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					                      Contents
SimOpt Getting Started

Add Parameters

Copy Parameter panel

Copy Region

Copy Version panel

Edit Observed Data

Observed Data Control panel

Data Info panel

Define Region Boxes

Define Region using ECLIPSE Regions

Import Validation

Set User Weights for Observed Data

Grid Display Control
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Gradient Plot Request panel

Gradients Plot

Gradient Request panel

Gradzones

Gradzone Analysis

IJK Region Editor

SIMOPT.INI file

Data Line plot

Line Plot Control panel

Match Analysis panel

Match Analysis Preferences panel

Manage Stored Iteration Files panel

Objective Function Control Panel
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Parameter Information panel

Parameter Modifier Plot

Parameter Control panel

Parameter Distribution Plot

Project Info panel

Project Export panel

Prediction Schedule panel

Program Preferences panel

Prior Information panel

Report Control panel

RMS Plot

Change Region Names

Regression Options panel
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Select Region

Project Save As Selection

Simulation Control panel

Simulation options

Simulator Line Plots

Getting Started panel

Base Survey Date panel

Observed Survey Data Correlation panel

Summary Vectors

Linear Uncertainty Analysis panel

Version Info panel

Version List panel

View Data panel
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Process WCONHIST panel

Data Info panel

Well History Matching Control Mode panel

Graphical Module

Check Box

Drop-Down List Box

Multi-Selectable List Box

Radio Button

Panel table

File selection panel




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          SimOpt Getting Started

Introduction
The SimOpt program is an aid to the petroleum
engineer in the history-matching phase of a
reservoir simulation study, using the SIS
ECLIPSE 100/300 simulator.
To use the program, you need to be familiar with
ECLIPSE 100/300, and have a thorough
understanding of your simulation model and the
precise objectives you have for the history match.


Basic data requirements
The following basic data requirements must be
available to use SimOpt:
• an ECLIPSE 100/300 model dataset and the
   corresponding (ECLIPSE 100/300 generated)
   GRID and INIT files
• observed data (in an appropriate form - see
   below)
In addition, you should have an idea as to the
weighting you would like to give to particular items of
data, and also an estimate of the likely
measurement error.
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          SimOpt Getting Started

The Program

Setting up the Environment
SimOpt is capable of communicating with ECLIPSE
100/300 in four different ways:
• using PVM
• non-PVM, and local to the current machine
• non-PVM, and running ECLIPSE on a different
    machine
• external job, and running ECLIPSE on an
    unspecified machine
If you wish to use PVM, the following is necessary;
Prior to running SimOpt you must first set up and
run PVM. The environment variable PVM_ROOT
must be defined. This should be set to the location
of the version of PVM you are running, for example:
setenv PVM_ROOT $ECLPATH/$ECLVER/pvm
It may also be necessary to set up the environment
variable PVM_ARCH to correctly specify the
architecture of the machine, for example:
setenv PVM_ARCH SGI5
Launch PVM by typing @pvm. If the system has been
setup correctly you will get a PVM console prompt
pvm>
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          SimOpt Getting Started
By entering help at this prompt a list of the available
commands is listed. It is recommended that you
simply exit the PVM console by typing quit
If you have problems you should contact the support
group at this point or look in "Configuring PVM" in
the "SimOpt User Guide".
Note SimOpt will not work in PVM mode unless
     PVM has been set up correctly.

Launching SimOpt
If necessary, move to the directory in which your
ECLIPSE 100/300 model and observed data resides
(create a new directory, copy this data and then
move it if necessary).
Launch SimOpt by typing @simopt (or $simopt on
a PC). You are presented with a panel requesting
you to select a project. As you want to create a new
one, simply enter the name of the new project.
SimOpt automatically adds .HMP to the name of a
project file.




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          SimOpt Getting Started

Fundamentals
There are a number of steps required prior to you
being able to run the simulator from within SimOpt.
These are:
• create a new project
• import a simulation model DATA file
• import the GRID and INIT files corresponding to
   the simulation model DATA file
• import the observed data
• add error measurements and check the observed
   data weightings
• add the parameters
• define the parameters
• activate the parameters defined
• set up the simulator
Each of these steps is dealt with in turn. It is
recommended that you select Project | Save after
each of the following steps.

Creating a New Project
Select Project | New from the main menu bar. You
will be asked to enter the name of the project. This
should be a name you will remember (we
recommend the same name as the simulation model
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          SimOpt Getting Started
dataset). SimOpt will automatically add the
extension .HMP (or .hmp) if you do not, which will
make it easier to recognize this file in the future.
When you have entered a name, click on OK.
After opening the new project in the previous step,
you will be presented with a Getting Started panel.
This prompts you to open the DATA file and GRID file
for the simulation model you wish to history match.

Importing a Simulation Model
SimOpt cannot work without a base case simulation
model, so the next step is to load your model into the
project you have just created.
To do this, either
• click on the Specify DATA file button on the
   Getting Started panel, or
• select Project | Import | Simulation Model from
   the main SimOpt menu
You will be presented with a list of files ending in
.DATA (or .data). It is assumed that your simulation
model has this naming convention. Select the model
you want to work with, by double clicking on the
dataset name or by clicking once on the dataset
name and then clicking on OK.
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          SimOpt Getting Started
SimOpt will now read in the simulation model.
Depending on how big the problem, is this may take
some time; however, the log message area will
provide information on progress so far.
If it is successful, the model data will appear under
the Simulation Model section of the three sections
of tree based nodes. By clicking on the small boxes
to the left of the nodes in this section, you can
expand the hierarchy tree to display the details of
the model. The information on this tree is purely for
information only.

Importing the GRID file
The information in the GRID file is used to display
the simulation model grid. The information in the
INIT file is used to determine which grid-cells are
active. Most of the functionality within SimOpt is
inaccessible until you have imported an INIT file
corresponding to the imported simulation model.
The information in the GRID and INIT files must be
consistent - they must come from the same
simulation model. In order to ensure this, you only
import one of these (the GRID file) and then SimOpt
looks for the INIT file of the same name in the same
location and imports it automatically.
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          SimOpt Getting Started
To do this, either
• click on the Specify GRID file button on the
    Getting Started panel, or
• select Project | Import | GRID file from the main
    SimOpt menu
You will be presented with a list of files ending in
.*GRID (or .*grid). Select the GRID file
corresponding to your imported simulation model by
double clicking on the filename or by clicking once
on the filename and then clicking on OK. SimOpt
will now read in the GRID file and, if this is
successful, it will then read the INIT file. The log
message area will provide information on progress.

Importing the Observed Data
The next step is to import your observed data.
Before you can do this, the observed data must be in
a form that SimOpt can understand. Observed data
can be imported in the following formats:
• SimOpt observed data format (production data).
   See File Formats in the "SimOpt User Guide" for
   this format.
• GRAF user vector format (production data). See
   File Formats in the "SimOpt User Guide" or
   "Vector data in user files" in the "ECLIPSE File
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    Formats Reference Manual" for this format.
• WCONHIST (production data). These keywords
    may be present in a simulation model data set.
• Summary vector format (production data). This is
    the format of summary files generated by
    ECLIPSE.
• RFT format (production data). This is the format
    of the RFT files generated by ECLIPSE.
• E100/300 Run Summary format (production
    data). This is the format of the run summary that
    ECLIPSE 100/300 writes out when the RUNSUM
    keyword is present in the SUMMARY section.
• RESTART format (survey data). This is the format
    of the property files that ECLIPSE 100/300 writes
    out at the report times. The imported file must
    contain the measured data and the
    corresponding measurement errors. See File
    Formats in the "SimOpt User Guide" for a
    description this format.
If you have the data in one of the above forms, select
Project | Import | Observed | Data | <type> |
<option> where <type> is either "Production" or
"Survey" depending on the type of observed data
you want to import, and <option> is the format in
which you have your observed data.
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          SimOpt Getting Started
You will be presented with a list of files; select the file
name containing the observed data by double-
clicking on the data-set name or by clicking once on
the dataset name and then clicking on OK.
SimOpt will attempt to read in this data. Refer to the
log message area to see the progress so far and
whether the operation was successful or not.
If it is successful, the observed data will appear
under the Data section of the three sections of tree
based nodes. By clicking on the small boxes to the
left of the nodes in this section, you can expand the
hierarchy tree to display the details of the data.
If you click on the box to the left of a well/group
node, it expands to show the observed data
associated with that well/group. By clicking once on
one of the observed data nodes, it will become
highlighted. When a node is highlighted you can
select any of the options under Data from the main
menu to display, plot, delete, etc., and it is
recommended that you do so to begin to understand
how SimOpt works.

Check the observed data error


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          SimOpt Getting Started
measurements and weightings
You will be required to define your objective function
appropriately by adding your estimation of the
measurement error associated with each data item
and the associated weightings to the data. This is
done in the Data | Control List panel and the Data |
Edit panels.
It may be necessary to check the validity of the
observed data. To do this, highlight each production
data node in the Data section of the hierarchy tree
and select Data | Plot.
If any of the production data points seems very
inaccurate, highlight the observed data node and
select Data | Edit, a panel appears in which you
may set the weight to an appropriate low value (that
is, a value close to zero).
Set the overall measurement error associated with
this production data and also an overall weighting for
this production data type. See Meas. Error for more
information.
Save any changes made by clicking on Apply.




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          SimOpt Getting Started
Adding Parameters
Before you can attempt a history match run, you
must define the parameters that, you feel are most
likely to affect the model in this case.
From the main menu, select Parameter | Add. A
menu appears allowing you to select a domain (if
available), parameter type(s) and domain names (if
available); and secondary domain names and
directions if applicable. (A domain is the model entity
that a parameter belongs to, such as well, fault, etc.)
For example:
To add the regional parameter types XTrans and
PoreV, click on XTrans then click on Apply, and do
the same for PoreV (you may need to scroll the
Parameter Type table reach PoreV).
When you add parameters, they are added to the
currently active Version. As we have just started a
new project, they are added to the default Version 1.
By default regional parameters are named Region 1,
Region 2, and so on, for each region added.
The parameters will appear under the Parameter
Versions section of the three sections of tree-based
nodes. Click on the small box to the left of Version 1
to make the added parameter nodes appear.
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          SimOpt Getting Started
Defining Regional Parameters
The parameters have been added, but if they are
regional, the region(s) in which they apply need to
be defined.
To to this, select Parameter | Region Editor. A two
dimensional IJK editor will appear. Use this tool to
define where in the grid the parameter is to apply.

Setup the simulator
Select Options | Simulator to define which
simulator to run, on which host and in which
environment.

Run SimOpt
Select Analysis | Simulate. A panel appears that
allows you to control the simulator, and the
parameters defined.
To obtain sensitivities of the simulator predictions to
your observed data with respect to your defined
parameters, click on the Gradient radio button in the
Run Mode section, and then click on Start.
Refer to the log window for information, warnings or
error messages.

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You may have succeeded in your first run at this
point.
Assuming the run was successful, you may look at
the plots to see how the simulator fared against the
observed data, and look at the sensitivities (select
Data | Plot). To see a mathematical analysis of the
sensitivities, choose Analysis | Match from the
main menu, to bring up the Match Analysis panel.
Hint Do not forget to save your project when you
     exit the program.

Logging Session Activity
Whenever SimOpt is run, a log file of the form
ddmmhhmm.HML (or hml) is created. In this way you
can review this file at a later time (or in event of a
failure) for details of what occurred.

Clear Window Positions
As you operate SimOpt, and create and position
panels and modules, SimOpt remembers the
positions and sizes you preferred. Thus when a
particular panel or module is created again, the
program automatically positions it with the same
coordinates relative to the screen size. The
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          SimOpt Getting Started
information is saved to the project file, so that the
preferences are held over to the next session of
SimOpt.
Should you encounter problems with this feature, for
example, if a screen of very different dimensions
than before is used, the saved information can be
cleared with menu Options | Clear Window
Positions. SimOpt will then continue to accumulate
preferences anew.

Clear Log Files
Each time you run the program, a log file is created
in which the contents of the log window are stored
for later retrieval. After a time, there can be a
number of these log files, and this option allows you
to clear the current directory of all log files.
The current log file is cleared, and reopened for
further use.




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                Add Parameters

Description
This panel allows you to add new parameters to the
current parameter version. The panel contains the
following sections:

Domain
This is a radio button that allows you to select the
type of domain of the parameter to add. Domain
types currently available are:
• Region
• Fault
• CTAq (Carter-Tracy Aquifer)
• FetAq (Fetkovich Aquifer)
• NumAq (Numerical Aquifer)
• Rock
• Inter-region
Select the type by clicking on the appropriate radio
button.
If no domains of the particular type are present in
the simulation model, then the corresponding radio
button will not be available for selection.



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                 Add Parameters
Parameter Type
This is a list allowing you to select from the
parameter types available for the selected domain
type.
Types may be selected/deselected by clicking on the
appropriate row. More than one type can be
selected by holding down the Ctrl key, and a range
of types can be selected using the Shift key.

Domain Names
The third column on the panel shows the model
domains matching the selected type. For example, if
you have chosen Fault as the domain type, then this
column lists the faults defined in the simulation
model with the FAULTS keyword.
You should choose the domains required for the
parameters you wish to add.

Secondary Names
The fourth column is only active for parameters with
an inter-region domain. Inter-region domains apply
between two MULTNUM (or FLUXNUM) regions; these
regions are specified by the Domain Name and
Secondary Name.
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                 Add Parameters
When inter-region parameters are selected, a drop-
down under the radio list becomes active to allow
you to specify the direction of the inter-region
parameter.

Rock Parameter Domain Pressures
These two text-edit boxes allow you to specify a
scale and reference pressure for each rock
compaction table. They are only active when a rock
compaction parameter is currently selected.
They apply to the rock compaction table associated
with the current parameter domain (that is the
current RockNum selected in the Domain Names
column). Hence, if you set the scale and reference
pressures for a RkShift parameter for a particular
RockNum domain, then these pressures will also be
used for the RkPivot parameter on the same domain
(and the equivalent parameters in all other versions).
By default, both the scale and reference pressure for
a RockNum domain are set to the first pressure
value in the rock compaction table for that
RockNum.
These rock parameter domain pressures are saved
for each RockNum domain in the project file.
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                 Add Parameters

Panel Buttons

Apply
Adds any currently highlighted parameters to the
current version.

Close
Removes the panel.

Help
Displays this panel.




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           Copy Parameter panel

Description
This panel allows the copy of a parameter (or
parameter type) from one selected version to
another. Both versions must already exist. A Drop-
Down List Box appears, which contains the available
versions to which the parameter(s) may be copied.
If the parameter is regional in nature, a new region
will be created in the version being copied to, in
order to store the original region definition.


Panel buttons

OK
Copies the parameter to the selected version and
removes the panel.

Cancel
Removes the panel.

Help
Displays this panel.

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                   Copy Region

Description
This panel allows you to copy regional information
from one region to other planes of the same region
or to other regions in the same version.
The following fields are available:

Choose the Type of Region to Copy
Select between copying from one plane of a region
or All Planes of a region.

Choose Orientation of the Plane to be
Copied
The orientation to be used when copying - select
between IJ, IK and JK. This field is only active if
copying from a single plane.

From Region Type and Name
The region from which the copy is to take place.
Each on these is a drop-down list box, one
containing the available region types in the current
version, and the other containing the available
region names within the selected region type.
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                   Copy Region
From Region Plane
The plane from which the copy is to take place. This
becomes read only if All Planes is selected above.

To Region Type and Name
The region to which the copy is to take place. Each
on these is a drop-down list box, one containing the
available region types in the current version, and the
other containing the available region names within
the selected region type.

To Region Start and End Plane
The start and end planes to which the copy is to take
place. These become Read Only if All Planes is
selected above.


Panel buttons

OK
Applies the region copy changes requested and
removes the panel.


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                   Copy Region
Apply
Applies the region copy changes requested.

Close
Removes the panel.

Help
Displays this panel.




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             Copy Version panel

Description
This panel allows you to copy one parameter version
to another. Drop-Down List Boxes appear for
selection of the version to copy from and to.
Note The version being copied to must already
     exist.
     The copy operation does not merge parameter
     definitions - the contents of the destination
     version will be removed first.


Panel buttons

OK
Initiates the copy version operation.

Cancel
Removes the panel.

Help
Displays this panel.


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              Edit Observed Data

Description
This panel allows you to modify certain aspects of
observed production data. It consists of several data
fields, described below, and a table.
The table shows the observed data and the user
point weights of each individual data point. If you
expand the table, it also shows the total point
weights, the current simulation predictions, the
difference and percent difference between the
observed and simulated values, and also the
uncertainty analysis results if these are available.
The observed data weights and measured error are
very important because these are used in the
definition of the current history match.


Panel options

Name
A unique name for the data. This may be changed to
describe the data appropriately.



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              Edit Observed Data
Status
Allows you to set the status of the data to active or
inactive. If inactive, then no derivatives are
requested from the simulator for this data.

Data Type
The type of the simulation data to match this data
item against. A pull-down list defines the available
types - only pressure types may be changed.

Measurement Error
The absolute expected error in the data. See Meas.
Error for more information.

Overall data weight
If set to zero, the entire observed data is ignored. A
larger weight can be set to dominate other data.

User Weight table column
A user point weight may be attached to each
observed point, allowing you to attach relative
importance to each data point. A low weight means
that the data point has little influence on subsequent
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              Edit Observed Data
program operations, whilst a zero weight means the
data point is ignored altogether.


Panel buttons

Set Weight in Range
Opens a panel allowing the setting of the user point
weight between a start and end time, or an upper
and lower value.

OK
Applies any changes made and closes the panel. If
the data item is currently being plotted, the changes
will be reflected in the plot.

Apply
Applies any changes made. If the data item is
currently being plotted, the changes will be reflected
in the plot.

Cancel
Removes the panel without saving any changes.
Note, however, that you can not cancel data already
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              Edit Observed Data
entered and validated on the Set User Weights for
Observed Data panel.

Help
Displays this panel.




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      Observed Data Control panel

Description
This panel allows you to edit observed data
attributes. The main table may be directly edited and
changes made permanent by clicking on Apply; or
the currently filtered data items may be operated on
together using a selected control mode and data
entry field, if appropriate, and clicking on Apply
Block Action.

Name
The unique name of the observed data.

Domain
The associated domain name. This may be a well or
a group (where FIELD is treated as a special case of
a group) for observed production data, or a survey
date for observed survey data.

Sub-domain
For observed production data, this is the associated
connection (only applies to RFT data - for all other
production data this is blank). For observed survey
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       Observed Data Control panel
data, this is the base survey time for difference
based (i.e. time lapse) survey data.

Type
The underlying simulation type of the data.

Status
Indicates whether the data is active or inactive, and
may be changed by the user.

Meas. Error
For observed production data, this is the estimated
absolute error associated with the data. This must
be initially entered by the user, and may be changed
at any time. It can also be changed in the
Measurement Error field on the Edit Observed Data
panel. This measurement error is used to normalize
the difference between the observed data and the
simulation results.
Note This field is not used for observed survey data.

Unit
Shows the unit in which the data is measured. If the
data is dimensionless then this will be blank.
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      Observed Data Control panel
Weight
The overall weight applied to this data item. See
Overall data weight on the Edit Observed Data panel
for more information.


Filter Actions
The observed data may be filtered by name,
domain, sub-domain and activity status.
The Table Display selection filters the table to show
either all data items, or all inactive data, or all active
data.
Beneath this selection are three filter fields to allow
entry of a mask for the data item name, domain and
sub-domain. These may contain the usual question-
mark character (?) for single character wild card or
the asterisk (*) for multi-character wild cards. The
default is all data (an asterisk in each field).
Two buttons are provided, Filter and Filter Clear,
which are described in the Panel Buttons section
below.




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      Observed Data Control panel

Block Action
A Block Action is selected by clicking on the
appropriate radio button. The action will be applied
to the currently selected set of observed data items
when you click on the Apply Block Action button.
The following actions are available:

Activate
Change the status of those visible to Active.

Deactivate
Change the status of those visible to Inactive.

Delete
Deletes the observed data. You are prompted for
confirmation. If no filter is active, this implies that you
wish to delete all observed data.
Note It is not possible to delete observed survey
     data. This radio button item is only available if
     you have observed production data in the
     project.

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      Observed Data Control panel
Set Data Type
When this mode is selected, the Data Type field
becomes active, to allow you to change the type of
data.
Note Only valid changes will be allowed, that is,
     only from one type of production pressure
     data to another. This radio button item is only
     available if you have observed production data
     in the project.

Set Error
When this mode is selected, the Error field
becomes active. Enter the required error in this field.
Note It is not possible to set an error in this way for
     observed survey data. This radio button item
     is only available if you have observed
     production data in the project.

Set Weight
When this mode is selected, the Weight field
becomes active. Enter the required weight in this
field.

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      Observed Data Control panel
Set Weight in Obs. Range
When this mode is selected, the Weight, Lower
Limit and Upper Limit fields become active. Enter
the required weight and observed value range in
these fields.
Note This field only applies to observed production
     data.

Set Weight in Time Range
When this mode is selected, the Weight, Lower
Limit and Upper Limit fields become active. Enter
the required weight and observed time range in
these fields.
Note This field only applies to observed production
     data. This radio button item is only available if
     you have observed production data in the
     project.

Set Base Date
When this mode is selected, the Base Survey Date
field becomes active. Enter the base date in the
prescribed format (dd.mm.yyyy).
Note This field only applies to observed survey
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       Observed Data Control panel
       data. This radio button item is only available if
       you have observed survey data in the project.

Edit
A panel appears for you to edit aspects of the first
selected data item. Note that you can only apply the
action to edit one item of observed data, to prevent a
large number of panels appearing all on top of one
another. Other ways to edit the observed data:
• select the data of interest on the data hierarchy
   pane on the main panel and click on the “Edit”
   toolbar button
• select Data | Edit from the main menu.
Note This field only applies to observed production
     data. This radio button item is only available if
     you have observed production data in the
     project.

Plot
A plot appears containing the selected observed
production data.
Each of the plots contains the observed data, the
weightings, and the simulated data (if available)
versus time.
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      Observed Data Control panel
Note For clarity the plot is constrained to show only
     up to ten data items. To see more, simply
     request another plot with different selected
     data and these items will be displayed in a
     separate plot window.
Note This field only applies to observed production
     data.


Panel buttons

Filter
Applies the wild cards entered in the Name, Domain
and Sub-domain fields and filters the table of
observed data to display only those that match.
For example, to search for all names beginning with
W, enter W* in the name field and click on Filter.
To search for W then any character then P, enter
W?P and click on Filter.

Filter Clear
Clears any filters and re-displays the entire table.


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      Observed Data Control panel
Apply Block Action
Applies the currently selected block action to the
filtered set of observed data. If the table has not
been filtered, the block action applies to all observed
data.

Apply
Applies any manual changes (that is, changes made
in the table).

Close
Removes the panel.

Help
Displays this panel.




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                 Data Info panel

Description
This panel shows information for the currently
selected observed production data item, and allows
you to attach your comments.
Note This panel is not available for observed survey
     data.


Panel buttons

OK
Accepts comments entered and removes the panel.

Cancel
Removes the panel.

Help
Displays this panel.




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            Define Region Boxes

Description
This panel allows you to define a region by
specifying a series of boxes that taken together
comprise the current region definition.
A table appears, the columns of which specify for
each box the following information:
   Top Left Corner of Box (TL) - I1,J1,K1
   Bottom Right Corner of Box (BR) - I2,J2,K2
Each column title gives the allowable limits
appropriate to the grid in brackets.

Example
If the grid is 25(I) x 20(J) x 3 (K-layers), and we want
to define a box for the middle of the three layers,
then we would enter: 1, 25, 1, 20, 2, 2
SimOpt does not proceed until possible definitions
are entered; errors are shown in the status bar at
bottom left of the panel.




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            Define Region Boxes

Panel buttons

OK
Applies the requested definition to the current
region, and updates the region editor display
appropriately.

Cancel
Removes the panel - no changes are made.

Help
Displays this panel.




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Define Region using ECLIPSE Regions

Description
This panel allows you to use ECLIPSE regions
which have been read from the INIT file (for
example, MULTNUM, FLUXNUM, SATNUM, PVTNUM,
FIPNUM) to define parameter regions.
Drop-Down List Boxes appear for selection of the
ECLIPSE region type, and parameter region type
and name.
Multi-Selectable List Box appears for selecting one
or more ECLIPSE region names.
Note The definition does not merge with pre-
     existing parameter region definitions - the
     contents of the parameter region are cleared
     first. A panel appears asking you to accept or
     reject the change.


Panel buttons

OK
Replaces the selected parameter region definition
with that of the selected ECLIPSE region, and
removes the panel.
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Define Region using ECLIPSE Regions
Apply
Replaces the selected parameter region definition
with that of the selected ECLIPSE region, without
removing the panel.

Cancel
Removes the panel.

Help
Displays this panel.




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               Import Validation

Description
This panel allows you to validate the action to be
taken on importing observed production data, when
the production data already exists in the project.
The panel only appears if you import observed
production data, and data of the same domain and
name already exists in the project.
It can be used in cases where the observed
production data is being updated continuously and
you may want to update it in SimOpt.
A table appears containing the following information:

Domain
The domain of the observed production data, for
example the well name. This is a read-only field.

Name
The name of the observed production data to
uniquely identify it. This is a read-only field.

Type
The actual type of the production data to be
imported. For example, WWCT.
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                Import Validation
Replace
A Drop-Down List Box allowing you to select
whether this production data is to be replaced or not.


Panel buttons

Select
Sets all the Replace field entries to Yes.

Deselect
Sets all the Replace field entries to No.

OK
Replaces all pre-existing production data for which
you have selected Yes in the Replace by the newly
imported values, and removes the panel.

Cancel
Removes the panel (the duplicate imported data is
abandoned).


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                Import Validation
Help
Displays this panel.




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Set User Weights for Observed Data

Description
This panel allows you to easily specify the user point
weights to be applied between a start and end time,
or an upper and lower value, for observed
production data points.


Panel options

Range Type
Radio Button group, selects whether to apply the
new user point weights over a time range or a value
range.

Lower Limit
The start time, or lower value, from which the user
point weight is to be applied.

Upper Limit
The end time, or upper value, to which the user point
weight is to be applied.


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Set User Weights for Observed Data
Weight to be Applied
The user point weight to be applied to the production
data in the time or value interval specified above.


Panel buttons

OK
Makes the specified changes in the Observed Data
panel.

Close
Removes the panel without making any changes.

Help
Displays this panel.




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             Grid Display Control

Description
This panel allows you to control various aspects of
display of the Region Editor.

Cell Display options
A Radio Button list allowing you to choose whether
to display all cells, only active cells, or only inactive
cells.

Show cell boundaries
A Check Box allowing you to choose whether or not
to display the cell boundaries.

Show region definitions
A check box allowing you to choose whether or not
to color the cells with the appropriate regional
parameter color.

Show wells in all layers
A check box allowing you to choose whether or not
to display wells in their well head positions on all
layers or just the top layer. Note that this option only
applies to areal views.
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             Grid Display Control
Grid Display Orientation
Allows you to select the orientation of interest.

Grid Display IJ Layer
Allows you to select the IJ layer of interest.

Grid Display IK Layer
Allows you to select the IK layer of interest.

Grid Display JK Layer
Allows you to select the JK layer of interest.


Panel buttons

OK
Applies the panel information to the region editor
and removes the panel.

Apply
Applies the panel information to the Region Editor
without removing the panel.

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             Grid Display Control
Cancel
Removes the panel.

Help
Displays this panel.




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      Gradient Plot Request panel

Description
This panel allows you to choose which production
data gradients to plot from those available - the ones
obtained from the last run of the simulator that
successfully yielded gradients.
The main item on this panel is a gradient selection
table. The Gradients column shows the available
production data gradients, whilst the Select column
shows the current selection - defaulted to No, as in
“do not plot this gradient”.
Below the table is a filter for the gradient name. By
using the filter, and setting the select fields, you may
specify which gradients to plot.


Panel buttons

Filter
Applies the filter in the Gradient filter field, and
updates the table entries appropriately.

Filter Clear
Clears the Gradient filter field down to an asterisk,
and rebuilds the table entries.
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       Gradient Plot Request panel
Select
Sets the select status of all displayed gradients to
‘yes’.

Deselect
Sets the select status of all displayed gradients to
‘no’.

Apply
Prompts for creation of the requested gradient plots.

Cancel
Removes the panel without creating a plot.

Help
Displays this panel.




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                  Gradients Plot

Description
The gradients plot shows the time variation of
sensitivity of a given type of simulated production
data at a given group/well/connection, with respect
to the current parameters.
The plot is created from the Gradient Plot Request
panel, which is opened from the main module menu
item Analysis | Gradients | Plot.
See Graphical Module for information about the
general functionality of the plot: how to print, alter
the line plot styles, colors, and other attributes, and
use the graphical facilities.




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          Gradient Request panel

Description
This panel allows you to specify the derivatives
required from the simulator. These must include all
data currently nominated ‘active’, but may also
include other data types.
The panel has separate folders controlling gradient
requests for
• well data
• connection data
• group data
• property (survey) data
Each folder has a table showing the types of data
that you can choose from. The table shows the
settings you last applied, and you can change the
selection by setting the status field appropriately.
The Well, Connection and Group folders also have
a table that shows the domains for which the
gradients for this data may be obtained - these are
wells or groups, depending on which folder is
currently selected. Again, you should make the
required setting.



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          Gradient Request panel

Panel buttons

Reset
The Reset button resets the status fields in the
table(s) to reflect the currently defined active data.
Note that you are not restricted to this set - any
shown data types and domains may be selected.

Filter
The Filter button lies underneath the domain name
filter field, and modifies the table to show only those
wells or groups whose names match the given filter.
This allows you to filter down the domain names to
the required set.
Note The filter has no effect on the table in the
     Properties folder.

Filter Clear
This resets the domain name filter field to an
asterisk, and updates the domain names table to
show all defined wells and groups.


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          Gradient Request panel
Apply
This modifies the program storage of requested
gradients.

Cancel
Removes the panel, without modifying program
storage of requested gradients.

Help
Displays this panel.




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                     Gradzones

Description

What are Gradzones?
Regional parameters require that you specify where
in the grid they apply. Thus, if you decide to vary
transmissibility in the X-direction, you also have to
specify, through the Region Editor, exactly where
SimOpt is to vary XTrans.
The regional definition requires engineering
judgement, which is beyond the scope of this
program. However, the program does offer the
capability to use gradients output from the simulator
to indicate at least a profitable definition, in terms of
its effect on the quality of the history match. The
'zones' indicated by an analysis based on the
simulation gradients are here termed 'gradzones',
after the analysis presented in [Ref. 4] in the " ".
The following subsections detail how to do such an
analysis with SimOpt. The theory is presented in the
Technical Description chapter of the " " - some
familiarity with the terms used in that Technical
Description will be required.


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                     Gradzones
Requirements
First you are required to define regional parameters
at representative sample zones in the grid, for the
type of regional parameter under consideration. The
zones can contain more than one cell.
A facility is available for defining these sample zones
under the Gradzones | Define Parameters menu
item on the Gradzone Analysis module. This opens
the Define Gradzone Parameters panel.
You then perform a run of the simulator in Gradients
mode.
The gradzone analysis is controlled by the
Gradzone Analysis panel, which is opened from
Gradzones | Analysis from the Gradzone
Analysis module menu. See "Gradzone Analysis"
on page -64

GRAF output to File
In order to view the interpolated eigenvectors on a
real grid display, you may select the Gradzone | E-
Vec Map Output menu item. You will be prompted
with a file dialog in which to give the name of a file to
be written. The file will be overwritten, and so you
should exercise caution here. For information on the
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                     Gradzones
output format, see "GRAF user vector data
format" on page -275 in the " ".


References
See [Ref. 4] in the " ".




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              Gradzone Analysis

Description
The Gradzone Analysis panel allows you to
perform a gradzone analysis on the current
sensitivities. The analysis is described in the
Technical Description chapter of the SimOpt User
Guide. This help page describes the use of the
panel.
The panel is opened from the Gradzone Analysis
module by selecting Gradzone | Analysis. The
panel is tied to the module - if the module is closed,
the panel will be closed. If the panel is removed, the
settings are held in the module, and so the next time
the panel is created from that module, the settings
will be reinstated.


Setup folder
This folder is always available.
This allows you to choose the parameter type on
which a gradzone analysis will be performed.
To perform a setup step, press the Setup button
within this folder.

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              Gradzone Analysis
Parameter Type
This shows the currently selected parameter type.
This can be changed by selecting from the drop
down list when in the Setup mode. The first time the
panel is created from the parent region editor, this
field shows the string “Unset”, otherwise, it will
contain the last setting.

Start/End Time
In addition to the selection of the parameter type, the
analysis period may also be defined in this mode
which shows the current time period over which the
analysis will apply. Initially this is set to the maximum
allowable range determined by the maximum
simulation time and can be changed by entering the
required period.

Regression Hessian
This Check Box allows you to specify whether the
Hessian to be used in the Gradzone analysis should
be the same as the Hessian in the SimOpt
regression. (If you do not select this, then gradients
at report times that are after the last observed data
time are also included in the Hessian.)
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              Gradzone Analysis

Mapping folder
This folder is only available after you have performed
the setup step of the gradzone analysis.
The Gradzone Analysis module’s region display
shows the values of the eigenvector at each cell,
after continuous mapping (see below), by coloring
each cell according to an index derived from the
value. The legend of the region display explains the
color coding. Cells that are filled in with a diagonal
cross-hatching indicate that the value in that cell is
negative.
To perform a continuous mapping step, press the
Map button within this folder.

Normalized Eigenvalue
This is a drop down menu displaying the normalized
eigenvalues from the spectral analysis of the
hessian appropriate to the current settings. The
eigenvalues are given in descending numerical
order, and the default value is the largest - if the
functional is modeled well, then the largest
eigenvalue yields gradzones that have the greatest
effect on a history match.
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              Gradzone Analysis
Number of Intervals
In the Continuous display mode, the eigenvector
values displayed are binned into, by default, five
intervals. You may specify here the number of
binning intervals to be used.

Max Iterations
During the course of the analysis, the elements of
the eigenvector corresponding to the requested
eigenvalue are assigned to the cells of the grid
display to which they refer (by the definition of the
parameter of the same index as the element
concerned). To fill in the missing cells, the program
interpolates between those cells using both trilinear
interpolation and a Laplace smoothing algorithm
that performs a multiple pass averaging process of
every cell with everyone of its neighbours (provided
they did not originally contain an assigned
eigenvector value). The current results of the
interpolation are written to the log message area.
This field allows you to limit the number of
smoothing passes made over the grid. Once this
limit is reached, the averaging process is
terminated, and the region display is the module is
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              Gradzone Analysis
updated with the results, whether or not the
interpolation succeeded.

Real Grid
The interpolation and smoothing processes can be
performed on the logical grid (that is in IJK space) or
the real grid (that is in XYZ space). By default it will
be performed in logical space, to request that it is
performed in real space, you need to select the Real
Grid Check Box.

I(X)/J(Y)/K(Z) direction
These Check Boxes allow you to specify whether
smoothing iterations are performed in the I(X) and/or
J(Y) and/or K(Z) directions.
This can be useful, for example, if you want to
perform a smoothing on a horizontal layer only in
which case you would select to smooth in the I(X)
and J(Y) direction but not in the K(Z) direction.




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              Gradzone Analysis

AutoZonation folder
This folder is only available after you have performed
the continuous mapping step of the gradzone
analysis.
The cell values are thresholded according to the
value specified below. The colored cells resulting
then constitute the gradzones suggested by the
analysis.
To perform an autozonation step, press the
Autozone button within this folder.

Threshold Value
All else being given, the analysis to be performed by
the user consists mainly of investigating different
threshold values.
All cells having a smoothly interpolated eigenvector
absolute value greater than the threshold value are
colored, with the same color, and all those with a
lower absolute value are left blank. Again, cross-
hatching in a cell indicates a negative value. The
colored cells indicate the gradzones suggested by
the analysis - for any given combination of all other
parameters, there will be at most two Gradzones -
one positive, and one negative.
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              Gradzone Analysis

Export folder
This folder is only available after you have performed
the autozonation step of the gradzone analysis.
It is used to save parameters with the region
definitions determined using the gradzone analysis.
To perform a parameter export step, press the
Export button within this folder.

Save Parameters to
This Radio Button group allows you to select
whether to save the gradzone parameters to a new
or existing version.

Existing Version
This Drop-Down List Box is only active if you have
selected the Existing Version button in the Save
Parameters to radio group. It allows you to select
the existing version to which you wish to save the
gradzone parameters.

Overwrite regions
This Check Box is only active if you have selected
the Existing Version button in the Save
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              Gradzone Analysis
Parameters to radio group. It allows you to specify
whether existing regional parameter definitions will
be overwritten when saving gradzone parameters to
an existing version.
Note If Existing Version is selected, and
     Overwrite Regions is not selected then the
     save is NOT made if the regions overlap.
Note If Existing Version is selected, and
     Overwrite Regions is selected then the save
     takes place and you are notified of any now-
     undefined regions.


Hessian Info folder
This folder is only available after you have performed
the setup step of the gradzone analysis.
This folder shows the Hessian matrix for the
parameters selected in the setup step of the
gradzone analysis.


Spectrum Info folder
This folder is only available after you have performed
the setup step of the gradzone analysis.
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              Gradzone Analysis
This folder shows a table of the eigenvalues and the
eigenvectors of the current Hessian matrix. This
table contains the eigenvalues in column 1, and the
corresponding eigenvectors horizontally.


Panel buttons

Close
Removes the panel.

Help
Displays this panel.




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               IJK Region Editor

General
Some of the parameters of SimOpt are regional in
nature, and so require you to specify where in the
grid they apply. SimOpt provides a regional
parameter editor for this purpose, in which you can
define the region by mouse operations (clicking,
dragging etc.). The editor is opened from the
Parameter | IJK Region Editor menu option on the
main window, or by clicking on the toolbar
button.


Components
The IJK Region Editor appears as a central grid
display, showing the grid in a schematic, or IJK,
sense. Other reservoir features such as grid
refinements and coarsening are also displayed, to
help in orientation.
At the top of the display a title shows a summary of
the pertinent information - view type, plane for the
given view type, parameter type and the name of the
current region.
The display layer can be increased or decreased by
clicking on the “+” or “-” button, respectively, whilst
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               IJK Region Editor
you can alter the orientation of the display by clicking
on the axis rotation button     .
Double-clicking on the drawing area has one of two
effects: if the mouse is over a well, a data line plot
comprising all of the well's data will be produced;
otherwise, the Grid Display Control panel will be
opened, which allows you to change layer,
orientation, etc., from a panel.
As you move the mouse around the display, the
status line at the bottom of the module shows the 3D
grid coordinates. In addition, if you move the mouse
over a well or a parameter region, the appropriate
name is also shown on the status line.
Selecting a well with the right mouse button initiates
a drop-down menu for that well, allowing you to open
panels showing well information and also to plot the
well data.


Defining a region
To define a regional parameter, you should have
already created and added a regional parameter.
You must then make the parameter’s region ‘current’
for the IJK Region Editor; this can be done in one
of two ways:
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               IJK Region Editor
• pick up a parameter from the parameter hierarchy
    in the main window and drop it into the IJK
    Region Editor grid display;
• select Region | Select from the editor main
    menu, and choose the required region from the
    region list.
By selecting a ‘region’ (or more strictly a ‘regional
parameter’), you have also implicitly selected a
‘region table’, which has the type of the parameter,
for example XTrans, etc. Note that for any given
parameter type, the regions defined for it will be
mutually exclusive; there is no physical significance
attached to overlapping regions.
Once a region is made 'current' you can edit it by
clicking on the      button, or by selecting Edit | On
from the Region Editor’s main menu.
In Edit mode, you can then proceed to alter the
definition of a region by clicking in a cell with the left
mouse button. This changes the color of the cell to
that of the regional parameter (this corresponds to
the color of the regional parameter node in the
versions hierarchy) and will overwrite any previous
definition for that cell for this parameter type. You
can also drag out a box to define many cells at once.

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               IJK Region Editor
Using the right mouse button instead of the left
blanks out the cell or cells concerned, so that there
is no region defined in them.
Additionally, the Undo button      , or alternatively the
menu selection Edit | Undo, will undo the last edit,
and this facility can be used repeatedly back to the
beginning of the edit, or to the last Apply operation
(see below).
At any time, the edits can be consolidated by
selecting Edit | Apply from the menu, but note that
this saves the edit actions, and can not be undone.
On exit from the edit mode, you are prompted
whether or not to save the modifications just made
to memory (since the last Apply, if relevant). It is
also recommended that you Save the current project
as well.
You may create as many region editors as you wish,
but take care when editing the same region table
from different editors.




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                 SIMOPT.INI file

Description
SimOpt allows you to define an initial start-up file
called SIMOPT.INI in which you may place certain
general defaults that apply to all SimOpt user
projects. You can edit it using your usual text editor.
Alternatively, you can use Options | Preferences |
Program... to set program preferences or Options |
Preferences | Match Analysis... to set other options
related to the Match Analysis panel. You re-write
(overwrite) the SIMOPT.INI file when you click on
Apply or OK.
This file has a similar format to a Microsoft Windows
.INI file, that is:
• anything after a semi colon is treated as a
   comment
• blank lines are ignored
• section keywords are enclosed in square []
   brackets
• options within a section are of the form
   name=value.
A SIMOPT.INI file is not needed for SimOpt to run.
However, if one is located by SimOpt in your user
home directory, then the settings in it will be used
preferentially.
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                  SIMOPT.INI file
A default SIMOPT.INI file is supplied with the
system.
Each of the section keywords of the INI file will now
be dealt with in turn.


[Main Menu Layout]
This section contains only one option
Tool Bar=Left
This option allows you to position the main menu
tool bar to the Left of the screen or at the Top of
the screen.


[Graph Configuration]
These options allows you to configure whether the
appropriate part of the graph appears (set to 1) or
does not (set to 0).
Options supported are:
Status Line=1
Tool Bar=1
Navigation Graph=0
Legend=1
Caption=1
Title=0
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                  SIMOPT.INI file
In addition, you can specify the default thickness
that lines will appear on the plot by specifying an
integer value (between 1 and 10) in the following
field:
Def. Line Thick.=1


[Graph Layout]
These options allow you to define the layout (or
position) of some of the options above (if switched
on).
Tool Bar=Left
Allowable options are Top, Bottom, Left or
Right.


[Graph Options]
These options allow you to indicate whether a graph
feature is on or off by default.
Grid=1
A setting of 1 indicates that all graphs should with
the grid mesh present. A setting of zero indicates
that it should not.

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                  SIMOPT.INI file

[Panel]
These options allow you to control some aspects of
the appearance of panels.
Low-light Foreground Color=8
A setting of 8 indicates that all fields will have a low-
light foreground color of gray. Options are:
0 = Red
1 = Green
2 = Blue
3 = Cyan
4 = Magenta
5 = Yellow
6 = Black
7 = Dark Gray
8 = Gray
9 = White


[System]
These options are general to SimOpt.
Backing Store=WHENMAPPED
Allowable options are WHENMAPPED, ALWAYS or
NEVER. This indicates whether backing store is to be
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                  SIMOPT.INI file
Precision=0
This allows you to attempt to limit the size of fields in
a table. The number specified refers to the number
of significant figures to be displayed. A setting of 0
(zero) requests the system to use the default size.
Scale Table to Precision=1
This allows you to specify whether the width of table
columns are scaled to fit the precision (specified in
the previous option). A setting of 0 (zero) requests
that columns will be left at their default width
regardless of the precision.
Auto Update=0
This allows you to specify whether the analyses in
SimOpt should be updated automatically when a
change is made to the version.
A setting of 0 (zero) requests that updates are not
performed automatically while a setting of 1 (one)
requests that they are.
Single Version In Memory=0
This allows you to specify whether results from
different analyses should be available at the same
time or not.
If only one version is allowed in memory at a time,
you can only analyze the results of one version at a
time. In order to have the results of more than one
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                  SIMOPT.INI file
version in memory at the same time, your computer
must have sufficient memory.
A setting of 0 (zero) indicates that more than one
version is available at a time; a setting of 1 (one)
indicates that only a single version’s results are
available at a time.
All Summary Files=1
This allows you to specify whether the program
should read all available summary vectors when
loading data, or just those that are required by the
analysis.
A value of 1 (one) indicates that all summary vectors
should be read, while a value of 0 (zero) indicates
that only the required vectors should be read.
Absolute Paths=1
This allows you to specify whether directory names
should be converted into absolute paths or whether
they should be kept as relative paths.
Absolute paths should be used when problems with
nested include files may occur.
A setting of 1 (one) indicates that absolute paths
should be used, while a setting of 0 (zero) indicates
that relative paths should be used.
Auto Save Interval=0

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                  SIMOPT.INI file
SimOpt is able to autosave the current project. The
program creates a file with extension HMT, or hmt if
lower case is being used. The format of the
autosaved project is identical to the usual one.
Thus, in the event of a system or program crash, a
relatively recent state of the program can be
retrieved - merely rename the HMT file to the usual
extension, HMP, or read in the HMT file to SimOpt,
and Save As... a project with the usual extension.
You can specify the frequency of the autosave
operation by entering the AutoSave interval, in
minutes. A value of zero (0) turns off the feature.
Save Iteration Results Files=0
If this option is left unselected (=0) then, during a
regression, SimOpt will overwrite the ECLIPSE
results files from each iteration with those from the
next iteration.
If this option is selected (=1) then the results files
from each iteration will be copied to a storage
directory under the project directory and can be
retrieved for further investigation using the Manage
Stored Iteration Files panel.
Save Best Step Results Files=1
If this option is selected (=1) then, during a
regression, SimOpt will save the ECLIPSE results
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                  SIMOPT.INI file
files from the best iteration to a beststep directory.
The best iteration is the one with the lowest RMS
index.


[Match Analysis Preferences]
These options allow you to control some aspects of
the appearance of table cells in the RMS and
Correlation folders. There is also a default
correlation threshold value which can be set to be
applied to the Correlation table.
Summary row foreground/background colors
Summary Foreground=6
Summary Background=3

This indicates that all RMS table cells identified as a
summary cell will have a foreground color of black
and a background color of cyan.
RMS column foreground/background colors
RMS Foreground=2
RMS Background=5

This indicates that all RMS table cells identified as a
RMS column cell will have a foreground color of blue
and a background color of yellow.
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                  SIMOPT.INI file
Data/Domain column foreground/background
colors
Data/Domain Foreground=9
Data/Domain Background=7

This indicates that all RMS table cells identified as a
Data/Domain column cell will have a foreground
color of white and a background color of dark gray.
Positive sensitivities foreground/background
colors
Positive sensitivities Foreground=6
Positive sensitivities Background=1

This indicates that all sensitivity cells identified as a
having positive sensitivity values will have a
foreground color of black and a background color of
green.
Negative sensitivities foreground/background
colors
Negative sensitivities Foreground=6
Negative sensitivities Background=0

This indicates that all RMS sensitivity cells identified
as a having positive sensitivity values will have a

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                  SIMOPT.INI file
foreground color of black and a background color of
red.
Correlation high-light foreground/background
colors
Correlation High-light Foreground=6
Correlation High-light Background=0

This indicates that all correlation table cells identified
as greater than or equal to the current correlation
threshold value will have a foreground color of black
and a background color of red.
Correlation low-light foreground/background
colors
Correlation Low-light Foreground=8
Correlation Low-light Background=9

This indicates that all correlation table cells identified
as less than the current correlation threshold value
will have a foreground color of gray and a
background color of white.
Default Correlation threshold
Default Correlation Threshold=0.8

This is the value which is used to determine whether

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                  SIMOPT.INI file
correlation tables cells are to be high-lighted or low-
lighted.




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                  Data Line plot

Description
The data line plot shows, for each observed
production data item, the observed values as red
boxes, the total point weights as green crosses, and
if available, the plot also shows the simulated
production values of the data as a blue line.
You can create a plot by selecting an observed
production data node from the Observed Data
hierarchy in the main window, and then either
clicking on the line plot button, or by selecting Data |
Plot from the main window menu.
Alternatively, you can click and drag either an
observed production data node or a whole well/
group data node onto the plot.
The plot shows multiple data graphs stacked
vertically, all sharing a common time axis.
For the general functionality of the plot, see the
separate help page for a Graphical Module, which
describes how to alter the line plot styles, colors,
etc., and the use of the graphical facilities provided.
In addition to this, the Line Plot Control panel, which
you can open from the Graph menu option, allows
you to specify the types of plot to be shown.

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           Line Plot Control panel

Description
This panel allows you to specify the lines that
appear on a Data Line Plot. Four checkboxes
appear, allowing you to choose whether or not to
plot the simulation lines, the uncertainty confidence
limits (calculated in the Linear Uncertainty Analysis),
the observations, and finally, the weights.


Panel buttons

Update
Rebuilds the plot, using the current checkbox
settings.

Close
Removes the panel.

Help
Displays this panel.



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            Match Analysis panel

Description
This panel provides the key information concerning
the state of the current history match, as determined
from the results from the last simulation run.
The panel is divided into folders.

RMS Folder
RMS shows the root mean square (RMS) indices of
the active observed data, and their sensitivity to the
currently active parameters.
SimOpt expresses the overall measure of a history
match as an RMS index. This provides an average
value of the deviation between the simulated and the
observed data.

Correlation Folder
When Correlation is selected, the panel shows the
parameter correlation matrix for the current analysis.
All the diagonal elements in the correlation matrix,
and any elements whose absolute value is less than
the currently displayed correlation threshold, appear
in the correlation low-light foreground/background
color.
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            Match Analysis panel
The remaining folders are only visible if the Show
details Check Box is selected.

Hessian Folder
When Hessian is selected, the panel shows the
parameter hessian matrix for the current analysis.
A radio button on this folder allows you to display the
Hessian information in summary form, either as the
diagonal dominance, or the maximum normalized
off-diagonal value, for the column associated with
each parameter. These can help you to decide
which parameters need to be removed from the
analysis if you have strongly correlated parameters.

Covariance Folder
When Covariance is selected, the panel shows the
parameter covariance matrix for the current
analysis.

Distributions Folder
When Distributions is selected, the panel shows
information on the prior distribution specified for the
parameter, and the posterior distribution calculated

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            Match Analysis panel
from the new parameter value and covariance
matrix.


Panel buttons

Update
Updates the information based on any changes to
the data or parameters elsewhere in the program.
This is only necessary if the information displayed is
indicated as being out of date.

Close
Removes the panel.

Help
Displays this panel.




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  Match Analysis Preferences panel

Description
This panel allows you to set the preferences
required in the Match Analysis panel and saves your
preference settings in the SIMOPT.INI file located
in your home directory.
Here, you can modify user specific preferences for
various color schemes for background/foreground
colors of specific table cells with the RMS and
Correlation tables, as well as controlling filtering and
thresholding options that affect the display of the
visible table in the folders.
Each panel field represents one of the allowable
settings in the SIMOPT.INI file. Other settings are
set via the Program Preferences panel. For full
details of all settings, see SIMOPT.INI file.


Panel buttons

OK
Writes any changes to the SIMOPT.INI file in your
home directory, and removes the panel.


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  Match Analysis Preferences panel
Apply
Writes any changes to the SIMOPT.INI file in your
home directory, without removing the panel.

Cancel
Removes the panel.

Help
Displays this panel.




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 Manage Stored Iteration Files panel

Description
This panel allows you to manage the results files
that can be stored after each iteration in a
regression run.
The panel contains an Available Iterations list box.
This displays all the iterations for which results files
are stored in the current version. You can select an
individual iteration from this list.


Panel buttons

Make Current. Copies the currently selected
iteration results files back to the project directory
and reload them so that they can be analyzed.

Delete. Deletes the results files for the currently
selected iteration. This action is irreversible - after
deletion you will not be able to analyze the results
from that iteration.

Close. Removes the panel.

Help. Displays this panel.
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  Objective Function Control Panel

Description
This panel allows you to control the formulation of
the objective function to be minimized during the
history matching process. It contains the following
items:

Production Term Factor
This factor multiplies the production data term in the
objective function. If you set this to zero then the
production data is not included in the objective
function.
The default value for this field is one.

Survey Term Factor
This factor multiplies the survey data term in the
objective function. If you set this to zero then the
property data is not included in the objective
function.
The default value for this field is one.




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  Objective Function Control Panel
Prior Term Factor
This factor multiplies the prior information term in the
objective function. If you set this to zero then the
prior data is not included in the objective function.
The default value for this field is one.


Panel buttons

OK
Applies any changes made ready for the next
simulation run or update of the current analysis, and
removes the panel.

Apply
Applies any changes made ready for the next
simulation run or update of the current analysis,
without removing the panel.

Cancel
Removes the panel without applying any of the
current changes.


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  Objective Function Control Panel
Help
Displays this panel.




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       Parameter Information panel

Description
This panel displays (read-only) information about all
the parameter types available.
The information is displayed in a table. This shows
domain type, modifier action, compatibility and
simulator keywords for each parameter type.
A Table Display filter is provided to allow you to
focus on particular parameter and domain types.


Panel Buttons

Close
Removes the panel.

Help
Displays this panel.




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          Parameter Modifier Plot

Description
The plot shows the progress of the parameter
modifier values concerned versus each iteration of
the current regression, and updates automatically.
The general functionality of the plot is described in
the separate help page for a Graphical Module,
which describes how to alter the line plot styles,
colors, etc., and the use of the graphical facilities.




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         Parameter Control panel

Description
This panel allows you to edit parameter attributes.
The main table may be directly edited, and changes
made permanent by clicking on Apply, or you may
operate on the currently filtered parameters together
using a selected block action and data entry field, if
appropriate, and clicking on Apply Block Action.
Note If a simulation run has been successfully
     completed and you subsequently modify
     parameter values, then you will be prompted
     to continue with a warning indicating that the
     Match Analysis will be out of date.
A table appears containing the following information:

Type
The type of the parameter. This is a read-only field.

Domain
The domain of the parameter, that is, the region to
which it applies. This is a read-only field.



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          Parameter Control panel
Activity
Whether the parameter is to be considered active,
semi-active, or inactive within the program. You may
toggle the status between these three choices.

Status
The current status of the parameter as determined
from the last Gradient or Regression run of the
simulator. The status will one of Active, Inactive,
Lower-Limited, Upper-Limited or Redundant.
This is a read-only field.

Modifier action
The type of action the modifier has on the parameter
value is displayed in this column. This is either
Addition or Multiplication. This is a read-only field.

Modifier
The modifier value for a parameter to be used in a
simulation run.




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          Parameter Control panel
Modifier Min.
The minimum allowable value for the modifier during
regression. Individual minimum values may be
entered.

Modifier Max.
The maximum allowable value for the modifier
during regression. Individual maximum values may
be entered.


Table display
A radio button allows the ‘quick’ filter of the table of
parameters. Three settings are available:
• Show All - show all parameters regardless of
   status
• Show inactive only - show only those
   parameters with the status ‘Inactive’
• Show active only - show only those parameters
   with the status ‘active’.


Filter actions
The parameters may be filtered by type and domain.
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          Parameter Control panel
Accordingly, two fields are available to allow entry of
the preferred type and domain. These may contain
the usual question mark character (?) for single
character wild card or the asterisk (*) for multi-
character wild cards. The default is all data (or an
asterisk in each field).
Three buttons are provided: Filter, Filter Clear and
Apply, which are described in the Panel Buttons
section below.


Block Action
A Block Action is selected by clicking on the
appropriate radio button. The action will be applied
to the currently selected set of parameters when the
Apply Block Action button is pressed. The following
block actions are available:

Set Modifier Value
When this action is selected, the Modifier field
becomes active. Enter the required value in this
field.


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          Parameter Control panel
Set Minimum Value
When this action is selected, the Minimum field
becomes active. Enter the required value in this
field.

Set Maximum Value
When this action is selected, the Maximum field
becomes active. Enter the required value in this
field.

Activate
This action sets the activity status of the currently
visible parameters to Active.

Semi-activate
This action sets the activity status of the currently
visible parameters to Semi-active. When set to this
status, the current modifier value is used during
simulation but the parameter takes no part in the
regression.

Deactivate
This action sets the activity status of the currently
visible parameters to Inactive. When set to this
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          Parameter Control panel
status, the current modifier value is not used during
simulation and the parameter does not take part in
the regression.

Delete
This action deletes the currently visible parameters.
You will be prompted for confirmation. If no filter is
active, this implies you wish to delete all parameters.


Panel buttons

Filter
Applies the wild cards entered in the Type and
Domain fields and filters the table of parameters to
display only those that match.
For example, to search for all domains beginning
with ‘R’, enter R* in the name field and click on this
button.
To search for ‘R’ then any character then ‘5’ (as in
Region5), enter R?5 and click this button.

Filter Clear
Clears any filter fields and displays the entire
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          Parameter Control panel
Apply
This button applies any manual changes made to
the Status, Modifier, Min or Max columns in the
table.

Apply Block Action
Applies the selected block action to the filtered set of
parameters. If the table has not been filtered, the
action applies to all parameters.

Close
Removes the panel.

Help
Displays this panel.




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       Parameter Distribution Plot

Description
The gradients plot shows the prior and posterior
distribution of the parameter modifier for a particular
parameter.
The mean and standard deviation of the prior and
posterior distributions are given in small windows to
the right of the main plot window.
The plot is created by selecting the parameter of
interest and clicking the Plot Distributions button
on the Distributions Folder of the Match Analysis
panel.
See Graphical Module for information about the
general functionality of the plot: how to print, alter
the line plot styles, colors, and other attributes, and
use the graphical facilities.




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               Project Info panel

Description
This panel allows you to attach comments to the
current project that may be used for future reference.

Project Title
You can directly enter here the title to be associated
with the project. This is used in Project Reports.

Original DATA file
This (read-only) field displays the name of the DATA
file for the simulation deck being history-matched.

Original GRID file
This (read-only) field displays the name of the GRID
file for the simulation deck being history-matched.


Panel buttons

OK
Accept the comments entered and removes the
panel.
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               Project Info panel
Cancel
Removes the panel.

Help
Displays this panel.




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             Project Export panel

Description
This panel allows you to specify comments to be
attached to an exported simulation model.

Project Title
You can directly enter here the project title to be
placed in the exported simulation model.

Original DATA file
This (read-only) field displays the name of the DATA
file for the simulation deck being history-matched.

Original GRID file
This (read-only) field displays the name of the GRID
file for the simulation deck being history-matched.

Run Title
You can directly enter here the text to be placed in
the TITLE keyword of the exported simulation
model.


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             Project Export panel
Version
This (read-only) field displays the version for which
the simulation is exported.


Panel buttons

OK
Accept the comments entered and removes the
panel.

Cancel
Removes the panel.

Help
Displays this panel.




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        Prediction Schedule panel
         Prediction Schedule panel

Description
This panel allows you to specify the extension to the
simulation model’s SCHEDULE section. This is used
in prediction runs for the linear uncertainty analysis.


Panel fields

Prediction Schedule Extension Mode
This radio button allows you to specify the prediction
SCHEDULE detail in any one of the following ways :

None. A This means, the prediction SCHEDULE
information is not to be used and hence the
simulation end time is the same as the maximum
scheduled end time of the originally imported
simulation model.

tSet Manually. This allows you to specify additional
time in the form of a time step length and a number
of time steps. After you specify this additional time
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        Prediction Schedule panel
and apply, the new simulation end time is displayed
in the End Sim Time field of the panel.

Use Include File. This allows you to specify a file
containing SCHEDULE section keywords that is
included at the end of the SCHEDULE section. When
a file is selected its contents are displayed in a read
only text window. If you accept the use of this file,
the new simulation end time is displayed in the End
Sim Time field of the panel.

Time Step Length
This field is enabled only if you choose the Set
Manually radio button.
It is the length of each time step that will be added to
the SCHEDULE section in prediction simulations.

No of Time Steps
This field is enabled only if you choose the Set
Manually radio button.
It allows you to set the length of each time step that
will be added to the SCHEDULE section in prediction
simulations.

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        Prediction Schedule panel
Set Prediction File
This button is enabled only if you choose the Use
Include File option on the Prediction Schedule
Extension Mode radio button.
If you click on this button, a file browser will be
displayed allowing you to select the file containing
the additional keywords to be added to the end of
the SCHEDULE section in prediction simulations.
Once this prediction file is selected, its name and
path appears in the read-only Included Prediction
File text box and you can view the file contents in
the read only text window below the button.
The new simulation end time is calculated from the
DATES, TSTEP, GASYEAR and GASPERIO keywords
encountered in the prediction file, and this is
displayed in the End Sim Time text box at the
bottom of the panel.
Note Include files are banned from the prediction
     file.
Note Also there is no data checking of the contents
     of the prediction file, we assume that the
     contents are valid simulator keywords.
Note Note that any change in prediction data forces
     the linear uncertainty analysis out of date. You
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        Prediction Schedule panel
       need to re run the simulator to update the
       uncertainty analysis.


Panel buttons

OK
Applies any changes made in the editable fields on
the panel and closes the panel. You may use it for
changing the prediction SCHEDULE information.This
action is refused if the simulator is currently running.

Apply
Applies any changes made in the editable fields on
the panel. You may use it for changing the prediction
SCHEDULE information.This action is refused if the
simulator is currently running.

Close
Removes the panel.

Help
Displays this panel.

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       Program Preferences panel

Description
This panel allows you to set the preferences
required in the program. It allows you to change
preference settings in the SIMOPT.INI file located
in your home directory.
Each panel field represents one of the allowable
settings in the SIMOPT.INI file. Other settings are
available on the Match Analysis Preferences panel.
For full details of all settings, see SIMOPT.INI file.


Panel buttons

OK
Writes any changes to the SIMOPT.INI file in your
home directory, and removes the panel.

Apply
Writes any changes to the SIMOPT.INI file in your
home directory, without removing the panel.

Cancel
Removes the panel.
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       Program Preferences panel
Help
Displays this panel.




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          Prior Information panel

Description
This panel allows you to specify Prior Information
(described in Technical description in the "SimOpt
User Guide").
Prior information is typically obtained by
geostatistical analysis. There is currently no facility
for performing this analysis within SimOpt, so the
information entered on this panel must be obtained
externally.
The prior information supplied is used to normalize
the parameter values and gradients, and also in the
regression objective function.


Panel Tables
This panel contains two tables. These are described
separately.

Parameter Prior Information Table
This table allows you to specify the distribution type,
standard deviation, mean and weight for each
parameter modifier.

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           Prior Information panel
Parameter Correlation Matrix
This table allows you to specify the correlation
expected between different parameters. This matrix
is symmetric, so it is presented as a table in which
the lower triangular part is read-only.


Panel Buttons

OK
Validates all changes and, if there are no errors in
the data on the panel, applies all changes and
closes the panel.

Apply
Validates all changes and, if there are no errors in
the data on the panel, applies all changes.

Cancel
Removes the panel without making any changes.

Help
Displays this panel.
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            Report Control panel

Description
This panel allows you to select which observed
production data, parameters, sensitivities and
analysis information to report on.
A table appears for each user-entered observed
data item present. Using the buttons described
below or by manual selections, you can specify the
data to report on.
Depending on the state of your project, three other
Check Boxes may appear:

Parameters. When selected, reports on the
parameters.

Gradients. When selected, reports on the
gradients. This only appears if an appropriate
simulation run has been made.

Analysis. When selected, gives in-depth details of
the eigenvalues, eigenvectors, hessian and
covariance matrices. Again this only appears if an
appropriate run has been made.


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            Report Control panel

Panel buttons

Filter
Allows you to filter the observed production data by
name and / or domain.

Filter Clear
Clears the filter field, and displays all data items.

Select
Sets the Report field of the currently filtered set to
Yes.

Deselect
Sets the Report field of the currently filtered set the
No.

OK
Accept the requests entered and removes the panel.
You are then prompted for a file name to which the
report is to be written.

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            Report Control panel
Cancel
Removes the panel.

Help
Displays this panel.




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                      RMS Plot

Description
The RMS plot can be created either for a regression,
from the Simulation Control panel, or for observed
data items. The main module menu structure (Data |
Plot RMS) or the Observed Data Control panel may
be used.
The plot shows the progress of the RMS value
concerned versus each iteration of the current
regression, and updates automatically.
The general functionality of the plot is described in
the separate help page for a Graphical Module,
which describes how to alter the line plot styles,
colors, etc., and the use of the graphical facilities.




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           Change Region Names

Description
This panel allows you to change the region names
from the supplied defaults. A table appears
containing the following information:

Type
The type of the parameter. This is a read-only field.

Name
The name of the parameter to uniquely identify it.
To change the name, simply click in the row and
enter the new name, then click on OK. The Region
Editor will update with the new name.
Note The region names must be unique.
See Region menu for more information.


Panel buttons

OK
This button applies the region name changes.

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           Change Region Names
Cancel
Removes the panel without making any changes.

Help
Displays this panel.




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        Regression Options panel

Description
This panel allows you to change options related to
the regression.
The regression options control the behavior of the
regression algorithm used in the "Regress" mode for
running the simulator.
In general, you will not have to change any of these
options. The two that will change most often are
Max Runs Simulator and Target RMS Deviation,
which may also be modified using the Simulation
Control panel.
For further details on all of these options, see
"Regression options" in the "SimOpt User Guide".
Note Regression options may not be changed
     whilst the simulator is running.


Panel options

Max Runs Simulator. This number is equivalent to
the maximum number of simulator runs, as the
simulator is run once for each regression iteration.
Note The regression feature of SimOpt is intended
     for fine-tuning parameters. A large number
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        Regression Options panel
      iterations should be unnecessary. If the
      regression does not seem to be making
      significant progress within a few iterations,
      before allowing more regression iterations
      consider re-addressing:
      • the selection of parameters
      • the parameter starting values
      • the choice of RMS target.

Target RMS Deviation. The RMS target is the limit
at which the observed data is deemed to match the
simulation model, and the regression will terminate if
the RMS target is reached. As this value is
dependent upon the quality and quantity of available
production data, it must be set to reflect a realistic
expectation of a good fit.
With all weights set to unity, a target value of unity
indicates a fit where the average deviation of the
simulation model from the observed data is roughly
equal to the measurement errors.

Improvement factor. As the regression approaches
a minimum RMS value, the changes in RMS
achieved between iterations become smaller and
smaller. To avoid unnecessary simulation runs, the
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        Regression Options panel
regression will terminate with the message “No
further improvement expected” once the
fractional change in total RMS is less than the
Improvement factor on two consecutive occasions.

Redundancy Factor. Some parameters have a
significantly smaller effect on the total RMS than
others. This is indicated by a relatively low RMS
sensitivity. These parameters can be ignored to
speed up the regression.
The Redundancy Factor specifies the fraction of
the largest RMS sensitivity below which a parameter
is considered redundant. In this case, the parameter
is frozen out of the regression, and its value is not
changed for the current iteration. The parameter is
reintroduced for the next iteration to allow for
changes in sensitivity between iterations.

Minimum Gradient. RMS gradients can sometimes
become very small - for example on the approach to
a minimum in the RMS, or if the currently active
parameters have little effect on the total RMS. As
this can result in several simulation runs showing
little improvement, it is desirable to prevent it
happening.
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        Regression Options panel
When the absolute value of the RMS gradient for
every parameter falls below the Minimum Gradient,
the regression will terminate with the message “No
further improvement expected”.

Maximum Rel Step Length. Determines the
maximum allowable relative change in a particular
parameter’s value at each iteration of a regression.
Note The change in a parameter’s value is best
     controlled by the model trust region, so unless
     there are good reasons for imposing tight
     control on a parameter, this should be left at
     the default, large, value.

Minimum Step Length. This is the smallest
allowable step length during a regression. It is used
to prevent wasteful runs of the simulator on the
approach to a minimum in total RMS.
Note Since small step lengths can also arise in
     areas of complicated topology in parameter
     space, from which the regression algorithm
     may eventually escape, this length should be
     left at the default, small, value.

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        Regression Options panel
Initial Trust Region. The initial value of the trust
region radius is the value adopted at the end of the
first regression iteration, and is used in determining
the first step length.
You can either set this manually (the default
behavior) or allow the program to calculate a value
for you using the Cauchy initial trust region radius.
Check the Cauchy initial trust region radius box if
you wish to allow the program to calculate a value
for you using this radius.

Minimum Trust Region. The smallest value of the
trust region radius allowed during a regression.
Once the trust region radius falls below this value,
the regression will terminate with the message “No
further improvement expected”.

Maximum Trust Region. The largest value of the
trust region radius allowed during a regression. If a
regression step results in a suggested update to the
trust region radius that would violate this bound, it is
truncated at the maximum value.

Limits Tolerance. During the course of regression,
some parameter values can approach a bound
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        Regression Options panel
placed on them by the user. Very occasionally, this
approach can be slow, resulting in slow progress of
the regression algorithm. The limits tolerance
specifies the relative proximity to a variable bound,
below which the variable is considered to have hit
the bound.

Discard Observed Data Outside Simulation
Results Range. This check-box allows you to
specify whether the program should automatically
remove any observed data from the match analysis
if the corresponding simulation results are not
available.


Panel buttons

OK
Applies any changes made ready for the next
simulation run, and removes the panel.

Apply
Applies any changes made ready for the next
simulation run, without removing the panel.
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        Regression Options panel
Cancel
Removes the panel.

Help
Displays this panel.




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                  Select Region

Description
This panel allows you to select a region by
parameter type and name.

Region menu
A table appears containing the following information:

Type. The type of the parameter. This is a read-only
field.

Name. The name of the parameter to uniquely
identify it. This is also a read-only field.
To select a region, simply click in the row containing
the parameter type and name of interest, and click
on Apply.


Panel buttons

OK
Makes the selected parameter type/region name the
currently active one, and removes the panel.

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                  Select Region
Apply
Makes the selected parameter type/region name the
currently active one, without removing the panel.

Cancel
Removes the panel.

Help
Displays this panel.




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        Project Save As Selection

Description
When you save a project to a new file, this panel
allows you to decide how much of the result files
from the current project will be copied to the new
project.
These result files can take up large amount of disk-
space, so you should be careful in your choice of
which files to save in order to minimize the amount
of disk space used.
There are three types of results files that can be
copied. Each of these types has a Check Box to
allow you to choose whether or not to copy that type
of result file.

Current Results
This Check Box allows you to decide whether the
current results should be copied to the new project.
This will be necessary if you wish to reload a
versions results in the new project.

Beststep Results
This Check Box allows you to decide whether the
beststep results should be copied to the new project.
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        Project Save As Selection
This will be necessary if you wish to restore the
beststep results in the new project.

Stored Iteration Results
This Check Box allows you to decide whether the
stored iteration results should be copied to the new
project. This will be necessary if you wish to look
back at the results from intermediate iterations in a
regression in the new project.


Panel buttons

OK
This button completes the “Save As” process. The
result file types selected will be copied to the new
project.

Cancel
Removes the panel and prevents the “Save As”
operation from occurring.

Help
Displays this panel.
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        Project Save As Selection




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         Simulation Control panel

Description
This panel is the heart of SimOpt and allows you to
run the simulator in one of three run modes:
• evaluation
• gradient
• regression
Regression involves a number of runs.
Note The simulator runs for the current parameter
     version (displayed on the panels title). If you
     want to run a different version, you must close
     the panel, select the required version from the
     versions available (click on the version
     required) and then open this panel up again.


Panel fields

Run Mode
Select this by clicking the appropriate radio button.
You can set the initial simulation mode (when the
panel appears) in Simulation options.
In all run modes, the current simulation run may be
interrupted by clicking on Interrupt, or stopped at
the end of the current run by clicking Stop.
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         Simulation Control panel
Evaluation. A single run of the simulator is made:
no gradients are requested. The current parameter
modifiers are used, however, so this mode can be
used to explore a history match manually.

Gradient. A single run of the simulator is made in
order to return the requested gradients. These can
be inspected in the Match Analysis panel to directly
determine effective parameters.

Regression. The simulator will be called iteratively.
Following each run, a regression algorithm tunes the
parameter values in an effort to achieve a closer
history match.
The regression will stop either if the convergence
criteria are met, notably that a match has been
obtained to the tolerance specified in the Target
RMS Deviation field, or if the Max Runs Simulator
limit is reached.

Target RMS Deviation
When in Regression mode, this field specifies the
target value below which a match is deemed to have
been achieved. Refer to the Technical description in
the "SimOpt User Guide" for detailed information.
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         Simulation Control panel
Max Runs Simulator
When in Regression mode, you can edit this field to
specify the maximum allowable number of
simulation runs.


Information Displayed
The panel shows read-only information on the
current host and environment in which to run the
simulator and the name of the simulator to execute.
These can be set in Simulation options.
The panel also shows the Total RMS index of the
current simulation run. During a regression, RMS
values for each iteration are shown.

Max Sim Time
This field displays the maximum simulation time.
The default that appears is the maximum simulation
time specified in the SCHEDULE section of the
originally imported simulation model. This field is
updated whenever the prediction SCHEDULE
information is changed through the Prediction
Schedule panel.

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         Simulation Control panel

Panel buttons

Start
Start the simulation run(s) in the appropriate mode.

Interrupt
Attempts to stops the current simulation run
immediately. If you are using PVM and if you have
selected Run Time Control in Simulation options,
then this option will apply immediately. Otherwise,
the simulator will stop at the end of the current run.
If you are not using PVM, SimOpt will kill the
simulation running on a local machine, or halt and
leave the simulation running on a remote machine
with an appropriate message.

Stop
If you are running in Regress mode, then you can
click on this button to halt the regression at the end
of the current simulation.



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         Simulation Control panel
Apply
Applies any changes made in the editable fields on
the panel. You may use it for changing the number of
runs of the simulator or the target RMS during a
simulation run.

Plot RMS
A plot appears displaying the Total RMS versus
simulation iteration for a regression.

Best
During regression, it is normal for the total RMS of
an iteration to occasionally get worse. In this case,
the last iteration (run of the simulator) may not be
the best, and when the regression stops you will be
prompted as to whether or not you would like to
restore the best step immediately. If you do not do
so at this time, then you may return to this panel at a
later occasion and use the Best button to do so.

Update parameters
Only enabled if you are in Regression mode, and
gradient result files are available for the current
version. By clicking on this button, you update the
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         Simulation Control panel
current parameters using the available gradients.
This is particularly useful if you wish to start a
regression after a gradient run (or at the end of a
regression), and all the required regression
parameters were present in the previous run. (This
saves having to repeat the first run of a regression
when the gradients have already been calculated.) It
is your responsibility to ensure that the available
gradients are relevant to the current parameters. A
warning of this is given when you click on the
Update parameters button.

Close
Removes the panel. This action will be refused if the
simulator is currently running.

Help
Displays this panel.




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              Simulation options

Description
Prior to running the simulator, you must specify the
simulator executable to use, the host machine to run
it on, and the environment in which to run it. This
panel allows you to set or change these
requirements.
Each option is dealt with in turn, and is described in
more detail in Simulator options in the "SimOpt User
Guide".


Panel options

Environment
SimOpt allows you to run the simulator in one of
four environments:
The first is the Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM)
system for network communications between
SimOpt and the simulator. This is the most flexible
because SimOpt communicates directly with the
simulator and data and messages are exchanged
between the two.


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              Simulation options
The second environment is NON-PVM REMOTE.
This allows the simulator to be run on a remote host
without using PVM.
The third environment is NON-PVM LOCAL. This
allows the simulator to be run on a local host without
using PVM.
The fourth environment is EXTERNAL JOB. This
allows the simulator to be run through a macro. The
progress of the run is only monitored through the
simulator output files; hence the macro can run the
simulator on an unspecified host. This allows the
use of (third party) job management systems such
LoadLeveler and LSF.

Host Machine
The host machine field tells SimOpt which machine
to run the simulator on if using the PVM
environment, and defaults to the local host. If you
are not using PVM, this field does not appear.
When the simulation host machine is not the current
one, other fields become active on this panel.
Note If the simulator is set to be run on a remote
     host, then the simulator to execute and remote
     host temporary path must be setup correctly.
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              Simulation options
Host
This field is set to the actual host machine on which
the simulation is to be run. The field is read-only
except when the environment is set to NON-PVM
REMOTE, in which case you must enter the host
name manually.
If the Environment is set to NON-PVM LOCAL, then
this defaults to the local host.
If the environment is set to PVM, then this field is
filled with the host selected from the Host Machine
above.

PVM Polling Timer Interval
This field only appears if you have selected the PVM
environment above, and specifies how frequently the
program checks for PVM messages from the
simulator.

Polling Timer Interval
If the environment is not PVM, then this time is the
time in seconds that SimOpt checks for the
simulation run progress.


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              Simulation options
Max CPU Time
When in PVM mode, this is passed directly to the
simulator, and specifies, in seconds, the maximum
CPU time that the simulation should be allowed to
run for.

Max Elapsed Time
When in PVM mode, this is passed directly to the
simulator, and specifies, in seconds, the maximum
elapsed time that the simulation should be allowed
to run for.

Formatted Output
This Check Box allows you to specify whether the
simulation output should be formatted or not.

Unified Output
This Check Box allows you to specify whether the
simulation output is unified or not.

Un-encoded Gradient Output
This Check Box allows you to specify whether the
simulation output gradients should be encoded or
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              Simulation options
not. Note that you must have an “unencodedhmd”
license for this option to be available.

Run Time Control
This Check Box is only for use when running in the
PVM environment. It allows you to decide whether or
not to allow the simulation to be interrupted during
its progress.

Run Time Monitoring
This Check Box is only for use when running in the
PVM environment. It instructs the simulator to send
summary information to SimOpt as the simulation
proceeds.

Run Time Gradients
This Check Box is only for use when running in the
PVM environment. It instructs the simulator to send
gradient information to SimOpt as the simulation
proceeds.

Default Simulation Mode
The default mode for running the simulator, from the
Simulation Control panel, is Gradient. You may
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              Simulation options
change this to any of the other options with the
Default Simulation Mode radio button. The setting
is saved in the project file.

Run Title
The run title is the title to be used in the simulator
run.

Simulator to execute
This specifies the command to be used to invoke the
simulator.

Simulator Parameters
This field specifies the command line options to use
with the command used to invoke the simulator.

Remote Host Temporary Path
If the host machine has been set to a remote
machine (either using PVM or NON-PVM REMOTE)
then this field becomes editable, and should be used
to specify a work area in which to operate on
another machine.


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              Simulation options

Panel buttons

OK
Applies any changes made ready for the next
simulation run and removes the panel.

Apply
Applies any changes made ready for the next
simulation run.

Cancel
Remove the panel.

Help
Displays this panel.




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             Simulator Line Plots

Description
This panel allows you to add new plots of production
data vectors generated by the simulator.
A table appears containing the following information:

Simulation Vectors
The name of the simulation production data vector
generated by the simulator, including the domain to
which it applies. This is a read-only field.

Select
A Drop-Down List Box allowing you to select
whether the vector is to be added to the graph or
not.


Panel buttons

Select
Sets all settings to Yes.

Deselect
Sets all settings to No.
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             Simulator Line Plots
Apply
Adds plots of the selected vectors to the graph.

Close
Removes the panel.

Help
Displays this panel.




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            Getting Started panel

Description
This panel prompts you to specify the DATA and
GRID files required to define the simulation model to
be history matched.
This panel appears automatically if you open a
project which does not have a DATA and/or GRID file
specified.
If a DATA file has been specified, it will be shown in
the Simulation Data File (read-only) text-edit field.
You can only specify the DATA file if one has not
already been specified in this project. You cannot
specify the GRID file until the DATA file has been
specified.


Panel buttons

Specify DATA file
This button is only active if a DATA file has not yet
been specified for this project. When you press this
button a File Open panel opens in which you should
select the DATA file you wish to use in the project.


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            Getting Started panel
Specify GRID file
This button is only active if the DATA file has been
specified for this project but the GRID file has not yet
been specified. When you press this button a File
Open panel opens in which you should select the
GRID file you wish to use in the project.
Note that the INIT file corresponding to this GRID
file (with the same location and same root name)
must also be present. This will also be read after the
GRID file has been loaded successfully.
The panel is removed automatically if the GRID and
INIT files are loaded successfully.

Close
Removes the panel.

Help
Displays this panel.




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          Base Survey Date panel

Description
This panel allows you to specify whether observed
survey data is to be treated as 3D or 4D (time-
lapse). In the case of 4D data, the panel allows you
to specify the base survey date.
The data type and its associated date are displayed
in read-only fields.
• For 3D data, the associated date is the date at
    which the measurement of the observed data
    was made.
• For 4D data, the associated date is the date of
    the repeat survey.
The simulation start date is also displayed in a read-
only field for your information.
The check box beside the Base Survey Date entry
field allows you to specify whether the survey data is
3D (box unchecked) or 4D (box checked). When 4D
is selected, the Base Survey Date entry field
becomes enabled so that you can specify the date of
the base survey.
Note The base survey date must lie between the
     simulation start date and the data date - this is
     checked by the panel. It must also correspond
     to a restart output date of the simulation model
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          Base Survey Date panel
       - this is not validated by the panel.


Panel buttons

OK
Sets (or clears) the base survey date for the
observed survey data.

Cancel
Removes the panel.

Help
Displays this panel.




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 Observed Survey Data Correlation
                          panel

Description
This panel allows you to specify the spatial
correlation function for a particular observed survey
data.

Data name
The name of the observed survey data (as it
appears on the Observed Data hierarchy tree) is
displayed in this read-only field so that you know
which data item you are specifying spatial
correlation information for.

Correlation model
This radio button allows you to specify the type of
spatial correlation function: None, Exponential or
Spherical.

Correlation lengths
These fields allow you to specify the correlation
lengths in each of the X, Y and Z directions. The
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 Observed Survey Data Correlation
units are given and are the same as those used in
the simulation model being matched.
These fields will only be available if you have
selected an Exponential or Spherical correlation
model.

Correlation cut-off
The Correlation cut-off is used to limit the number of
entries in the correlation matrix by treating any
correlation below the cut-off as zero.
This field will only be available if you have selected
an Exponential or Spherical correlation model.


Panel buttons

OK
Sets the spatial correlation model information for the
observed survey data.

Cancel
Removes the panel.


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 Observed Survey Data Correlation
Help
Displays this panel.




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               Summary Vectors

Description
This panel allows you to add new observed
production data from the vectors generated by the
simulator.
A table appears containing the following information:

Simulation Vectors
The name of the simulation production data vector
generated by the simulator. This is a read-only field.

Select
A Drop-Down List Box allowing you to select
whether the vector is to be added as observed
production data.


Panel buttons

Select
Sets all settings to yes.

Deselect
Set all settings to no.
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               Summary Vectors
Apply
This button adds the selected production data
vectors as observed data.

Close
Removes the panel.

Help
Displays this panel.




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  Linear Uncertainty Analysis panel

Description
The Linear Uncertainty Analysis panel allows you
to explore the results of a linear uncertainty analysis,
as described in the Technical description in the " ".

Table fields
The panel table shows the variance and uncertainty
to a given confidence level of the simulated values of
various production data items, at a given time. The
production data items are those specified in the
Gradient Request panel.
You do not need to enter actual observed production
data for these quantities, since the analysis acts only
on the sensitivities and predicted values.

Prediction Time
The prediction time field allows you to specify the
time at which the variance and uncertainty are to be
calculated. Textual information indicates the
allowable range for the prediction time - it must be
less than or equal to the maximum simulation time,
as entered on the Simulation Control panel.

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  Linear Uncertainty Analysis panel
Confidence Level
The confidence level may be directly entered by the
user. The default level is 90%.
The results of this analysis affect the uncertainty plot
lines on observed production data line plots.


Panel buttons

Filter
Filters the table based on the entries made in the
Type and Domain fields.

Filter Clear
Clears an existing filtered table.

Update
Updates the table based on any changes made to
the program that affect the analysis. This includes
changing the history match time period on the
Simulation Control panel, the status of parameters,
as well as the information on this panel itself.
Note The panel will refuse updates whilst the
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  Linear Uncertainty Analysis panel
       will update itself at the end of the simulation
       run.

Report
This generates a full report of the analysis, including
the full covariance matrices for each data item.

Close
Removes the panel.

Help
Displays this panel.




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               Version Info panel

Description
This panel allows you to attach your comments to
the current version, for future reference.


Panel buttons

OK
Accept the comments entered and removes the
panel.

Cancel
Removes the panel.

Help
Displays this panel.




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               Version List panel

Description
This panel provides a list of all the versions and their
last RMS value, if available.


Panel buttons

Close
Removes the panel.

Help
Displays this panel.




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                View Data panel

Description
This panel allows you to view the selected data.
A table appears containing columns of vectors, each
relating to the data selected. The panel heading and
column headings describe the actual data present.
You can resize the panel if necessary to view more
of the data.


Panel buttons

Close
Removes the panel.

Help
Displays this panel.




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        Process WCONHIST panel

Description
This panel allows you to select the actions that you
wish to take place during a WCONHIST import.
When you import WCONHIST data, SimOpt is often
able to derive quantities such as water cut from the
individual fluid flow rates.
Using this panel, you can choose whether these
derived quantities are to be calculated and treated
as observed production data, and also whether to
remove the individual production rate observations
at the same time.


Panel buttons

OK
Initiates the actions requested.

Cancel
Removes the panel.

Help
Displays this panel.
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                 Data Info panel

Description
This panel shows information for the production data
item currently selected, and provides a field where
you can attach your comments.


Panel buttons

OK
Accepts the comments entered and removes the
panel.

Cancel
Removes the panel.

Help
Displays this panel.




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Well History Matching Control Mode
                          panel

Description
This panel allows you to modify the WHISTCTL
ECLIPSE keyword settings.


Panel fields

Use Well History Control Mode Keyword -
WHISTCTL
This check box is enabled only if the WHISTCTL
keyword is not present in any file, which is included
in the simulation model you originally imported into
the SimOpt project.
If such an included WHISTCTL keyword is present
and you want to modify the WHISTCTL behavior then
you have to:
1 save and close the project
2 modify the include file structure to ...
3 reopen the project
If you select this check box the Overriding Control
Mode and Terminate Run fields are enabled for you
to modify these settings for the WHISTCTL keyword.
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Well History Matching Control Mode
After you modify these settings and applied the
changes, the WHISTCTL keyword is written in the
top of SCHEDULE section in the simulation models
generated by SimOpt.
If you deselect this check box and apply, then the
WHISTCTL keyword is removed from the SCHEDULE
section in the simulation models generated by
SimOpt

Overriding Control Mode
This dropdown box is enabled only if you choose to
use the well history matching control mode keyword.
It allows you to select the over-riding production well
control mode. The default mode is NONE.

Terminate Run
This check box is enabled only if you choose to use
the well history matching control mode keyword.
This is the flag to terminate the run if any history
matching well has changed to BHP control. The
default is FALSE.




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Well History Matching Control Mode

Panel buttons

OK
Applies any changes made in the editable fields on
the panel and closes the panel.

Cancel
Removes the panel.

Help
Displays this panel.




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               Graphical Module

Description
A graphical module is a resizable window which
gives you access to a highly functional set of graphs
displaying input data, the results of calculations, etc.
The elements that combine to form this module are
described below.


Graphical Layout and Function
When you initially open a module, its graphical area
is not filled and is thus a large rectangular white
space. After you have plotted a graph, this white
space will be split into several parts, as follows.

Main graph
This is the main plotting area, within which your
curves are drawn. Any zooming or measuring
operations are performed on this graph. You can
move the right border of this area by clicking on the
grey border line and dragging it to the left or right.



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               Graphical Module
Navigation Graph
This graph provides a view of the curves initially
plotted in the main graph. If you zoom in on part of
your main graph plot, the zoom box is shown with
the initial unchanged curves in the navigation graph.
By clicking in the zoom box and dragging it about the
navigation graph you can select the zoomed part of
your curves as shown in the main graph. By clicking
on and dragging the corners of this box you can alter
the size of the zoomed area.
By clicking on the title bar of the Navigation Graph
and dragging it to the dustbin at the right of the tool
bar, you can remove this area from the module. You
can restore it using the Graph Configuration
Panel.
You can move the lower border of this area by
clicking on the grey border line and dragging it up or
down.

Legend
This part of the module area contains a list of each
type of line used to form curves in the main graph.
With each line type is a descriptive legend for the
main graph curve.
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               Graphical Module
You may highlight (in yellow) a particular line type by
clicking on it once. This means that when you move
the mouse around in the main graph, the X and Y
values reported at the bottom of the module relate to
the curve formed from highlighted line type. You may
find this useful when the main graph contains a plot
which has more than one X or Y axis.
If you double-click on a line, a Data Style Panel is
created for that particular line. This enables you to
change the width, color and style of this line (and its
markers) and thus the curve in the main graph
formed from it. You can also alter the range, tick
marks and annotation sizes of the axes for the
selected main graph curve. Finally, you can alter the
type of plot in the main graph (to, say, a histogram).
You can also change the row highlighted in the
Legend by single-clicking on the corresponding
curve in the main graph. This facility is useful if you
are having trouble differentiating a particular curve in
a crowded main graph by color and tick mark style
alone.
By clicking in a line and dragging it to the dustbin at
the right of the tool bar, you can remove a curve
from the main graph. Note that you cannot undo this
operation.
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               Graphical Module
You can place a copy of the curve legends in the
main graph by clicking on the title bar of the Legend
section, dragging it into the main graph and then
releasing the mouse. You can reposition this copy in
the graph by clicking anywhere within the window
and dragging it about the main graph. To resize the
copy, click near the edge of the title bar and drag the
mouse left or right. To remove the copy, drag it to the
dustbin.
By clicking on the title bar of the Legend section and
dragging it to the dustbin at the right of the tool bar,
you can remove this area from the module. You can
restore it using the Graph Configuration Panel.

Small graphs
In some modules, the graphical area will be further
split to show a row small graphs that by default is
placed above the main graph and navigation graph
areas.
The role of these small graphs is to store the
contents of the main graph. This is achieved by
double-clicking in a small graph area. At this point
the contents of the main graph are swapped with the
contents of the small graph, and the navigation and
legend areas suitably updated. So, by double-
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               Graphical Module
clicking in an empty small graph, you free up the
main graph for a new series of plots without losing
your previous plots.
You may alter the borders of any small graph by
clicking on its grey border lines and dragging them
as appropriate.
You can remove a small graph area from the
module by clicking on the title bar of a small graph
and dragging it to the dustbin at the right of the tool
bar. You can restore it using the Graph
Configuration Panel.


Module menus
Across the top of the module is the menu bar, which
by default contains File, View, Option and Help
items. Individual modules may contain extra menu
items, these are described in the specific help for
those modules. The default menu items are
described below.

File menu

Print preview. This opens the Print Preview Panel.
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               Graphical Module
Print setup (PC only). This opens the standard
Windows print setup dialog, allowing selection of the
default printer and also paper orientation.

Print layout. This opens the Print Layout Panel.

Print type. This opens the Print Layout Panel.

Close. On selecting this menu option, this module
and all the panel associated with it are closed down.
None of the data associated with the module has
been lost, but to examine it again you will need to re-
open the module.

View menu

Zoom in. Zooms in one step into the center of the
plot area. The step size of the zoom depends on the
settings in the Zoom Options Panel. Plots may also
be zoomed and panned using the zoom box on the
navigation graph (if one is present).

Zoom out. Zooms out one step in the center of the
plot area. The step size of the zoom depends on the
settings in the Zoom Options Panel. Plots may also
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               Graphical Module
be zoomed and panned using the zoom box on the
navigation graph (if one is present).

Rubberband zoom in. Zoom into the current plot
using a dragged box. To use this, select the menu
option, place the cursor (which changes into a
magnifying glass symbol) over the grid, click on one
corner of your desired zoomed area, and drag the
mouse with the button held down to the opposite
corner of the area.

Unzoom completely. Completely unzoom the plot.
This displays the complete data range on the main
graph.

Zoom preferences. This invokes the Zoom
Options Panel, from where the default zoom in and
out behavior can be changed.

Refresh. Forces a redraw of the window.

Invert. Inverts the color scheme of the graph
window so that, for example, dark foreground graph
colors on a light background become light on a dark
background.
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               Graphical Module
Options menu

Add/Remove components. This opens the Graph
Configuration Panelwhich controls the overall look of
the graphical module.

Main/Small title settings. This opens the Title
Settings Panel which controls the appearance of the
frame titles, both for the main graph and for any
small graphs, legends, etc.

Modify graph title. This opens the Graph Title
Panel which allows you to edit the title of the
currently active main.

Graph legend style. This opens the Graph
Legend Configuration panel which you can use to
control the appearance of the legend at the top of
the active graph, or even whether it is present. You
can also select the number of rows and of columns
for the individual legends.

Plot style settings. This opens the Data Style
Panel for the currently active plot, this allow you to

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               Graphical Module
modify various style settings for the appearance of
the data (line, marker style, color and data ranges).

X/Y axis settings. This opens the Graph Axis
Panel for the axis displaying the current active data,
either X or Y, depending on menu option chosen.
The many axis style attributes are modified from this
panel.

Grid settings. This opens the Grid Properties
Panel, this has settings to turn the grid on or off and
change its color, and to turn the current point on or
off and change its color, if defined.

Measure. This selects the Measure mode. In this
mode, the x-distance, y-distance, slope, and total
distance between the drag start position and the
current mouse position are reported in the status
area at the bottom of the panel.

Annotate. This provides a means of annotating
plots. After selecting this menu item, perform a
single mouse click at the point where you wish the
text to be associated. Type into the edit field
displayed and press Enter to accept the text, press
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               Graphical Module
Escape to cancel. Each annotation can individually
be resized, repositioned, and deleted by dragging
onto the dustbin.

Help menu

Plot. Opens the on-line help for the panel.

Contents. Opens the on-line help panels at the
Contents page.

Index. Opens the on-line help panels at the index.


Module tools
The module tool bar, by default, resides just below
the menu bar. This contains buttons providing
convenient access to some of the more frequently
used menu items.
A description of each buttons functionality will be
given if you point the cursor at the button.

Dustbin. If you drag items onto this icon , you will
remove them from the module. So, for example, you
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               Graphical Module
can remove lines from the legend and thus curves
from the main graph.




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                     Check Box
Description
A check box enables you to switch on and off the
feature described in the text to the right of the box.
You can add or remove the check (or tick) from the
box by clicking either in the box or on the text
associated with the box. A dashed rectangle around
the text indicates that this field has focus within the
panel.




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             Drop-Down List Box
Description
A drop-down list box enables you to select one text
string or number from a preset list of possible
choices. Your current selection is shown in the box
adjacent to the name of this panel field.
You can view the list of choices by clicking on the
down arrow shown at the right of the current
selection box. To select from this drop-down list box,
click on the desired string. If there are more than five
choices, the list box will show a small arrow at the
top or bottom on the right hand side. You can view
these extra choices by clicking and dragging the
mouse up or down to the edge of the box as
indicated by the arrow. At this point the list scrolls
and you can select from it by releasing the mouse on
the desired item.
In some cases you may be allowed to append to the
list of possible strings or numbers. To do this, type
the new data in the current selection box. This will
then become an option in future selections from the
drop-down list box.




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         Multi-Selectable List Box
Description
A multi-selectable list box enables you to select one
or more text string or numbers from a preset list of
possible choices. Your current selection is shown in
the box adjacent to the name of this panel field.
You can view the list of choices displayed in the list
box. To select from this list box, click on the desired
string, to select more than one, use Shift/Ctrl and
click to select the strings. If there are more than five
choices, you can navigate through the choices by
clicking the scroll bar.




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                   Radio Button
Description
A radio button enables you to select one item from a
preset list of choices, all of which are shown in the
panel. Your current selection is indicated by the
adjacent diamond having a black center. All other
unselected choices have adjacent gray diamonds.
You can select a particular item by either clicking in
the diamond or in the text itself. A dashed rectangle
around the text indicates that this field has focus
within the panel.




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                     Panel table

Description
A panel table enables you to examine and edit rows
and columns of data. The data in each cell of the
table may be numerical, or a character string, or a
Drop-Down List Box allowing you to select one out of
a choice of character strings or numbers.
Within a table you may alter the columns, add and
delete rows, and “undo” changes that you have
made since last clicking the Apply button in the
panel holding your table. All these features are
described below.


Table columns
To move between table columns, use the Tab key,
which shifts cell focus to the right. To move to the
left, use Shift-Tab. Alternatively, you can click
with the mouse to gain focus on a cell at a particular
row and column.
If a table contains more columns than are shown in
the panel, its horizontal scroll bar will initially have a
gap on the left or right. To see the hidden columns,
you may click on the scroll bar and drag it left or right
or use the arrow heads. Alternatively you can click in
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                     Panel table
the gap to page the table. Changing cell focus using
the tab key also reveals hidden columns.
You can alter the arrangement of the table columns
by clicking on the top, heading row, of a column and
dragging this column left or right to your desired
position and then releasing the mouse button.
During this operation the cursor assumes a “hand”
shape       .
You can alter the width of a column by clicking at the
left or right edge of the top, heading, or row of a
column. The cursor will then change to a left/right
arrow symbol. Drag the mouse to change the
column width.
Note Neither of the above changes to a table’s
     columns is saved. If you close down the panel
     containing an altered table and re-open it, the
     table will assume its default column
     configuration.


Table rows
To move between table rows, use the up and down
arrow keys. Alternatively you may click on a cell at a
particular row and column to gain focus.
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                     Panel table
If a table contains more rows than are shown in the
panel, its vertical scroll bar will initially have a gap at
the top or bottom. To see the hidden rows, you can
click on the scroll bar and drag it up or down, or use
the arrow heads. Alternatively you can click in the
gap to go to the next page in the table. Changing cell
focus using the arrow keys also reveals hidden rows.
You can delete the row containing the cell currently
in focus by pressing the Ctrl and d keys together
(written as Ctrl-d).
You can create a duplicate of the row containing the
cell currently in focus by pressing Ctrl-n. This
duplicate is placed below the original row. To place a
duplicate row above the original, press Shift-
Ctrl-n. In both cases focus is moved to the new
row. The “plus” box in the upper right corner of the
table performs the same function as Ctrl-n.
Note The number of rows in a table can only be
     changed if the table contains no read-only
     columns.

Undo facility
The data currently shown in the table is saved when
you click on the Apply button in the panel containing
this table. All the changes that you have made since
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                     Panel table
last saving the table data can be “unpicked” in
reverse order using the table’s Undo facility. Each
time you press Ctrl-u, you move one step
backwards through the sequence of table changes
until you reach the point when the table was last
saved.




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              File selection panel

Description
This panel allows you to select an external file which
is either to be read from or written to. You may
change the directory from which this file is taken and
also chose from a filtered set of files. The operations
of this panel are described below.


File filtering
Across the top of the panel is a field allowing you to
filter out unwanted files using a template. Only files
that fit this template are included in the Files list.
Examples of file templates are as follows:
                          Table 1:

 *.data        All files with a data extension are listed
 C*.data       All files with a root name starting with a C
               and having a data extension are listed
 C??.DAT       All files with a 3 letter root name starting
               with a C and having a “DAT” extension are
               listed

To apply a changed file template, press return when
focus is in this field or click on the filter button.
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              File selection panel
Directories
At the left side of the panel is a box listing your
current directory, its parent directory and any
subdirectories. To change the current working
directory double click on the appropriate row in this
box. The filter is automatically applied to any files in
the new directory and the Files list updated.

Files
At the right side of the panel is a box listing all the
files in the current directory that conform to the
template set in the filter field. Clicking once on a file
name will update the Selection box at the bottom of
the panel. At this point the file will be opened and
this panel closed if you press return or click on the
OK or Open button. You can also open a file and
close this panel by double-clicking on a file name in
this list box.

Selection
At the bottom of the panel is a horizontal field
allowing you explicitly type of the name of the file
opened on pressing return or clicking the OK or

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              File selection panel
Open button. The contents of this field may updated
on changing directory, filter template or selected file.




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             ABCDEFGHIJKL
             MNOPRSTUVW

A                                  E
Aquifer 20                         Eigenvalue
B                                     in Gradient Hessian
Base Survey Date 156, 158                    Analysis 72
Basic Data Requirements 6             in Gradzone Analysis 66
                                   Eigenvalues
C                                     in Gradzone analysis 66
Carter-Tracy Aquifer 20            Eigenvector 72
Change Region Names 125            Error 34
Check Box 185                      EXTERNAL JOB 146
Copy Parameter 24
Copy Region 25                     F
Copy Regional Information 25       Fault 20
Copy Version 28                    Fetkovich Aquifer 20
Correlation 91                     File selection panel 193
Covariance 91                      Fundamentals 9
Creating a New Project 9           G
D                                Getting started 6
Data Info 170                    Getting Started panel 154
Define Region using ECLIPSE Gradient Plot Request 55
   Regions 45                    Gradient Request 58
Defining a region 74             Gradients 113, 140
Defining Regional Parameters     Gradients Plot 57, 108
   17                            Gradzone Analysis 64
Display Mode                     Gradzones 61
   in Gradzone analysis 67       GRAF output to File 62
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Drop-Down List Boxfor study only,if tort to your rights,please inform
            ABCDEFGHIJKL
            MNOPRSTUVW
Grid Display Control 52           Max Sim Time 114, 141
H                                 Measurement Error 30
                                  Modifier 102
Hardcopy of Graphical plot
   178– 179                       N
Hessian 91                        NON-PVM
HMT file 83                          LOCAL 146
Host Machine                         REMOTE 146
   in Simulator Options 146       Normal 92
I                                 Number of Intervals 67
IJK Region Editor 73              O
Import Validation 47              Objective function 15
Importing a Simulation Model      Overall data weight 30
    10                            P
Importing the Observed Data
                                  Panel Table 189
    12
                                  Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM)
INI file 77
                                     145
Interrupt 142
                                  Parameter Modifier Plot 100
J,K,L                             Polling Timer Interval 147
Loading the Observed Data 12      Preferences 93, 117
Logging Session Activity 18       Printing Graphics 178– 179
M                                 Project Save As 136
Max CPU Time 148                  PVM 145
Max Elapsed Time 148              PVM Polling Timer Interval 147
Max no. of Smoothing Iterations R
  67                            Radio Button 188
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Max Runs Simulator 115, 141     Regress
            ABCDEFGHIJKL
            MNOPRSTUVW
  and Simulator 114, 140            Simulator options 145
  Mode 127                          Simulator to execute 150
Remote Host Temporary Path          Start 116, 142, 173
  150                               Status 102
RMS index 90                        Stop 142
RMS plot 124                        Summary Vectors 161
Run Environment 145                 Survey Date 156, 158
Run the Simulator 139               T
Run Time Control 149                Target RMS Deviation 140
Run Time Gradients 149              Threshold Value 68
Run Time Monitoring 149
                                    U
S                                  Uncertainty Analysis 163
Save As Parameters 62
Select a region 134                V
Select HM Region 134               Version Info 166
Set Weights for Observed Data Version List 167
   50                              View Data 168
Show Cell Boundaries 52            W
Show Inactive Cells 52             WCONHIST import 169
Show Region Definitions 52         Weight 35
Show Wells All Layers 52
SIMOPT.INI 77
Simulation Lines 89
Simulation Vectors
   and Line Plots 152
   and Summary Vectors 161
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