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Pencil Drawing Guide

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Pencil Drawing Guide Powered By Docstoc
					  Pencil Drawing
A Beginner's Guide
                       LEGAL NOTICE


The Publisher has strived to be as accurate and complete as
possible in the creation of this report, notwithstanding
the fact that he does not warrant or represent at any time
that the contents within are accurate due to the rapidly
changing nature of the Internet.


While all attempts have been made to verify information
provided in this publication, the Publisher assumes no
responsibility for errors, omissions, or contrary
interpretation of the subject matter herein. Any perceived
slights of specific persons, peoples, or organizations are
unintentional.


In practical advice books, like anything else in life,
there are no guarantees of income made. Readers are
cautioned to reply on their own judgment about their
individual circumstances to act accordingly.


This book is not intended for use as a source of legal,
business, accounting or financial advice. All readers are
advised to seek services of competent professionals in
legal, business, accounting, and finance field.
                                Table of Contents


INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………………………………………………………….06
What it takes to be a Good Artist
Advantages and Disadvantages of Pencil Drawing

BRIEF HISTORY OF PENCIL DRAWING ……………………………………………………………….09
Famous Pencil Drawing Artists and their Works
The Story of the Pencil

GETTING STARTED ……………………………………………………………………………………………11
Materials and Tools: Choosing the Right Kind and Quality
   Pencil
   Eraser
   Drawing Pad
   Drawing board
   Paper Stumps or Cone Blenders
   Pencil Sharpener
   Ruler

LEARNING THE BASICS IN DRAWING AND SKETCHING …………………………………….16

How to Hold the Pencil: The Different Pencil Grips
   Tripod Grip
   Extended Grip
   Underhand Grip
   Overhand Grip

How to Draw Lines
   Flat Lines
   Accent Lines
   Contour Lines
   Scumble/Scribbling
   Cross Hatch Line
   Smudge
   Pointillism

Basic Perspectives in Drawing ………………………………………………………………….….….23
An Introduction on Perspectives
     Linear perspective
     Zero Point Perspective
   One Point perspective
   Two Point Perspective
   Three-Point perspective
   Isometric Perspective
   Atmospheric Perspective

Basic Drawing Shapes ……………………………………………………………….…………….……….28

Basic Elements of Light, Shadows, and Shading ………………………………….…………….30

   Light, Shadows and Shadow Box
   Constructing a Simple Shadow box
   Kinds and Quality of Light
      Hard Light
      Soft light

   Basic Elements of Shading ………………………………………………………………..……….33
     The Highlight or Full Light
     The Cast Shadow
     The Halftone
     The Reflected Light
     The Shadow Edge

   Different Shading Techniques
      Regular Shading
      Irregular Shading
      Circular Shading
      Directional Shading

   How to Add Tones and Values
     Some Tips on Tones and Values
     Some Examples on Shading

FINISHING TOUCHES ……………………………………………………………………………………….37
Erasing and Dusting

MIXED MEDIA APPLICATIONS ……………………………………………………………………..….41
How color pencil can bring wonders in your black and white world
Using Watercolor Pencils and Oil Pencils
    Watercolor Pencils
    Oil Colored Pencils

Drawing with Pencils in Oil Painting ………………………………………………………………….47
    Pen and Ink Drawing
    How Pencil Drawing Can Help in Your Wall Painting
    Cartoon Drawing
  Tips on How to Draw Faster

CONCLUSION ………………………………………………………………………………………….……….57
                               INTRODUCTION
Anyone can draw but not everyone can make good drawings. Pencil drawing is a skill
that needs a good foundation on theories because pencil drawing is a blend of theory
and proper execution of these theories.

Practice makes drawing perfect but foundation on the theories and techniques in
drawing paves the way for better drawings.

This ebook mainly targets beginners in pencil drawing and those who wish to enhance
their pencil drawing skills through other techniques and insights that one may find here.

Anyone may use this ebook to hone his or her drawing skills with the end goal of
becoming a better pencil-drawing artist through this small tribute.

This ebook, written in non-technical language, seeks to promote better understanding.
It covers the basics of pencil drawing, providing for a good foundation for pencil drawing
and some practical tips.

This ebook contains articles on pencil drawing, and it shows how to draw step-by-step
common objects such as people, cars and animals.

Since drawing is visual, chapters are short providing for more illustrations and
application of drawing theories.

The maker of this ebook hopes to inspire individuals to pursue the art of pencil drawing
and unleash their artistic mind.
What it takes to be a Good Artist
                              Artists are made not born. Unlike medicine or law that one
                              has to have proper education to be equipped with the
          I’m not an           degree of knowledge, most of the artists around today
      artist… I just look       are self-taught artists. Going to a formal art school is not a
           like one!            pre-requisite before one becomes an artist. Unless if one
                               desires to be a commercial artist or one that works for
                              companies or newspapers.



The artist’s journey starts with the desire to express themselves through drawing and
art. In fact, they can express themselves better than they do with words. Drawing comes
naturally for them.

                            Some could express themselves through cartoons or comic
                            strips while others make abstract paintings. Just because
                            drawing comes naturally for them, it doesn’t mean that they
                            dealt away with the basics of drawing. They still learned the
                            basics of drawing, but they adopted their own style in
                            drawing.

                            Having technical skills in drawing is good but drawing should
                            be more on self expression. In drawing, there is no correct or
                            wrong style because drawing is self expression. It is up to the
                            viewer to appreciate that particular self expression or not.

                            These artists were curious and discerning about the world
                            around them. They have an eye for details and how objects
                            and scenery were composed by nature. Having the drive and
                            persistence to imitate nature and give life to their vision,
                            artists constantly practice to perfect their craft. Deciding to
                            become an artist is an easy decision but becoming one is not
                            quite as such.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Pencil Drawing
The advantage of using a pencil when drawing as opposed to using a pen is that you can
easily erase mistakes when you use a pencil for drawing. Artists can make mistakes and
not have to start all over again. Erasing is not just for mistakes.

Pencil drawing is a process, artists start drawing by making light outlines that help them
create a drawing.

You can also erase later on the outlines and people will hardly notice that the drawing
came from simple lines. Using pencils in drawing is inexpensive because you will just
need a pencil and paper to create a basic drawing.

Pencils and papers are easy to carry around that you do not have to confine yourselves
to your studio when making a drawing.

Pencils are affordable and sold in most stores. You do not have to worry about the
pencil drying up or reaching its expiry date. It can be stored anywhere and maintaining it
is hassle free.

Unlike using paints and other media that give off nasty fumes, pencils are odorless.
Manufacturers made pencils versatile depending on the artist’s needs, one get very
black to light gray. Pencils can also be very soft, which makes it easy for shading or hard,
which makes it perfect for fine details.

                                                           Pencil drawings have a
                                                           tendency to smudge if you
                                                           touch or rub them. Those once
                                                           fine details will look like a
                                                           smear. It is important to keep
                                                           hands away from the paper
                                                           while drawing or cover your
                                                           drawing with another piece of
                                                           paper while trying to complete
                                                           the work.

                                                             Once the drawing is completed,
                                                             seal the drawing to prevent
                                                             from smudging. Sealing is also
important because of the temporary nature of pencil drawings, and you can use a
sealing or a fixative spray for this. Others use hair sprays that are perfume free. Artists
lightly spray on these on their work.
BRIEF HISTORY OF PENCIL DRAWING
Famous Pencil Drawing Artists and their Works
Using a pencil has many advantages, one of which is that it is very easy to erase one’s
mistakes. There are famous people in the world who preferred to use pencils.

Vincent van Gogh, a notable artist used Faber-Castell pencils. According to him, these
pencils were superior. He liked its blackness and found it easy to use.




Pablo Picasso used a pencil with his works of art. Jean Auguste- Ingres made the Portrait
of Mme Guillaume Guillon Lethiere. John Constable used a pencil and a sepia wash in his
Trees and a Stretch of Water on the Stour.

These works are in different famous art galleries and museums around the world.
The Story of the Pencil
Long time ago, Greek artists used to draw on papyrus using a metal stylus. In Cumbria
England, there were large deposits of graphite. Locals used the graphite for marking
sheep. Although graphite was solid, it was soft that it needed a case before you can use
it easily.

Early civilization used sheepskin to wrap the graphite. England continued to produce
pencils while in 1662; Nuremberg Germany attempted to manufacture pencils using a
mixture of graphite, antimony and sulphur. Italy was the first to use wooden holders.

                                                      They carved two wooden halves
                                                      and inserted the graphite stick.
                                                      The wooden halves were then
                                                      glued together.

                                                      Many years later, Ebenezer Wood
                                                      in America automated the process
                                                      of pencil making. Joseph Dixon
                                                      found a way to mass produce
                                                      pencils. Hymen Lipman attached
                                                      the eraser to the pencil.

                                                      Today, annual production of a
                                                      pencil is at around 14 billion
                                                      pencils.

                                              These pencils may be round-shaped,
                                              triangular or hexagonal. There are even
                                              bendable pencils. Pencil variations include
                                              mechanical pencils, which has a
                                              mechanism that pushes the lead through
                                              the end. A Quadra chromic pencil has four
                                              colors at its tip.
GETTING STARTED
Materials and Tools:
Choosing the Right Kind and Quality
                                                               The age old debate about
                                                               the artist’s skills’ versus
                                                               high quality materials is
                                                               still applicable even until
                                                               today. Quality of tools and
                                                               materials used affects the
                                                               artwork.

                                                               One cannot aspire to own
                                                               and use top quality art
                                                               materials, especially when
                                                               one is just beginning. The
                                                               best attitude towards the
problem of not having enough materials is this:

It is more miserable to have no skills in art but have the best materials and tools
available than to have mediocre materials but have excellent artistic skills.
Pencil

The pencil is an instrument commonly used to drawing. A stick of
graphite or a mixture is encased in wood. At one end of the pencil is
an eraser. There are many kinds of pencils.

Manufacturers use “H” for hardness, “B” for blackness, “F” for a fine
point. Pencils can be very dark or very light. Artists may need
different pencils for making grays and blacks.

Pencils can also be hard or soft. Hard pencils are needed by
engineers because it gives them better control in making precise
lines. For users who cannot decide which one to use, the safest is
HB. Some artists use the non photo blue pencil. It is a pencil used
mainly for outlining. It comes in a very light blue color, a shade that
cameras cannot catch. Artists can save time with this pencil because
they do not have to erase it.

Mechanical pencils are available in .5mm or .7mm lead. Mechanical
or automatic pencils do away with the need to sharpen the pencils.
The downside of using mechanical pencils is the lack of variety of
grades.
Eraser

It is impossible not to make a mistake while drawing. More often than not, one
consumes the eraser at the tip of the pencil before the pencil. An eraser is an essential
tool in an artist’s toolbox.

                                                          Erasers may come from
                                                          pulverized pumice. Do not use
                                                          this type of eraser to heavily, or
                                                          it will damage the paper. After
                                                          erasing, brush away the residue
                                                          that this type or eraser will
                                                          leave.

                                                    Soft vinyl erasers are softer and
cause lesser damage on paper than erasers made from pumice. This eraser is good for
precision erasing and erasing light marks.

The kneaded eraser reminds people of chewing gum. Unlike the eraser made from
pumice, this type of eraser does not leave any residue. With the use of your fingers, you
can shape kneaded erasers making it easy to erase little details. This eraser is difficult to
use in large areas.

An art gum eraser is another type of eraser that is widely used among artists. Unlike the
kneaded eraser, removing large areas is easier with this eraser. The downside of using a
gum eraser is that it is not precise in erasing fine mistakes.
Drawing Pad

                                                          A drawing pad is also known
                                                          as a sketch pad. It is made up
                                                          white paper bounded in one
                                                          book. It can be used for
                                                          drawing and scrap booking.
                                                          Drawing pads come in
                                                          different sizes. It’s always
                                                          important to have a sketch
                                                          pad to contain all your
                                                          drawings.

                                                         Practice bringing a small
                                                         sketch pad around, so that
you can easily draw what captures your attention. Leonardo da Vinci always had a
sketch pad or a notebook with him. It allowed him to draw everyday objects and
movement with ease.



Drawing board
A drawing board can be used for several purposes. It can be used for writing, reading
large documents and making large sketches. This equipment is highly optional, unless
you aim to draw in large scale.

Paper Stumps or Cone Blenders
Blending is a big part in drawing. Do not use fingers because fingers leave oil on the
paper which can be visible in certain light. Artists use blending stumps or paper stumps
to blend large areas.
Pencil Sharpener
                            Another essential tool that should be found in the artist’s
                            toolbox is the pencil sharpener. This is a device that shaves
                            the end of the pencil thereby sharpening its point.

                            Some artists may use sandpaper block and use a knife for
                            the wooden part of the pencil. A large part of pencil drawing
                            depends on keeping a sharp pencil.




Ruler
A ruler is used in technical drawing,
engineering and geometry. Rulers help
you make straight lines or make precise
measurements. On the topic of
perspective, the ruler will be frequently
used.
LEARNING THE BASICS IN DRAWING AND
SKETCHING
How to Hold the Pencil? - The Different Pencil Grips
Tripod Grip
                       The tripod grip is the most common way of holding a
                       pen or a pencil. Although it might be the common
                       way of holding a pencil, many people are not doing
                       the tripod grip correctly. The correct way to make a
                       tripod grip is to position the pencil applying equal
                       pressure between the side of the middle finger, the
                       tip of the index finger and the thumb.

                       Do not grip the pencil too firmly. Holding a pencil too
                       tightly or too lightly will limit your flexibility in
                       drawing because the fine-motor skills are weakened.

                       The index finger rests on the tip of the pencil which
                       shows the lead while the tip with the eraser must be
                       pointing toward the shoulder.

                                     Do not hold the pencil vertically. Check
                                     if the thumb and the underside of the
                                     forearm are in a straight line.

                                     The most important and apparent
                                     advantage of this type of grip is that a
                                     person can write more quickly and
                                     easily. The correct grip maximizes
                                     one’s motor skills, which are needed
                                     for drawings. Also, it reduces the risk
                                     of physical problems, especially the
                                     carpal tunnel syndrome.
Extended Grip
The extended tripod grip is a variation of the
tripod grip. The tripod grip is still used, but
you will hold the pencil at bit further at the
end or near the tip that has the eraser.
Because your control is at the other end of
the pencil, small movements of your hand
make larger effects on the other end.




Underhand Grip
                                                  Another variation of the tripod grip is the
                                                  underhand grip, there is also an
                                                  underhand grip. This is another relaxed
                                                  way of holding a pencil. This grip is best
                                                  suited for broad sketching. The pencil is
                                                  positioned in a ‘V’ with the middle and
                                                  index finger controlling the movement.
                                                  Using this type of grip will help you make
                                                  firm lines and small linear details.




Overhand Grip
For sketching, most artists use the
overhand grip. The aim of the overhand
grip is to have a relaxed grip on the
pencil but not too relaxed that the grip
would not be secure.

You can draw sitting or standing, make
sure that your arm has full range
movement. Shading is easier with the
overhand grip.
How to Draw Lines?
In truth, lines do not exist and those that you see as lines are but your observations of
an object’s edge. Lines are indeed man’s creation used to represent and mimic the
objects and figures that he sees. It is a basic element of art that you would never
conceive a single work of art without the application of lines. Lines enable artists to
create both space and image.

There are so many kinds of lines and these lines vary in terms of length, width, value and
in many other ways. In form, there can be straight, curved, wavy, jagged and many
others. The range of values of lines from light to dark is a product of pressure placed
while drawing these lines. Here are some of the basic lines used in pencil drawing.
Flat Lines
                        Flat lines, also commonly known as the straight lines,
                        are helpful in expressing emotional states and evoking
                        emotional responses and providing illusion on the
                        viewers’ eyes.

                        You can start on a horizontal direction, a vertical
                        direction, or a diagonal direction depending on how
                        you want your image to look like.
     Horizontal lines
                        Generally, the horizontal approach gives your image a
                        wider look while the vertical direction gives your image
                        a leaner and thinner look.

                        In terms of emotions, horizontal lines invoke serenity
                        and stability and vertical lines invokes poise and
                        stillness.

                        In fact, artists employ vertical lines to show strength
                        and dignity with the use of height often reflected
                        through vertical lines.

                        Diagonal lines, on the other hand, invoke movement,
                        unrest, change, instability and variation.




      Vertical lines
Accent Lines
Accent lines find significance in putting certain emphasis or accent in some portions of
your drawing. It, specifically gives special emphasis on your certain portion through
changes and variations in your lines.

Contour Lines
                              One of the striking characteristics of contour lines is the
                              purity of the line, which even without the use of color,
                              distinctively display shape and beauty of the image. In
                              outlining and in sketching, what you follow is only the
                              important edges, outlines and contours of the object you
                              want to draw.




        Scribbling




Scumble/Scribbling
                              Scribbling or scumble drawing is a drawing merely
                              composed of abstract and random lines.
Cross Hatch Line
                   Another kind of line often used in cartoon works is
                   crosshatching.

                   The shading technique is often different from the lines
                   used in making the drawing but certain cartoonists
                   make use of the lines in creating shading effect.

                   With crosshatching, interlacing or interweaving parallel
                   lines often in different densities are able to create the
                   effects of light and shadows in their drawings thereby
                   creating shading on the images.

                   Another application of cross hatch lines is in creating
                   lineal definition and texture on the drawing.

                   Most drawings of walls, fabrics and other textured
                   materials have the application of crosshatching
                   technique in drawing the lines.

                   Parallel crosshatched lines provide a flat image while
                   the use of curved lines creates an illusion of plumpness
                   and mass.

                   Thus, two similar objects may have different illusions
                   due to the use of lines.
Smudge
Smudging is a drawing technique dealing with proper blending. Smudging is easy to do;
you simply draw an object and start shading it with the kind of value you want it to have
and blending it properly with the use of a tissue, cotton puffs or paper towel.

Pointillism
Pointillism known otherwise as divisionism or stippling
is a technique of grouping together dots to create an
image or filling an image using dots.

The rule of the thumb is that the closer that you
position the dots, the darker that portion that is in your
drawing. Pointillists do the reverse by drawing the
foreground before filling the inside.

Pointillism is a very slow form of art because technically
speaking, filling an image with the use of dots is a very
monotonous process.
Basic Perspectives in Drawing
An Introduction on Perspectives
One can see realism in a drawing with the application of perspectives in drawing. The
idea or concept of perspectives came with the idea of having sets of images that appear
coherent and consistent in one piece of art.

Linear Perspective
Linear perspective is a realistic
method of portraying objects with a
visual depth. The rule of the thumb
though is that the farther the object
is, the smaller it becomes and
conversely, the nearer the object is,
the bigger it becomes.

In linear perspective, there are
parallel lines receding into a
particular distance where the lines seem to converge until these parallel lines meet at a
point in a horizon where they disappear, called the vanishing point.
Zero Point Perspective
Since vanishing points exist only with the presence of parallel lines, then for non-linear
illustrations where there are parallel lines in the scene, then there could be no vanishing
points and thus called zero perspective drawings. Most natural scenes like a range of
mountains are typical illustrations of zero perspective drawings though these drawings
may still create an illusion of depth on the viewer’s eyes.

One Point Perspective
One-point perspective
drawings refer to those with
only one vanishing point that
are often than not directly
opposite to the eye of the
viewer. In one-point
perspective, parallel lines,
parallel to the eye of the
viewer, retreat towards a
certain point in the space
called a vanishing point. This
often illustrated by
illustrations of roads and
railway tracks, and hallways that recede at a vanishing point as illustrated.


Sample drawing of a box with the use of one point perspective.

1. Draw a horizon line or that line in the plane
where the sky meets the earth.



2. From your horizon line, choose a vanishing point
that can be the center, near right or near left.
3. From your vanishing point, draw one top line and
one bottom line with the top line much longer than
your bottom line and this would create the illusion
of depth later on. These lines will form the sides of
the box.



4. Draw two vertical lines that would connect your
top line and your bottom line.

5. Then draw the front of the box by drawing two horizontal lines of same length from
the top to the bottom to the closest wall to it.

6. Then connect these two horizontal lines by dropping a vertical line on the other side.
Two-Point Perspective
1. Draw your horizon line on the plane.

2. Instead of one point, mark two points, which
will serve as your vanishing points on the horizon
line preferably on the right and the left side of
the horizon line.

3. Draw your construction grid by finding below
your horizon line the middle. The middle is the
point where all the lines coming from the
vanishing points meet.

4. Draw six lines coming from each of the
vanishing points passing the middle.

5. Draw your middle vertical line that is at 90-
degree angle with your horizon line, which will
serve as the corner of your box.

6. Draw the top and the bottom lines connecting
your middle vertical line to each of your vanishing
points.

7. From your middle vertical line, draw one vertical
line to the right and another to the left depending
on how you want your box to look, as these would
determine the length and width of your box.

8. From your vanishing points, draw the line
connecting your right vanishing point to the left
vertical line and your left vanishing point to the
right vertical line.

By now, you figure out the two-point
perspective box. You may now start shading
your two-point perspective box and erase grid
lines passing inside the box.
Three Point Perspective
Three-Point Perspective is often used in
architectural drawing using lines parallel to the
Cartesian axes x, y, and z. This perspective finds
relevance in drawing buildings.


Isometric Perspective
This refers to a perspective where distant
objects and figures become smaller but the
parallel lines do not converge. What happens to
be that lines that are perpendicular to the plane
become sharp diagonals as drawn thus turning
the squares or rectangles into parallelogram.




Atmospheric Perspective
Atmospheric perspective or aerial perspective
expresses nature in their distance. It simply
stated, objects perceived to often appear as
blurred, misty looking, and in distinctive or
hazy looking to the eye.

As shown in landscape drawings, distant
objects appear in purple or bluish color and
the same is true with respect to the color of
the sky. Color pencil drawings and watercolor
pencil drawings often use this kind of perspective.
Basic Drawing Shapes
Using basic shapes will help you create
drawings. Break down the object that
you are trying to draw into basic
shapes.

Since, these basic shapes will serve as
your outline; do not make these basic
shapes dark.

Making the outline light will make it               Car closely following the basic outline
easier to erase it. Sometimes, you do
not even have to erase it if it is too light!

Once you have drawn the basic shapes,
do not closely follow the basic shapes.
If you draw following the basic shape
down to the last detail, your drawing
will look very rigid and amateurish.

Remember that the outline is not the
product of the drawing; it is there to
guide you to draw the object in a more
precise.
                                                Car that did not follow the basic outline
You can deviate a little from your
outline. Here are drawings using the
basic shapes of a rectangle, trapezoid
and circles.




                                                Car that did not follow the basic outline
Basic shapes do not have to be the perfect or equilateral triangle, a perfect square or a
perfect circle. These shapes have variations like the triangle being isosceles or scalene,
the square becoming a rectangle, diamond, trapezoid or parallelogram or the circle
becoming an oval.




To look at three dimensional, these basic shapes can become cones or boxes.




You can also use basic shapes for eyes and faces, especially with cartoons. Look at the
drawings below.
Basic Elements of Light, Shadows, and Shading

Light, Shadows and Shadow Box
Light and shadow are important in giving more life to a drawing by adding a certain
atmosphere and dimension to it. In the real world, you can see a shadow in almost
everything, which makes placing shadows on drawings more realistic, as putting
shadows is also another way of adding perspective on an object.

This is where a shadow box finds importance since it shows how a shadow changes its
direction and shapes given a particular source of light. Artists specially those drawing
still objects make use of the shadow box to get a realistic picture of how light affects the
direction of shadows and how to draw the proper shadings and shadows. Shadow boxes
find usage in most pencil, color pencil and perspective shadow drawings.

Shading and shading techniques, on the other hand, are important to avoid your
drawings from looking flat. Shading allows you to create a shape and form. Shading
techniques create illusions that will make drawings more realistic.

Imagine sunlight hitting different objects, with the shadows formed; there is no even
illumination on the object. The darker shades in the drawing give people the impression
that it has depth while lighter areas give people the illusion of raised portion.

Translating reality to your drawings can take a lot of practice. Think of the direction of
the sun and how light and shadows would interplay in the object. Parts of the object
that is nearer to the sun will naturally be brighter than those that are farther away from
it. Start with applying pressure on the pencil and slowly easing up the pressure to make
it lighter. Gradual change in pressure will make the tones look smooth.
Constructing a Simple Shadow box
Materials:
Cardboard box (20x20x16 inches)
Ruler
Pencil
Paint (white color)
Paint Brush
Double sided or heavy-duty tapes
Board cutter

Steps:
1. With your cutter, take away the front cover flaps of your box.

2. On the width of the box, draw a horizontal line on the bottom part at about 3 inches
and on the sides draw vertical lines 2 ½ inches. Then take your cutter and start cutting
out the portion as shown in the drawing.

3. Tape the bottom flaps of the box to prepare it for
painting.

4. Start painting from inside the box, the three sides
and the bottom with white paint preferably acrylic
gesso so that it dries fast.

5. Leave under paint dries.
Kinds and Quality of Light

Hard Light
Hard light is that which comes from one light source that is far from the subject and this
light produces both the highlights and the hard-edged shadows. Among the sources of
hard light are the direct sunlight on a very bright day, the standard camera flash, the
naked bulb with clear glass and many others. The use of hard light provides a moody
and striking effect.

Soft light
The soft light is more subtle and creates softer shadows than hard lights. Often,
household bulbs and bulbs used in photography make use of soft light as it has tendency
to hide imperfections. In drawing, soft lights create regular shadows.
Basic Elements of Shading

The Highlight or Full Light
There is full light when the light hits straight an object that reflects the brightest areas in
your drawing.


The Cast Shadow
This refers to those areas in the drawing, which is darkest and requires more shading.
Cast shadow occurs in completely light blocked places where objects inside cast
shadows on other surfaces.

The Halftone
It in addition, called the midtone that refers to those areas just in between the dark and
light areas and appears to have gray value.

Midtone reflects the true consistency in terms of an object’s color.
The Reflected Light
This light is near white or very light gray but not totally white and is important in
projecting a dimension on an object. This is the light reflected to an object from its
nearby surfaces.

The Shadow Edge
Those areas found just in between the midtone and the reflected light.



Different Shading Techniques

Regular Shading
Moving the pencil from left to right or top to bottom produces
this shading technique.




Irregular Shading
As opposed to the regular shading, the pencil's
direction in irregular shading changes at intervals.




Circular Shading
Instead of making straight lines or making irregular
strokes, a circular motion is used.




Directional Shading
Two directions are used in shading, although, they
should not overlap each other.
How to Add Tones and Values?
In shading, the proper lighting and shadowing is very important to make your drawings
look three-dimensional and closer to reality. First, imagine the position of the light
source. After this, you can determine the direction for the shadow as well as its size and
shape.

Here is an illustration of a shaded pole from a certain source of light.




When you apply shading to your drawing, always remember that nothing should be all
black or all white. In many drawings with shadings, the light parts contrasted against the
black look white but these are very light shades of gray. There are tones in between
white and black, referred to as half tones.

Below are computer-generated half tones. It is computer generated to let you see the
clear distinctions between the shades.
This rectangle is the outcome of putting together all the half tones.




These half tones give out the illusion of shape. Notice how shadings can substantially
change a drawing. Notice how drawings on the left look bland and boring as it against
the drawings on the right.


Some Tips on Tones and Values
In shading, it is better to use a blunt pencil than a very sharp one.

Use B pencils since they are darker and will give enough depth in your drawings. Once
you start shading, pressure applied changes gradually since the shading must appear or
look even.

Make your strokes near to each other that it will be difficult to notice the different
strokes.

Do not over shade the drawing because it will be easier to add tones than remove them
by eraser.

Do not draw definite outlines when you want to shade because shading makes use of
light and dark to create form.
Some Examples on Shading




  Unshaded Eggplant        Shaded Eggplant




   Unshaded Pepper            Shaded Pepper
FINISHING TOUCHES
Erasing and Dusting
Once you have completed your drawings, you need to erase our outline and excessive
lines. Do not just grab any eraser available.

As once mentioned in this ebook, there are different types of erasers with different
capabilities. Erasers made from pumice can erase those excessive lines but too much
usage of the pumice erased in one spot will damage the paper. Sometimes, it can smear
too. Pumice erasers leave a lot of residue, if it does be careful in wiping away those
particles.

It is important to use brushes in wiping away eraser residue because wiping them with
your bare fingers will leave oils or tend to smudge the drawings, especially if you have
sweaty fingers. The brush is a great solution in wiping away those particles, or you can
simply let the particles’ slide out of the paper by tilting the paper and lightly shaking it.

Soft vinyl erasers are a better than pumice erasers, since they do not cause damage on
the paper. Use this eraser when erasing light marks, and if you need to erase details.

Use the gum eraser if you need to erase a large part of your drawing. Since gum eraser
is soft and coarse, it is not a very precise eraser. Use a brush to dust away whatever
residue is present if ever it leaves residue.

Use the kneaded eraser if you need to make highlights or erase in a precise manner. You
can shape this type of eraser to the form that you want it to be, thereby making it easier
to erase small areas. Do not use the kneaded eraser with large areas. The kneaded
eraser absorbs articles of the graphite on the paper. Once the kneaded erasure is
saturated, it will not erase, instead, it will smear the paper.

Once you have erased the unnecessary lines or smudges, your drawing is now ready for
the world to see and admire! Using a graphite pencil in drawing will only give you a
monochromatic effect. Sometimes, that is not enough to create the picture you want to
make.

Using color will bring wonders to your black and white world of pencil drawing. Colors
will help you achieve the depth and visual effect that cannot attain by using a single
color. In using a color pencil or watercolor pencils, the basics in pencil drawing are still
used. You can still use your color pencils for shading, hatching or cross-hatching. A
notable technique with a How to Add Tones and Values?
In shading, the proper lighting and shadowing is very important to make your drawings
look three-dimensional and closer to reality. First, imagine the position of the light
source. After this, you can determine the direction for the shadow as well as its size and
shape.

Here is an illustration of a shaded pole from a certain source of light.

When you apply shading to your drawing, always remember that nothing should be all
black or all white. In many drawings with shadings, the light parts contrasted against the
black look white but these are very light shades of gray. There are tones in between
white and black, referred to as half tones.

Below are computer-generated half tones. It is computer generated to let you see the
clear distinctions between the shades.

This rectangle is the outcome of putting together, all the half tones.

These half tones give out the illusion of shape. Notice how shadings can substantially
change a drawing. Notice how drawings on the left look bland and boring as it against
the drawings on the right.


Some Tips on Tones and Values

In shading, it is better to use a blunt pencil than a very sharp one.

Use B pencils since they are darker and will give enough depth in your drawings. Once
you start shading, pressure applied changes gradually since the shading must appear or
look even.

Make your strokes near to each other that it will be difficult to notice the different
strokes.

Do not over shade the drawing because it will be easier to add tones than remove them
by eraser.

Do not draw definite outlines when you want to shade because shading makes use of
light and dark to create form.

Some Examples on Shading

FINISHING TOUCHES

Erasing and Dusting
Once you have completed your drawings, you need to erase our outline and excessive
lines. Do not just grab any eraser available.
As once mentioned in this ebook, there are different types of erasers with different
capabilities. Erasers made from pumice can erase those excessive lines but too much
usage of the pumice erased in one spot will damage the paper. Sometimes, it can be
smear too. Pumice erasers leave a lot of residue, if it does be careful in wiping away
those particles.

It is important to use brushes in wiping away eraser residue because wiping them with
your bare fingers will leave oils or tend to smudge the drawings especially if you have
sweaty fingers. The brush is a great solution in wiping away those particles or you can
simply let the particles slide out of the paper by tilting the paper and lightly shaking it.

Soft vinyl erasers are a better than pumice erasers since they do not cause damage on
the paper. Use this eraser when erasing light marks and if you need to erase details.

Use the gum eraser if you need to erase a large part of your drawing. Since gum eraser
is soft and coarse, it is not a very precise eraser. Use a brush to dust away whatever
residue is present if ever it leaves residue.

Use the kneaded eraser if you need to make highlights or erase in a precise manner. You
can shape this type of eraser to the form that you want it to be, thereby making it easier
to erase small areas. Do not use the kneaded eraser with large areas. The kneaded
eraser absorbs articles of the graphite on the paper. Once the kneaded erasure is
saturated, it will not erase, instead, it will smear the paper.

Once you have erased the unnecessary lines or smudges, your drawing is now ready for
the world to see and admire! Using graphite pencil in drawing will only give you a
monochromatic effect. Sometimes, that is not enough to create the picture you want to
make.

Using color will bring wonders to your black and white world of pencil drawing. Colors
will help you achieve the depth and visual effect that cannot attain by using a single
color. In using color pencil or watercolor pencils, the basics in pencil drawing are still
used. You can still use your color pencils for shading, hatching or cross-hatching. A
notable technique with color pencil is burnishing. It means a smooth surface will result
because of layering colored pencil. Using a single color or multiple colors when
employing these techniques will help create a realistic piece.color pencil is burnishing. It
means a smooth surface will result because of layering colored pencil. Using a single
color or multiple colors when employing these techniques will help create a realistic
piece.
MIXED MEDIA APPLICATIONS
How a color pencil can bring wonders in your black and
white world
Using a graphite pencil in drawing will only give you a
monochromatic effect.

Sometimes, that is not enough to create the picture
you want to make. Using color will bring wonders to
your black and white world of pencil drawing.

Colors will help you achieve the depth and visual
effect that cannot attain by using a single color.

In using a color pencil or watercolor pencils, the basics
in pencil drawing are still used. You can still use your
color pencils for shading, hatching or cross-hatching. A
notable technique with a color pencil is burnishing.

It means a smooth surface will result because of
layering colored pencil. Using a single color or multiple
colors when employing these techniques will help
create a realistic piece.

Since colors are involved, not only do you need to
have basic knowledge on the tips and techniques on
pencil drawing, a basic knowledge of the color wheel may help you in creating a great
color pencil drawing.

The ideal paper needed when making a drawing using color pencil is a fine-toothed
paper. With this, it is easier to achieve blending and burnishing because a fine-toothed
paper has less patchiness than ordinary paper.

Color pencils maybe crayon pencils or watercolor pencils. Color pencils come from wax
cores. The advantage of using a crayon pencil is that it does not smudge as much.

Watercolor pencils have more or less the same effects with watercolor. Often, the usage
of these pencils is for making outlines as well as for bold lines. You can saturate the
pencil with water or wet a brush and start spreading color.
Look at the drawings below.



Practice Exercise:
Color Pencil Drawing - Plant
Starting with the basic shapes of
triangles or squares to help you outline
the drawing.




                                                   Filling in the details will make your
                                                   drawings more realistic.




Application of shading to the drawing gives it a
certain form and depth.




                                               Take your drawing a step further by
                                               adding color. Drawings look more alive
                                               with colors.
Using Watercolor Pencils and Oil Pencils
If you are braving enough to try watercolor painting or oil painting, grabbing some of
those watercolor pencils and oil pencils will give a good start on another painting
medium.

The use of both watercolor pencils and oil pencils helps define your drawings.

Watercolor Pencils
Just like your ordinary pencils and colored pencils, you
can sharpen and erase drawings you make from
watercolor pencils. The difference lies in the not applying
the dried colors in these pencils but by adding water to
these pencils. The followings drawings employ some of
the techniques of using watercolor pencils.

1. Wetting your watercolor pencil tips, either by
dampening it with a wet brush or by dipping it in water,
before drawing for you to draw intense colored lines.
Later on you would see that lines become lighter and
thinner as the pencil dries out; or

                               2. Brushing the drawing
                               surface with enough water
                               and then drawing with your pencil; or

                               3. Using a brush to pick
                               up color from the pencil
                               and then brushing on the
                               drawing surface as the
                               colors; or

                               4. Drawing on the surface
                               with watercolor pencil
                               and then brushing the
                               surface with water so
                               that water dissolves the
                               lines of the pencil; and

                               5. Scraping the colors
from the pencil and sprinkling it on the drawing surface
and dripping, enough water to allow it to spread.
Practice Exercise:

Watercolor Pencil Drawings - Landscape
STEP 1



                                            Step 1: Draw the
                                                 outline




                                                Step 3:
                                         Enhance your landscape
                                          drawing by coloring it
                                                  with
Practice Exercise:
Watercolor Pencil Drawings – Forest



   STEP 1
   Draw the forest’s outline.




   STEP 2
   Fill in the details of the
   trees and shade the dark
   areas of the forest.




    STEP 3
    Enhance your forest
    with colors using your
    watercolor pencils.
Oil Colored Pencils
Oil colored pencils are among the new coloring materials of kids nowadays since these
are not messy to handle just like colored pencils. Oil Colored pencils are perfect for art
works that require some highlight and shading to do.

These pencils are interesting as well because of the wide range of surfaces that one can
use such as paper Mache, canvas, and fabrics and even as fillers of scratch surfaces on
your furniture.

You can use the oil colored pencil by drawing in lines or in circular motion, taking note
that the intensity of color produced depends on the pressure you apply on the pencil.

Today, these pencils are available in a variety of shades that you need not worry of the
intensity since you can choose from a number of pencils shades that range from light to
dark.

One of the characteristics of oil colored pencils is that colors are easy to blend. Just like
pencils, you can correct errors by simply sanding off the surface with wrong
applications.

After making your drawing, apply a sealer or a fixative to seal the drawing and make
sure you are not applying to varnish over this oil colored pencils since varnish will cause
the colors to spread around and smear on the surface.
Drawing with Pencils in Oil Painting
Oil painting refers to draw with the application of oil based paints to drawing surfaces.
Traditionally, oil painting has its roots in early European arts that became more
acceptable than its early counterparts of wax and water- soluble media.

Due to its oil base, oil paintings take time to dry and some pieces even take months to
dry. The positive aspect though is that oil paintings have very slight difference in colors
from the time these were still wet up to the time they dry up.

However, not unless you are a skilled painter in oil-based paintings, or you are an
abstract artist; you may need to sharpen first your pencil drawing skills before you
become a full-grown oil painter.

Unknown to many, even skilled oil painters have to do some drawing and sketching with
their pencils and charcoals before they actually paint.

Traditionally, oil painting procedures make use of sketching first the design thereby
making sure that once they start oil painting, they know that the image as they want it
to appear on the canvas or on the surface is well in place.

In fact, some artists make use of shading techniques in order to highlight portions in the
drawing that oil paints are not able to do.

Pencils are preferred though as compared to charcoal, as pencil marks are easier to
cover. As a tip though, make sure that after making the sketch with a pencil, seal the
canvas by using a clear acrylic paint to prevent smearing once you apply the paint.
Pen and Ink Drawing
Practice Exercise:
Drawing Count Von Roo




          Step1: Draw one big circle
           for count Von Roo’s head
           and three small circles for
         the ears and the nose. Draw
          the cross lines for the face
          and the outline of his cape.
          Draw the curve lines of the
            ears, cheeks and nose.
          Lastly, draw the outline of
                 his right arm.



Artists may use a pen and ink in drawing.
Permanency of the ink is its strength as well
as its weakness.

In using a pen and ink, one has to be very
precise with the strokes because unlike
pencils where you can make erasures, ink is
permanent.

These drawings will last for many years to
come.

Drawings in ink are darker than the ones done
with pencils hence ink drawings look more
attractive to the eyes.

One cannot use the ink for outline or rough
sketch of a drawing because of its permanent
and dark nature.
         STEP 2: Draw the eyes of
         count Von Roo. Make his
        tail looking bouncy and his
           cape looking tattered.
          Draw the eyebrows and
         eye hollows of Count Von
          Roo. Near his nose tip,
        draw a small circle for the
              clasp of his cape.



Pens involved in this technique in drawing
may be dip pens or reservoir pens. Dip
pens are those that you need to dip into
the ink.

The nib of this type of pen is flexible and
has different forms. Within the category
of dip pens are reed, quill and metal pens.
Inks used are drawing inks or India ink.

Reservoir pens save the user from dipping
the nib of the pen to the ink. Ink
constantly flows from the reservoir
cartridge to the nib of the pen once the
nib is moved against the paper.

The Chinese uses ink sticks, which
produce works of art that lasts for many
years. The Chinese grind these sticks and
add water.
                   STEP 3
        Draw the details of Count
        Von Roo’s ears, nose, and
        clasp of his coat. Draw the
            cap and the triangle-
           shaped fang. Draw his
          fingers and the lines of
        the cape. Erase the pencil
         outlines and color Count
                 Von Roo.



Use the 'sketching pen' because it has
the best of both worlds. Its nib is not
that hard as ordinary reservoir pens
but it has the ink flow consistency of
reservoir pens.

Some use fiber-tipped markers
because they make good medium for
sketching.

Pen and ink is akin to calligraphy.
Artists mix calligraphy into their
drawings especially with caricatures.

Many are able to make caricatures
entirely in ink while some comic strips
incorporate ink as part of its medium.

For many people, a pen may just be a
writing instrument but for artists, a
pen is a tool for great art.
How Pencil Drawing Can Help in Your Wall Painting
Murals and wall paintings have its origins in early French and Mexican history where
muralista movement rose in popularity often having used as a social tool to educate the
broad mass of people with respect to political issues and trends through the art.

At present, though wall paintings nowadays are gaining popularity in individual homes
transforming and adding a different mood and atmosphere to ordinary rooms and
spaces in the house. Wall painting is common in nurseries, children’s bedroom
transformed to a fantasy world and entertainment area in the house.

One of the basic characteristics of wall painting is its large size and somehow it is both
an advantage and a disadvantage since you may have a big space to work on, but on the
other side, that huge space may be hard to manage as well.

In fact, once you start painting on the wall with your brushes right away, you may end
up committing irreversible mistakes that require you to repaint and prepare the wall
again for painting. This is where pencil drawing comes to the rescue you from getting
into this trouble.

Most wall painting commissions nowadays make use of the so-called drawing grids and
pencil outlines on the walls before laying their paint brushes on these walls to save paint
materials, time, and to have more accuracy in their murals.

There are different ways though of making the grid lines for your wall painting. The
more traditional one is by using a pencil and dividing the walls into grids and the more
modern approach is with the use of projector by projecting a readymade grid unto the
wall.

Most artists though prefer to use the traditional method, especially for outdoor wall
paintings since the use of projector is quite expensive for long hours of use in a large
painting endeavor. Some use the projector, though to make the drawing by pencil on
the wall much easier and faster.

Here is a systematic method of drawing the grids for your wall painting through pencil.

1. You need to conceptualize your design and how large is. Then, you need to scale the
designs into grids with the use of a ruler to show how exactly it should appear on the
wall.

2. Do the same thing on the wall by measuring and marking off the corresponding grids
on the wall converting the smaller scales in your image to bigger squares on the wall.
Here you would need a level to check if the lines, both vertical and horizontal, are
straight enough.

3. Try to familiarize the grids of the small
image with the grids on the wall and
start drawing the image on the large wall
with the use of a pencil making a good
hand and eye coordination here.




                                               4. Once you are able to draw the image on the
                                               wall, it is now time to erase the grid lines and
                                               let the pencil drawing remain as your painting
                                               guide.




5. Paint your wall design with a fast
drying acrylic paint and a flat brush
making sure that you paint first the large
areas. Do the detailed and smaller areas
with the use of a round brush.

6. Leave the wall painted wall until it
dries and then start erasing the pencil
drawings.
Cartoon Drawing
Cartooning and Cartoon drawing refers to drawings that often have humorous and even
satirical connotations printed on various media such as newspapers, magazines, and
even the world of film.

The word cartoon has an Italian origin from the word ‘cartone’ meaning pasteboard or
the preparatory sketch for images. The cartoni or the sketches were part of early
Renaissance mural arts, which served as drawings on paper used as guides for the
frescoed drawings.

Cartoons may refer to animated cartoons, comic cartoons, editorial cartoons, gag
cartoon and the illustrative cartoons.



Cartoon Drawing Techniques
The creation of modern cartoons starts with the cartoonists making sketches with the
use of pencils, pens or computer software.

For not so technically perceptive individuals, it is better to use pencils because it is
easier to make corrections without producing as many scratch papers as the pen.

Just like pencil drawing, pencil line drawing techniques and shading techniques are of
great help.

Crosshatching is one of the most common techniques used to create the light and
shadows of the cartoon drawing. Pointillism, on the other hand, is another way of
shading areas in these cartoons.

Thus, mastery of basic pencil drawing technique is your tool to becoming the next
famous cartoonist.
Practice Exercise:
Cartoon Drawing - UNI


                                        STEP 1: Draw three big circles and
                                        make two smaller circles. Draw the
                                        connecting guidelines between the
                                        large circles.
                                        Then connect the head and body
                                        with curved lines.
                                        Start drawing the outline of the legs.
                                        Make two smaller circles for the
                                        hooves of Uni.




  STEP 2: Make the cone, the mouth,
  the snout and the cheek of Uni. On
  the earlier circles for the hooves,
  draw two more circles. Draw the
  curves of the legs. Draw two leaves
  shape for Uni’s ears and make his
  wings. Draw the details of the eyes
  and nostrils.
                             STEP 3: Draw Uni’s tail and
                             floppy mane and make the
                             wings, tail and hair look
                             feathery…




STEP 4: Finish your Uni by
adding colors and erasing
extra pencil marks.
Tips on How to Draw Faster
Drawing is so enjoyable that it is easy to forget time. However, does it take you hours to
complete one simple drawing?

It takes you hours, not because you are enjoying the whole process, but because you are
struggling to complete a drawing?

There are artists who can draw at lightning speed and have the very good results. The
key to their ability is practice. As the first tip, try giving yourself a time limit and draw as
much as you can.

Do not concern yourself much with the details since the main goal is to produce as much
as you can.

While you are out waiting, try to drawing objects and people moving around. Sketching,
with basic shapes, helps you fill in the details later.

Remember that in drawing fast, you are not trying to replicate everything, but you are
trying to make something that resembles the object you are trying to draw.

Once you got the basic shapes, you can easily put the details when you have more time.

Practice everyday and increase your capacity. For example, in the first week, you may
just be able to draw basic shapes in 30 seconds.

In the second week, try to force yourself to add more details within 30 seconds. If you
want to make a detailed and precise drawing, then it is best to take your time with it.

At first, everything will look worse than a child's drawing but overtime, you will learn to
pace yourself and improve your technique.
CONCLUSION
Discussed and illustrated in this ebook
are the basics of pencil drawing. Do not
stop with this ebook.

Hone your skills by doing practice
exercises.

Practice as much as you can and, let
your creativity take control.

Draw everyday objects as well as your
surreal visions and see what beauty you
can create.

One can do so many things with one’s
skills in drawing.

One can draw to pass the time, tell
stories, or make others happy.

Some make a living by selling their
drawings.

Once you have grappled with the basics of pencil drawing, expand your skills by
venturing into other fields in visual arts such as watercolor, charcoal and oil painting.

It will equally be as fun and challenging as with pencil drawing.