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					           Measures From the Study of Adolescents' Interpretation of the
                                'Social Contract'




                                          Connie Flanagan
                                 The Pennsylvania State University
                              336 Agricultural Administration Building
                                  University Park, PA 16802-2601
                                EMAIL: CFLANAGAN@PSU.EDU
                             (814) 863-7425         Fax: (814) 863-4753




Note: This survey was developed in conjunction with colleagues from six other countries for a 7-
nation comparative study. Scales listed in this document are based on factor analyses of the data from
the sample of adolescents in the United States only.
                                                                  Social Contract Study, 2
                                         Family Measures

The next statements refer to families. When you think about your own family,
choose a number to show how strongly you agree or disagree with each statement.


1                     2                     3                        4                         5
Strongly           Disagree           Somewhat Agree                Agree                 Strongly
Disagree                             Somewhat Disagree                                      Agree


                                                                                   Alphas


       Compassion     (facaroth)                                                              .74
My parents have taught me to be helpful to others, especially those who are less fortunate.
My parents get upset when they hear about harm or injustice being done to others.
My parents have taught me to be aware of other people’s feelings and needs.
My parents have taught me to pay attention to other people’s needs, not just my own.


      Lessons About Prejudice (faprjdce)                                                      .72
My parents have taught me it is wrong to judge people before you get to know them.
My parents have taught me to treat people as individuals.
My parents have told me about people who have struggled to get where they are.
My parents have told me there might be times when people will be prejudiced against me.
My parents have warned me that I may face some barriers when I try to get a job.


       Ethic of Self Reliance/Rugged Individualism (fa2xhard)                                 .69
My parents tell me if I don’t succeed in life, I’ll have only myself to blame.
My parents have told me I should be ready to work twice as hard as other people if I
want to get a job.
My parents have told me you can’t blame others for your problems.
My parents have told me I’d better be able to support myself when I get older.
My parents want me to have a better life than they had.
My parents have told me you have to create your own opportunities. Nobody hands them to you.


      Social Vigilance or Cautious Mistrust (falokout)                                        .70
My parents encourage me to stick up for my rights if anybody tries to push me around.
My parents have warned me that people sometimes take advantage of you.
My parents have taught me to know who my friends and enemies are.
My parents have warned me you can’t always trust people.



                                                        2
                                                               Social Contract Study, 3
       Family Discussions of Current Events and Politics (fapoldsc)                     .80
In my house we have many discussions about current events and politics.
My parents discuss what’s happening in the world with me.
I tell my parents my opinions about events in the news.
I am interested in the news.
Sometimes I have different opinions from my parents about current events.
Sometimes I argue with my parents about current events.


       Close/Connected Family (faclose)                                                .68
Our family has always done a lot of things together
I would rather spend time with my friends than my family
My parents and I are very close.
My parents and I are more like friends than like a parent and child.


        Familial Support (fahelpme)                                                    .74
My parents will help me financially as long as I need their help.
Whatever happens in my future, my family will always “be there” to help me out.
In the future if I lose my job my family will probably help me out.


       Parental Respect for Adolescent’s Point of View (famyview)                      .62
If I give them a good reason, my parents will sometimes change their rules.
If I don't want to do something, my parents will listen to my point of view.




                                                         3
                                                                        Social Contract Study, 4


                                                School practices

NOW THINK ABOUT WHAT HAPPENS IN YOUR SCHOOL.
How strongly do you agree or disagree with each statement below?


1                        2                          3                        4                        5
Strongly             Disagree              Somewhat Agree            Agree                 Strongly
Disagree                                 Somewhat Disagree                                Agree


        Teachers Respect and Care About Students (sctchrsp)                                     .71
Teachers want students to express their own opinions, even if they disagree with the teacher
Teachers listen to students’ ideas about how to improve classes.
Teachers really care about the students.


       Equitable Treatment of Students (sctchblv)                                               .34
Teachers are mainly interested in the smartest students. (R)
The teachers believe that everyone can learn if they try.


        School Pride (scpride)                                                                  .64
Most students take pride in our school.
Everyone tries to keep the school looking good.
Students seem to care about each other, even people they don't know very well.
Students only care about their friends. (R)
Most students look out for themselves rather than helping others. (R)


        Democratic Practices of Schools                 (scfamsay)
             .74
Students have a say in how the school is run.
Parents have a say in how the school is run.




                                                               4
                                                                     Social Contract Study, 5
People have different ideas about how schools should be organized and the
best ways for students to learn. What are your opinions about the following statements?


                        2                        3                          4                      5
Strongly            Disagree             Somewhat Agree                Agree                Strongly
Disagree                                Somewhat Disagree                                   Agree



        Commitment to Academic Tracking (sshtrkgd)                                           .61
Different levels of classes are needed because some students are smarter than others
It’s good for schools to have advanced classes for the smartest students.


        Commitment to Student Autonomy (sshautn)                                             .59
Students become better thinkers if they are sometimes allowed to disagree with
their teachers' ideas.
Students should have a say in how their school is run.


        Education Should Promote Social Tolerance (ssothlng)                                 .47
All students should learn a second language so they can communicate with people
who don't speak English.
Schools should teach students how to get along with others who are different from them.


       Commitment to Competitive Grading Practices (sshcmpgr)                                .74
Competition for grades makes students work harder.
Grades are necessary. Students have to be realistic about how smart they are.
Competition in school helps students learn what competition in life will be like.

    Commitment to Cooperative Learning (sscoplrn)                                            .51
It should be everybody's responsibility to help others when they need help.
Teachers should tell students who understand the lessons to help other students
who may be having problems.
Students learn more when they work together than when they work on their own.




                                                           5
                                                                      Social Contract Study, 6
Some people think it’s a good idea for students to help each other with school work. Other people think
it’s not such a good idea. Here are some things people have said. What are your opinions?



1                       2                         3                        4                          5
Strongly            Disagree              Somewhat Agree              Agree                   Strongly
Disagree                                Somewhat Disagree                               Agree



    Cooperative Learning Practices are Self-Defeating (ssindlrn)                                .70
If students help each other, they might never become independent learners.
If students work as a group, some students wouldn't do their share of the work.
If one student helps another student, s/he might not get her own work done.
Working on school work together would allow some students to be lazy.
Working on school work together would be unfair to the smarter students.
Students should take most classes with kids who are about as smart as they are.




                                                           6
                                                                      Social Contract Study, 7
                                  Importance of Future Achievements

When you think about your life and your future, how important is each of the following for you personally
to achieve?
1                       2                          3                       4                           5
Not at all        Not Important         Somewhat Important              Important                Very
Important                                                                                     Important


Commitments to Civil Society:
A.  To My Community (fucommun)                                                                  .92


Helping to improve my community
Doing something to improve the community


B.       To the Society and Country (fusocnty)                                                   .73


Doing something worthwhile for society
Helping my country


C.                                      Fupolitc


Being active in politics


D. Leadership and Authority (Futlead)                                                            .47

Having influence on other people
Having position of authority


Measure E.                              Fulsfort


Helping those who are less fortunate




                                                           7
                                                        Social Contract Study, 8

Importance of Other Future Commitments/Achievements

To Family/Friends     (fufrfmly)
Being close to my family
Getting married
Having close friends
Having a safe place to raise my kids


To Job (fuscrty)                                                                .72
Having a secure job
Having a successful career
Getting the job I want


To Exploring Possibilities (fuexplor)                                           .55
Exploring different careers
Traveling to other countries
Having a lot of free time to do what I want


To environmental Sustainability        (fuenvrnt)                               .78
Doing something to stop pollution
Protecting animals
Preserving the earth for future generations


To Material Success    (fumatsuc)                                               .83
Earning a lot of money
Having nice clothes
Having a nice home




                                                    8
                                                                   Social Contract Study, 9
                                   Personal Philosophy



People have different beliefs or philosophies about life. Here are some things others
have said. How strongly do you agree or disagree? Choose a number for each
statement to show what you think.


1                     2                       3                       4                       5
Strongly           Disagree             Somewhat Agree               Agree               Strongly
Disagree                               Somewhat Disagree                                   Agree



         Altruism (phaltrui)                                                               .72
I would be willing to have fewer luxuries (like nice cars, clothes, or fancy houses)
if that would help starving people in other countries.
 I would be willing to have fewer luxuries if that would preserve the earth for
 future generations.
Before I make a decision I try to think about how it will affect others.
In the future when I’m an adult, I would be willing to pay taxes to help the poor or
homeless.
I get mad if I see someone being treated badly.
In the future when I’m an adult, I would be willing to work fewer hours and earn less
income if that would create jobs for unemployed people.


     Competition (phcompgd)                                                                .64
Competition in school prepares you for competition in life.
Competition for jobs leads to better performance among workers.


       Social vigilance/distrust    (phlokout)                                             .48
Kindness is a good thing but you should be careful about who you're kind to.
I feel that you have to look out for yourself in life. You can’t expect society
 to take care of you.
If you're a trusting person, people might take advantage of you.




                                                         9
                                                                 Social Contract Study, 10
                                How a Society Should be Organized

People have different views about the best way for a society to be organized.
Here are some things others have said. What are your views?
Remember there are no right or wrong answers, just opinions.


1                     2                      3                        4                         5
Strongly           Disagree            Somewhat Agree                Agree                 Strongly
Disagree                              Somewhat Disagree                                      Agree


       Social Welfare State (shwlfrst)                                                     .66
If people lose their jobs, the government should support them until they find new jobs.
The government should make sure everyone has a place to live, whether a person
can pay or not.
Society should give financial help to families who are raising children.
Some people aren't as smart as others. Society should make sure they don't end up
being poorer.
The government should provide basic services such as health care and legal services
to everyone, free of charge.
A democratic society cannot survive unless all people have basics like food and housing.


        Government Programs Promote Dependency (shdpndc)                                   .72
When the government provides services for free, people tend to get lazy.
When the government provides services for free, people tend to cheat.
If people have children, they should find a way to support them. They shouldn’t rely
on society for help.
There are too many people getting something for nothing in society.


       Progressive Tax System     (shprgtax)                                               .40
The more money a person earns, the more taxes s/he should pay.
If people who earn more money have to pay more taxes, they might not work so hard.
The less money a person earns, the less s/he should have to pay for health care.


         Commitment to Meritocracy (shrchpor)                                              .43
It’s not right for there to be rich and poor people in a society. There should be more
equality. (R)
A society should place no limits on the amount of income a person can earn.
It’s only natural to have rich and poor people in a society.



                                                        10
                                                                 Social Contract Study, 11


       Equality of Educational Opportunity (shedpay)                                      .32
Education should be the right of every child, regardless of whether their parents can
pay or not.
If parents want a good education for their child, the parents should pay for it. (R)


Charity, Not Government Provides (shchrity)                                               .50
It’s not the government’s job to take care of the homeless. Churches and charitable
groups should take care of the homeless.
The best way to handle problems like homelessness is through volunteer
efforts, not through government programs.




                                                       11
                                                                  Social Contract Study, 12
                          Perceptions of My Community or Our Society

Now think about how things are in the United States or in your own town.
Choose a number to show how strongly you agree or disagree with each statement
below.

1                     2                     3                         4                       5
Strongly           Disagree           Somewhat Agree                 Agree               Strongly
Disagree                             Somewhat Disagree                                     Agree



      Ours is An Equitable Society (usequity)                                              .73
Any person who is willing to work hard can make a good living in our country.
In general, everyone has an equal chance of getting ahead in our society.


        Economic Disparity is Growing        (usdsprty)                                    .56
Economic changes in our country are making the life of the average person worse, not
better.
A few individuals are getting wealthier but many people are becoming poorer.


       Homelessness is a Shameful Problem            (ushomles)                                     .64
When I think about homeless people, I wonder what's wrong with our society.
My heart goes out to homeless people.


Sense of Social Integration/Trust in Our Local Community            (ustrust)              .82
If someone in our town has a problem, they can usually count on others to help them
out.
People who live in our town care about each other.
Most people in our town try to make this a good place to live.
It seems like a lot of people in our town only care about themselves. (R)
Every town has some problems. In general, people in our town work together to solve
our problems.
Most people in our town trust each other.


        We Should Care for Our Own          (uscarown)                                     .43
When I hear about refugees who are fleeing from war or from famine in their country,
I think we should do something to help them. (R)




                                                       12
                                                              Social Contract Study, 13
We should take care of the problems in our own country before helping people in
other countries.
                                    Attitudes Toward Immigration


The movement of people between countries has become more and more common in the world today.
Some countries have a lot of people moving into their country. These people are called immigrants.
Some countries have a lot of people moving out of their country. These are called emigrants.


1                      2                      3                          4                          5
Strongly            Disagree            Somewhat Agree                  Agree                  Strongly
Disagree                               Somewhat Disagree                                         Agree



      Immigrants Pose a Threat to Our Society     (imthreat)                                   .72
Immigrants tend to bring crime into our country.
Immigrants tend to take jobs away from our own people.


      Immigrants Enrich Our Society                 (imenrich)                         .72
Immigrants to our country should be encouraged to preserve their language and customs.
Immigrants should have the same right to health care that citizens of our country get.
The children of immigrants should have the right to a good education in our country.
Immigrants enrich our culture.


        Immigrants Should Blend Into Our Culture            (imblend)                  .66
We have too many economic problems of our own. We can’t afford to help immigrants.
If they want to be accepted, immigrants should learn our customs and language.
If we allow too many immigrants into our country, the American culture might be destroyed



(R) = Variable was reverse coded




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