is
similar to popular TV shows based on criminal investigations.
The three videos used in this training series follow the same basic format:

Introduction

         A brief description of the fictional FPI organization

Part 1

   1) An overview of the topics that will be discussed in the video
   2) Detailed information about the topics
   3) A five-question review quiz about the information in Part 1 of the video
Fall Protection for the Roofing Industry Employee Training Program—Fall Protection Investigation Series                          4



Part 2

   1) Additional detailed information about the topics
   2) A five-question review quiz about the information in Part 2 of the video
   3) A recap of the major points presented in the video

Classroom Schedule

Each training module is designed to last about 90 minutes. However, it may take you less time or more time depending on the
amount of interaction and discussion that takes place. The more opportunities participants have to talk about what they are
learning, the more they will remember. Take as much time as needed to be certain everyone understands the information.

Target Audiences

The target audience for the Fall Protection Investigation Series primarily is roof applicators.
Episode 1 presents basic information about general safety and fall protection. It is most beneficial to individuals new to the
roofing industry.
Episode 2 presents OSHA’s standards for fall protection for low-slope roofing.
Episode 3 presents OSHA’s standards for fall protection for steep-slope roofing. It also presents some basic information about
rescue and self-rescue after an arrested fall. Episodes 2 and 3 are aimed at anyone who needs to know the OSHA regulations
for fall protection in the roofing industry.
Although there are recommended discussion questions provided at the beginning and end of each module’s Directions for
Conducting the Training section, you should come up with your own questions if the ones provided don’t seem appropriate for
your group. It’s important to make the training relevant to participants by matching it to their level of experience.

TRAINING TIPS

Your Role as the Trainer

Your role as the trainer is to provide instruction that helps roofing workers gain the skills, knowledge and attitudes needed to
meet the objectives of the training. More important, if your employees learn and retain the information presented in these
modules, chances are they’ll go home safely every evening and return the following morning to put in a good day’s work.
You can increase the value of this training by helping participants feel comfortable with learning, challenged and motivated to
work safely. Here are some ways you can create a positive learning environment:
Before the training:
  • Prepare for the training by viewing the video, studying the materials and practicing what you are going to say.
  • Make copies of the fact sheet for all participants.
  • Make copies of the certificate of attendance for all participants, and fill in their names.
  • Check that the DVD player is working and the video is ready to play.
  • Make sure there are plenty of chairs. If possible, provide a writing surface for everyone so participants can take notes.
During the training:
  • Explain the session objectives and how reaching the objectives will help the participants.
  • Let the class know you welcome questions and want an interactive session.
  • Assess participants’ understanding as you go. The review questions in the video will help with that, but you can stop the
    video at any time and ask questions that relate to specific roofing jobs done by your employees.
  • Let participants tell you what they are learning instead of just telling them everything you know about safety. That way,
    they’ll be more likely to remember the OSHA rules and apply them on the job.
Fall Protection for the Roofing Industry Employee Training Program—Fall Protection Investigation Series                         5



Transfer of Training to the Job

Participants bring with them a variety of backgrounds and experiences that may affect how they feel about this safety training
and whether they will apply it on the job. But the way you present the material also can affect whether they take the training
back to the job site.
Following are some factors that determine whether your employees will apply this training on the job—and some things you
can do to increase the odds they’ll use what you teach them:

Your employees have varied histories and experiences that affect their motivation to learn.

Some participants may have had negative experiences in school. These individuals may feel uncomfortable in a training envi-
ronment and might not pay attention.
On the other hand, if a participant knows someone who has had an accident at work, he or she may be highly motivated to
learn how roofing workers can protect themselves from work injuries.
  • You can remind participants that the purpose of the training is to help them protect themselves so they can continue to do
    the things they enjoy and take care of their families.

Your employees have a “reality filter.”

Your employees are probably able to determine whether what you are teaching is realistic for their work situation. A history of
aggressive production schedules on projects, for example, might cause employees to use their reality filters and tune out the
training.
  • You can encourage employees to follow OSHA regulations because safe work habits benefit them and the company, too.
    Injury or death to a worker can financially devastate the victim’s family. In addition, there can be serious financial conse-
    quences to the employer. The costs of accidents are emotional, as well as financial. When a company experiences a seri-
    ous work injury or death, company owners and co-workers usually are overwhelmed with grief.

Your employees will learn more if they hear new information, and then talk about how they can use the new information on
the job.

  • If you think about how you learn things, you’ll probably agree that you learn more when you have an opportunity to prac-
    tice using new skills or explain to another person how to do something. We’re not asking you to take your employees to
    the job site during these training sessions, but you can do the next best thing by asking them to do some real-life prob-
    lem solving in the classroom. You know a lot about the work the trainees do, so ask them throughout the training what
    fall-protection equipment options they have for the kinds of projects on which they usually work.
Fall Protection for the Roofing Industry Employee Training Program—Fall Protection Investigation Series                     6



                 NRCA’S FALL PROTECTION INVESTIGATION SERIES

EPISODE 1: FALL PROTECTION—TERMS AND
DEFINITIONS

DIRECTIONS FOR CONDUCTING THE TRAINING

Classroom equipment and materials required to conduct the training session:
  • DVD player
  • Monitor
  • Fact sheets (one for each participant)
  • Certificates of attendance (one for each participant)
Have the following demonstration equipment available for the training session:
  • Personal fall-arrest (PFA) system, including:
    • Anchors
    • Body harness
    • Lanyard
    • Lifeline
Classroom Schedule
90 minutes

  Introduce Course: 15 minutes

1) Ask the class whether anyone knows someone who has had an accident on the job, and let several people answer.
2) Ask how the accident(s) might have been avoided.
Possible answers:
  • Had safety equipment been in place and used properly, the accident might have been avoided.
  • Had pre-job planning taken place, the accident might have been prevented.
  • Had fall-protection training taken place, the accident might have been prevented.
3) Ask the class how the OSHA regulations for fall protection can benefit them.
Possible answers:
  • The regulations require employers to provide fall-protection equipment.
  • The regulations mandate pre-job inspection of decks.
  • The regulations mandate training in fall-protection systems.
4) Describe the objectives of this module as enabling participants to:
  • Understand the importance of safe work practices
  • Describe the benefits of using required fall-protection equipment
  • Define “low slope” and “steep slope” as specified by OSHA
  • Recognize fall-protection equipment commonly used in the roofing industry
5) Explain that the class will watch a video and halfway through there will be some review questions you’ll discuss as a group.
Fall Protection for the Roofing Industry Employee Training Program—Fall Protection Investigation Series                     7



  Watch and Discuss Part 1 of Video: 25 minutes

1) Play Part 1 of the video, Episode 1: Fall Protection—Terms and Definitions.
2) Conduct class discussions for the review questions posed in Part 1.
Note: Pause the video after each question, and allow the class to provide answers. As the class discusses each review ques-
tion, make sure to correct or clarify the participants’ answers until you are sure everyone understands.

                              Part 1 Review Questions and Answers


    1. Q: Does OSHA consider a roof with a slope of 4:12 to be low-slope or steep-slope?
       A: Low-slope [1926.500(b)]
    2. Q: What are the three horizontal parts of a guardrail?
       A. Top rail, midrail and toe board [1926.502(b)]
    3. Q: What are the major parts of a PFA system?
       A: Body harness with D-ring connector, lifeline, lanyard and anchorage point [1926.500(b)]
    4. Q: What protection can be used when there is a hole in the working/walking surface?
       A: PFA systems, covers or guardrail systems [1926.501(b)(4)]
    5. Q: What must the walking/working surface support?
       A: Employees [1926.501(a)(2)]
3) Show the body harness, and point out the important components described in Part 1 of the video. Ask for a volunteer to
demonstrate putting it on.

  Watch and Discuss Part 2 of Video: 25 minutes

1) Play Part 2 of the video, Episode 1: Fall Protection—Terms and Definitions.
2) Conduct class discussions for the review questions posed in Part 2. Remember to pause the video after each question to
allow the class to provide answers, and make sure everyone understands the correct answers before moving on.

                              Part 2 Review Questions and Answers


    1. Q: What is a leading edge?
       A: An edge actively under construction [1926.500(b)]
    2. Q: What are examples of lower levels?
       A. Floors, the ground, bodies of water, equipment, structures, ramps and platforms [1926.500(b)]
    3. Q: When may nonmechanical equipment be used outside a warning line?
       A: When a safety monitor is on duty [1926.502(h)(2) and (3)]
    4. Q: What must be done to call attention to a wire rope being used as a top rail?
       A: Flag the rope every 6 feet using a high-visibility material [1926.502(b)(9)]
    5. Q: What is required when debris is dropped from a roof that is higher than 20 feet?
       A: An enclosed chute must be used [1926.252(a)]
Optional Review Questions:
    1. Q: What are some examples of equipment that may be used outside the warning line?
Fall Protection for the Roofing Industry Employee Training Program—Fall Protection Investigation Series                   8



    Possible answers:
       • Deck saw
       • Hammer drill
       • Hot-air welding gun
       • Nail gun
       • Reciprocating saw
    2. Q: What are some examples of equipment that may not be used outside the warning line?
    Possible answers:
       • Four-wheel cart
       • Felt layer
       • Roof blower
       • Roof vacuum
       • Snow blower
       • Spud machine
Note: An OSHA letter of interpretation dated 10/17/2000—Clarification of when mechanical equipment can be used on sloped
roofs—can be found at: http://www.osha.gov/comp-links.html under the heading, Interpretation Letters & Memos.

  Wrap Up Class: 25 minutes

1) Distribute and review the fact sheet for Episode 1.
2) Ask the class what the challenges are with implementing the OSHA guidelines, and help them figure out the solutions.
Note: Make sure you clearly state the company policies relating to the use of fall protection at job sites.
3) Distribute the certificates of attendance.


                                                  END OF TRAINING SESSION
Fall Protection for the Roofing Industry Employee Training Program—Fall Protection Investigation Series                        9



               NRCA’S FALL PROTECTION INVESTIGATION SERIES

EPISODE 1: FALL PROTECTION—TERMS AND
DEFINITIONS

FACT SHEET


Roofing is a trade that requires skill and hard work. It’s also a job that exposes roofing workers to danger. Accidents
can happen in a split second—and falls are among the most dangerous accidents in the roofing industry. Each project is
different, and the fall protection used will be based on the hazards that are present.
Remember...
  • Most falls are preventable!
  • OSHA requires some sort of fall protection whenever workers are 6 feet or more above a lower level.
  • Fall protection is required for both low-slope and steep-slope roofing.
    • A low-slope roof has a slope less than or equal to 4:12.
    • A steep-slope roof has a slope greater than 4:12.
  • Common fall-protection systems used for roofing are:
    • Guardrails
    • Personal fall-arrest (PFA) systems
    • Safety monitors
    • Safety nets
    • Slide guards
    • Warning lines
  • Before starting a job, it’s important to be sure the deck is strong enough to support the people, material and equipment
    that will be used for the project.
  • Holes in a working surface must be covered or guarded by a guardrail—even if the hole is as small as 2 inches across.
  • A safety monitor can play an important role in roofing safety. Safety monitors must:
    • Warn other workers of fall hazards
    • Be within sight of those they are monitoring
    • Be able to communicate with those they are monitoring
    • Be on the same surface as those they are monitoring
    • Not be doing things that would distract them from monitoring carefully
CERTIFICATE OF ATTENDANCE
                          Awarded to
                       for participation in
  NRCA’s Fall Protection Investigation Series
Episode 1: Fall Protection—Terms and Definitions
      Trainer’s name                          Date
Fall Protection for the Roofing Industry Employee Training Program—Fall Protection Investigation Series                   11



                 NRCA’S FALL PROTECTION INVESTIGATION SERIES

EPISODE 2: FALL PROTECTION FOR LOW-SLOPE
ROOFING

DIRECTIONS FOR CONDUCTING THE TRAINING

Classroom equipment and materials required to conduct the training session:
  • DVD player
  • Monitor
  • Fact sheets (one for each participant)
  • Certificates of attendance (one for each participant)
Have the following demonstration equipment available for the training session:
  • Guardrail section
  • Warning line
Classroom Schedule
90 minutes

  Introduce Course: 15 minutes

1) Ask the trainees whether they think a person is likely to get seriously hurt from a 6-foot fall.
Possible answers:
  • The following real-life case came from OSHA’s files of fatal accidents.
    A 46-year-old sheet metal worker was standing on a stepladder and adding a fire damper to a previously installed sheet-
    metal plenum. He had his right foot on the fifth step, less than 5 feet off the ground, and his left foot one step above.
    Working with his feet on two different steps put an uneven weight on the ladder. A co-worker who witnessed the accident
    said the ladder spun around and caught the sheet metal worker’s legs in the steps. He fell and struck his head on the edge
    of a metal floor plate. With one false move, his life was cut short.
  • Or relate a story from a real-life injury from 6 feet or less that you know about firsthand.
2) Describe the objectives of this module as enabling participants to:
  • Identify proper fall-protection requirements for situations common to low-slope roofing
  • Recognize and avoid fall hazards on low-slope roofing project job sites
3) Explain that the class will watch a video and halfway through there will be some review questions you’ll discuss as a group.

  Watch and Discuss Part 1 of Video: 25 minutes

1) Play Part 1 of the video, Episode 2: Fall Protection for Low-slope Roofing.
2) Conduct class discussions for the review questions posed in Part 1.
Note: Pause the video after each question, and allow the class to provide answers. As the class discusses each review ques-
tion, make sure to correct or clarify the participants’ answers until you are sure everyone understands.

                               Part 1 Review Questions and Answers


    1. Q: What height above the ground or a lower level can someone work without requiring a fall-protection system?
        A: Less than 6 feet (OSHA requires an employee to be protected from falls when he or she is 6 feet or more above a
       lower level) [1926.501(b)(1)]
Fall Protection for the Roofing Industry Employee Training Program—Fall Protection Investigation Series                          12



    2. Q: What must always be in place when anyone is working outside a warning line?
       A. Any of the following: a safety monitor, guardrails, PFA or safety net [1926.501(b)(10)]
    3. Q: Can a safety monitor do any roofing work while on duty?
       A: Yes. But a safety monitor can’t have any other duties that could interfere with his or her ability to act as a monitor.
       [1926.502(h)(1)(v)]
    4. Q: Can a safety monitor ever be the only fall protection used on a low-slope roof?
       A: Yes. A safety monitor can be the only means of fall protection on a low-slope roof that is less than 50 feet across.
       [1926.501(b)(10)]
    5. Q: What is the required height of warning lines?
       A: Between 34 and 39 inches [1926.502(f)(2)(ii)]
Optional Review Question:
    Q: What are some examples of material handling areas that must be protected by guardrails?
Possible answers:
       • Bitumen outlet pipes
       • Crane landing areas
       • Hoist areas
       • Trash chute openings
3) Show the guardrail section, and point out the important components described in Part 1 of the video.

  Watch and Discuss Part 2 of Video: 25 minutes

1) Play Part 2 of the video, Episode 2: Fall Protection for Low-slope Roofing.
2) Conduct class discussions for the review questions posed in Part 2. Remember to pause the video after each question to
allow the class to provide answers, and make sure everyone understands the correct answers before moving on.

                               Part 2 Review Questions and Answers


    1. Q: Must guardrails be made of metal or wood?
       A: No. A guardrail can be made of wire, manila, plastic or synthetic rope if it is at least 1⁄4 inch thick and is flagged every
       6 feet [1926.502(b)(9) and (15)].
    2. Q: If a PFA system is rigged properly, what is the maximum distance that a person could free-fall?
       A. 6 feet [1926.501(d)(16)]
    3. Q: How much weight must each roof anchor support?
       A: 5,000 pounds for each person attached [1926.502(d)(15)]
    4. Q: What must be done to a PFA system that has been used to stop a fall?
       A: It must be removed from service and inspected for damage [1926.502 (d)(19)].
    5. Q: What must be done to protect workers when there is a hole in the roof?
       A: The hole must be covered or protected by guardrails, or workers must wear PFA systems [1926.501(b)(4)].
Fall Protection for the Roofing Industry Employee Training Program—Fall Protection Investigation Series                       13



Optional Review Question:
    Q: What are some questions to consider with regard to the building structure when planning fall protection for a new job site?
Possible answers:
       • Does the project involve a low-slope or steep-slope roof?
       • Is the roof that will be worked on at least 6 feet above the ground or a lower level?
       • Is the ground-to-eave height more than 25 feet?
       • Is the roof more than 50 feet wide?
       • Does the roof have different levels?
       • Does the roof have a parapet at least 39 inches high?
       • Can the roof be considered residential construction?
       • Are there skylights or other dangerous structural openings in the roof?
       • Are there any permanent anchorages on the roof capable of supporting a 5,000-pound load for a lifeline attachment?
3) Show the warning line, and point out the important components described in the video.

  Wrap Up Class: 25 minutes

1) Distribute and review the fact sheet for Episode 2.
2) Ask for volunteers to name at least one thing they learned that they didn’t know before the training, and encourage several
people to answer.
Note: Make sure you clearly state the company policies relating to the use of fall protection at job sites.
3) Distribute the certificates of attendance.


                                                  END OF TRAINING SESSION
Fall Protection for the Roofing Industry Employee Training Program—Fall Protection Investigation Series                     14



                NRCA’S FALL PROTECTION INVESTIGATION SERIES

EPISODE 2: FALL PROTECTION FOR LOW-SLOPE
ROOFING

FACT SHEET

Staying safe on a job site is always a challenge. You have to pay attention all the time. The Occupational Safety and Health
Administration (OSHA) requires that roofing workers be protected from fall hazards. The best way to avoid a fall is to use fall
protection.
Remember...
  • Most falls are preventable!
  • The type of fall protection needed depends on the slope of the roof. A low-slope roof has a slope less than or equal to 4:12.
Warning Lines
  • Warning lines never can be the only form of fall protection.
  • If warning lines are used, they must be set up around all sides of the area you are working in.
  • Warning lines must be used with other types of fall-protection systems, such as:
    • Guardrails
    • Personal fall-arrest (PFA) systems
    • Safety monitors
    • Safety nets
  • You are not allowed to store material or use mechanical equipment outside warning lines.
  • Any time you use a warning-line system for fall protection on a low-slope roof without guardrails, safety nets or PFA
    systems, a safety monitor is required to watch anyone working outside the warning line.
  • If a roof is 50 feet wide or less, using just a safety monitor is allowed.
  • If no mechanical equipment is being used on the roof, the warning line must be set up 6 feet or more from the roof’s edge.
  • If mechanical equipment is being used on the roof, the warning lines must be set up:
    • 6 feet or more from the edge parallel to the path of travel and
    • 10 feet or more from the edge perpendicular to the path of travel of the equipment
Guardrails
  • All material handling areas, such as hoists, trash chutes, crane landing areas and bitumen outlet pipes, must be protected
    by guardrails.
  • When used around holes, guardrails must be set up at all unprotected sides.
  • The height of a guardrail must be between 39 inches and 45 inches above the working surface—no higher, no lower.
    Midrails must be halfway between the top rail and the working surface.
  • Toe boards must be used on steep-slope roofs if falling objects could hit a worker below.
PFA Systems
  • A PFA system consists of a harness, lifeline, and a lanyard or retractable cable attached to a roof-mounted anchor.
  • PFA systems must be inspected for damage before each use.
  • If rigged properly, a PFA system will prevent a person from free-falling more than 6 feet.
  • If a PFA is used to stop a fall, it must be inspected by a competent person before it is used again.
    • A competent person is someone who can recognize hazards and has authority to take action.
CERTIFICATE OF ATTENDANCE
                         Awarded to
                      for participation in
  NRCA’s Fall Protection Investigation Series
Episode 2: Fall Protection for Low-slope Roofing
     Trainer’s name                          Date
Fall Protection for the Roofing Industry Employee Training Program—Fall Protection Investigation Series                   16



                 NRCA’S FALL PROTECTION INVESTIGATION SERIES

EPISODE 3: FALL PROTECTION FOR
STEEP-SLOPE ROOFING

DIRECTIONS FOR CONDUCTING THE TRAINING


Classroom equipment and materials required to conduct the training session:
  • DVD player
  • Monitor
  • Fact sheets (one for each participant)
  • Certificates of attendance (one for each participant)
Have the following demonstration equipment available for the training session:
  • Slide guards—fixed and adjustable types
Classroom Schedule
90 minutes

  Introduce Course: 15 minutes

1) Ask the class whether low-slope or steep-slope roofs pose a greater danger for falls, and why.
Possible answers: Both are dangerous. Here are some reasons:
  • Low-slope materials, such as PVC, are slippery.
  • It’s hard to get traction on a steep-slope roof.
  • Old steep-slope shingles can be slippery.
2) Ask the class what should be done if someone has an arrested fall from a roof.
Possible answers:
  • Call 911, and report the accident.
  • Put the project’s rescue plan into operation.
3) Describe the objectives of this module as enabling participants to:
  • Identify proper fall-protection requirements for situations common to steep-slope roofing
  • Recognize and avoid fall hazards on steep-slope roofing project job sites
  • Understand the importance of having rescue and self-rescue equipment on job sites
4) Explain that the class will watch a video and halfway through there will be some review questions you’ll discuss as a group.

  Watch and Discuss Part 1 of Video: 25 minutes

1) Play Part 1 of the video, Episode 3: Fall Protection for Steep-slope Roofing.
2) Conduct class discussions for the review questions posed in Part 1.
Note: Pause the video after each question, and allow the class to provide answers. As the class discusses each review ques-
tion, make sure to correct or clarify the participants’ answers until you are sure everyone understands.
Fall Protection for the Roofing Industry Employee Training Program—Fall Protection Investigation Series                       17



                              Part 1 Review Questions and Answers


    1. Q: What type of fall-protection system may only be used on steep-slope roofs?
       A: Slide guards
    2. Q: On what kinds of buildings does OSHA allow slide guards as the only means of fall protection?
       A. Residential construction (residential-type buildings)
    3. Q: How does OSHA define the term “residential construction”?
       A: A job where the materials and construction processes are basically the same as those used when building a single-
       family house
    4. Q: What other names are used for slide guards?
       A: Roof jacks or roof brackets
    5. Q: What is the minimum allowable size for a slide guard?
       A: At least 2 inches by 6 inches
3) Show the slide guard, and point out the important aspects described in Part 1 of the video.

  Watch and Discuss Part 2 of Video: 25 minutes

1) Play Part 2 of the video, Episode 3: Fall Protection for Steep-slope Roofing.
2) Conduct class discussions for the review questions posed in Part 2. Remember to pause the video after each question to
allow the class to provide answers, and make sure everyone understands the correct answers before moving on.

                              Part 2 Review Questions and Answers


    1. Q: What is the steepest slope where you can use slide guards as the only fall-protection system?
       A: 8:12
    2. Q: Where must you install the slide guards on a residential roof where the slope is 6:12 or less and the ground-to-eave
       height is 25 feet or less?
       A. Continuously along the eaves
    3. Q: What material must slide guards be made of?
       A: Wood
    4. Q: Where can a safety-monitoring system be used without any other form of fall protection in steep-slope roofing?
       A: A safety-monitoring system can be used alone in the following situations:
         • On a residential-type roof where the roof slope is 4:12 or less and the ground-to-eave height is 25 feet or less
         • On a metal or tile roof with a slope less than 8:12 and a ground-to-eave height of 25 feet or less
    5. Q: If a roof slope is 6:12 or more, what is the required vertical distance between slide guards?
       A: No more than 8 feet
Optional Review Questions:
    1. Q: What is an example of a leading edge?
       Possible answer: A concrete or steel roof deck installation
    2. Q: At approximately what angle to the roof should slide guards be positioned along the eave?
       A: 90 degrees
Note: Part 1 and Part 2 review questions and answers are based on OSHA Instruction STD 3.1, “Interim Fall Protection
Fall Protection for the Roofing Industry Employee Training Program—Fall Protection Investigation Series                       18



Compliance Guidelines for Residential Construction,” issued Dec. 8, 1995. It identifies certain tasks that may be performed
without the use of conventional fall protection provided the employer follows all guidelines in Appendix E of Subpart M.
The URL for Plain Language Revision of OSHA Instruction STD 3.1, Interim Fall Protection Compliance Guidelines for
Residential Construction, is: http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=DIRECTIVES&p_id=2288

  Wrap Up Class: 25 minutes

1) Distribute and review the fact sheet for Episode 3.
2) Ask participants whether they think it’s possible to follow OSHA’s rules for fall protection.
Note: Make sure you clearly state the company policies relating to the use of fall protection at job sites and explain what
employees should do if they have questions about planning, setting up and using fall protection.
3) Distribute the certificates of attendance.


                                                   END OF TRAINING SESSION
Fall Protection for the Roofing Industry Employee Training Program—Fall Protection Investigation Series                    19



                NRCA’S FALL PROTECTION INVESTIGATION SERIES

EPISODE 3: FALL PROTECTION FOR STEEP-
SLOPE ROOFING

FACT SHEET


In a recent OSHA report, 80 percent of fall victims said that there was no fall protection in the area where they had been
working when they fell. Many of the fall victims said their accidents could have been prevented if everyone on the roof had
followed safe work practices.
         ! Several roofing workers said their falls could have been prevented by carefully positioning and tying off ladders
           and by covering skylights and other roof openings.
         ! Others admitted they had been provided with fall-protection equipment but they didn’t use it or had used it
           improperly.
Remember...
  • Most falls are preventable!
  • The type of fall protection required depends on the slope of the roof. A steep-slope roof has a slope greater than 4:12.
  • On a steep-slope roof with unprotected sides and edges, if a worker is 6 feet or more above a lower level, he or she
    generally must be protected by one of these:
    • Guardrail with toe boards
    • Personal fall-arrest (PFA) system
    • Safety net
    There are certain exceptions when doing residential-type work where slide guards may be used on a steep-slope roof.
  • Guardrail systems have most of the same set-up requirements for low-slope and steep-slope roofs.
    • The difference is that a toe board has to be part of a guardrail system used on a steep-slope roof.
Safety Monitors
  • A safety-monitoring system alone may be used on metal or tile roofs with slopes of 8:12 or less and ground-to-eave
    heights of 25 feet or less.
  • A safety-monitoring system alone may be used on a residential-type roof with a slope of 4:12 or less and a ground-to-
    eave height of 25 feet or less.
Slide Guards
  • Slide guards must be made from 2- by 6-inch (or larger) nominal planks.
  • On a residential-type roof, slide guards must be installed after the first three courses of shingles are installed.
  • Install the slide guards along the eave at approximately a 90-degree angle to the roof.
  • Slide guards must be installed not less than 8 feet apart as you ascend the roof on slopes greater than 6:12 and up to and
    including 8:12.
  • Supplies and materials may not be stored within 6 feet of the rake edge (3 feet for tile installations).
 CERTIFICATE OF ATTENDANCE
                          Awarded to
                       for participation in
   NRCA’s Fall Protection Investigation Series
Episode 3: Fall Protection for Steep-slope Roofing
      Trainer’s name                          Date
10255 W. Higgins Road
Suite 600
Rosemont, IL
60018-5607
(847) 299-9070
Fax: (847) 299-1183
E-mail: nrca@nrca.net
www.nrca.net

				
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