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					     GCSE PE

Health, Fitness and Factors
  Affecting Performance
           Part 2
   Diet and Nutrition
A   Balanced Diet contains:

        Carbohydrates     Fats

      Proteins           Vitamins

Minerals         Fibre              Water
                          Bread               Pasta
and other

            They are used for energy.
       They are broken down into glucose and used
                as fuel for cell respiration.

Rice                   Breakfast
                        Cereals               Potatoes
                        Cooking oils

            You Can also get energy from

Red meats                Cheese
         Milk                               Eggs

                 This helps your body to build
Liver                                               Nuts
                 and repair cells, restore and
                repair muscle and other tissue
                      and to make blood

        Meat                                     Cheese
Fruit                                       Vegetables

            This helps you to prevent
        constipation and bowel cancer and
         absorbs poisonous wastes from
                   digested food.

Brown Bread                           Bran and other

Around half of your body weight is
It is in your blood other body fluids
               and cells.
You can only survive without water
         for a few days.
You should drink 8 glasses of water
  a day, more if you play sports!
           Vitamins and Minerals

•Vitamin A   Fish, liver, eggs, milk   Healthy Skin

             Citrus fruits and veg.    Healthy skin,help wounds
•Vitamin C                             to heal.
             Made by skin in the       Absorb calcium, strong
•Vitamin D   sun,Milk, fish, liver,    teeth and bones
                                       Strong teeth and bones,
•Calcium     Milk, Cheese, Sardines.   muscle contrations,
                                       For the Heamoglobin in
•Iron        Liver, beans and green
                                       Control rate at which you
•Iodine      Seafood.                  burn food
             Your Energy Needs
•Your Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) is the amount of energy you
need to stay alive, awake and warm.
•Your Working energy is that which you need to move around,
digest food and exercise.

Total Energy needed = BMR + Working energy

•Different people have different energy needs, this depends upon:
             Age – young children need more energy
      Sex – males usually need more energy than females
 Lifestyle – the more active you are the more energy you need
                 Dietary Needs continued.
                      Energy in = Energy out
    •If the energy you take in is greater than the energy you use you
                        will store this as body fat
    •If the energy you take in is less than the energy you use stored
                                  body fat.

                              •   Obesity
         •   If you store too much body fat you can become obese
•     A person who is more than 20% over normal weight for height they
                                 are obese
•      Obesity can lead to other health problems as it puts strain on you
                          heart joints and ligaments

                             •    Anorexia
•      If you use up too much stored body fat you can become anorexic.
             •   This too can lead to severe health problems
                        Food for sport
                •Carboloading – for very long events
1.Cut down on carbohydrates and train hard to reduce glycogen
2.Eat lots of carbohydrates and train lightly just prior to the event to
increase you glycogen stores in the muscles.

    •It is important that you drink plenty before, during and after
                   exercise to prevent dehydration

                           •High Protein
•Used by body builders and weight lifters to enhance muscle tissue
                       building and repair
               Food For Sport continued
    •     Before exercise/competition
    1. Increase fluid intake
    2. Avoid fatty foods as they are slow to digest
    3. Avoid basic sugars as they increase Insulin levels creating fatigue
    4. Eat carbohydrates i.e pasta, cereal, fruit etc for slow energy release
    5. Eat last meal 1-2 hours before exercise to allow digestion

•       During                           •   After
        competition/exercise                 exercise/competition
1. Intake liquid Glucose to increase     1. Intake carbohydrates to restore
   glycogen stores                          glycogen stores
2. Continue intake of fluids             2. Intake fluid to replace lost fluids
The Skeleton
     Functions of the skeletal system

1. Shape and             3. Movement –
   support – The            Muscles are
  bones form a             attached to your
                           bones, when they
  framework for your
                           contract and relax
                           they cause the bone
2. Protection – The        to move
  bones surround and
  protect vital organs
                         4. Blood
  i.e. the cranium          Production –
  protects the brain       blood cells are made
                           in the marrow cavity
                           (inside) of the bone
                             Types of joints
See fixed joints
                        Freely moveable (synovial)
                                                 Joints are where 2
                                                 or more bones meet
                                                 and allow
                                                 • Hinge joint – movement
                                                 in 1 direction i.e. the
                                                 •Ball and Socket – wide
                                                 range of movement, it is a
                                                 rounded head that sits in
                                                 a cup i.e. the hip

•Gliding joint – allows 2 flat surfaces to glide over each other i.e. the
small bones of the wrist.
         Other types of Freely
         moveable (synovial)

•Pivot joint – This allows a rotational movement
i.e. the joint that allows us to turn our head from
side to side
•Condyloid Joint – It is a hinge joint that allows
some sideways movement i.e. the joint at the
                Other types of joints

Immoveable joints – these are fixed joints and
don’t move at all i.e. the the bones in the skull.

Slightly moveable joints – There is only a small
range of movement at these joints i.e. the vertebrae
or the joints between your ribs and sternum.
            Range of Movement
               •Flexion – bending a
               limb at a joint.
               •Extension –
               Straightening a limb at a

•Abduction – moving the limb away
from the midline of the body
•Adduction – Moving the limbs
towards the midline of the body

       Rotation – Movement of parts around a joint
       Cartilage and Ligaments

•Cartilage             •Ligaments
•It is smooth tissue   •Bands of elastic
                       fibrous tissue
•Found between
bones                  •It holds together
•Prevents bones
rubbing together       •Keep bones in place
•Acts as a shock
             The Muscular System
 Deltoid                           Trapezius

Biceps                              Triceps

Pectorals                          Latissimus dorsi

                The main actions of muscles

Muscle              Action
Deltoid             Raise your arm sideways at the shoulder
Biceps              Bends your arm at the elbow
Abdominals          Pull in your abdomen, flex your trunk to bend forward
Quadriceps          Straighten your leg at the knee
Pectorals           Raise your arm and draws it across your chest.
Lattissimus dorsi   Pulls your arm down and draws it across your back
Trapezius           Holds and rotates your shoulder
Triceps             Straightens you arm at the elbow
Gluteals            Pulls back and sideways your leg at the hip
hamstrings          Bend your leg at the knee
gastrocnemius       Straightens your ankle joint
                Types of muscle
 There are 3 main types of muscle:
Voluntary (Aka                 Involuntary (Aka
Skeletal or striped)           smooth) muscle – This is
muscle – this is               in the walls of your internal
attached to your bones         organs such as your gut or
and moves when you             bladder, it works by it’s self
want it to because a           without you thinking about it!
signal is sent from your

Cardiac Muscle – This is only found in the walls of
your heart, it works continuously, never tiring.
           Origin and insertion
 Muscles are attached to bones in 2 places, the origin
 and the insertion. When a muscle contracts one bone
     will move and another will remain stationary.

The origin – this is         The insertion – this is
where the muscle joins       where the muscle joins the
the stationary bone.         moving bone.

The insertion moves towards the origin when a muscle
              Muscles work in pairs!
  •Muscles pull by contracting, they do not push!
  •One muscle contracts to bring 2 bones together whilst another
  Prime Mover (Agonist) – These muscles contract to produce the
  Antagonist – These muscles work against the prime mover, they
  Synergist – this helps the prime mover, it holds the body in position
  so the prime mover can work.

Example: Flexion of the                  Extension of the
         forearm:                         forearm:
            Prime mover – Biceps          Prime mover – Triceps
            Antagonist - Triceps          Antagonist - Biceps
How muscles and bones work
together to create movement.
      For example when kicking a football –
      1. The quadriceps keep the standing leg
         straight (Synergist).
      2. The gluteals pull your leg back at the
         hip and your hamstrings(Prime mover)
         bend your leg at the knee, Hamstrings
         are the antagonist.
      3. The quadriceps (prime mover)
         straighten your leg at the knee (the
         hamstrings become the antagonist) and
         the gastrocnemius straightens the
         ankle joint in preparation for striking the
The circulatory system

           The circulatory system allows
           your blood to carry food and
           oxygen to the cells that need it
           and carbon dioxide and other
           waste products away.

           There are 2 systems:
           The pulmonary system –
           carries blood from the heart to
           the lungs and back to the
           The systemic system –
           carries blood to the rest of the
           body and back to the heart
Blood has many jobs:
In the plasma – glucose and nutrients from food, hormones and
waste products such as carbon dioxide are carried around the
In the red blood cells – there is haemoglobin which carries oxygen
to exercising muscles.
The white cells – they fight disease in your body.

Blood also controls your body temperature – When you are too hot
the blood vessels below your skin expand (vasodilatation) to
release the heat. This is vital when exercising as heat is created by
your body as a waste product.
When you are too cold the blood vessels under your skin contract
(vasoconstriction) so less heat is lost.
               Blood Transportation
 There are 3 types of blood vessel:

Arteries –                        Veins –
They carry blood Away from the    They carry blood back to the heart
                                  They have valves to make sure
They do not have valves           blood doesn’t flow backwards
They pulsate                      They are often surrounded by
                                  muscles as when they contract it
Thick muscular walls
                                  helps push the blood through.

Capillaries –
These are thin blood vessels where gaseous exchange takes place ,
oxygen and nutrients into the cells and waste products out.
         The heart working as a pump.
 Your heart acts as a pump to get the blood to the areas of the body it
    is needed. This is achieved by the muscular walls of the heart
        contracting and relaxing, which makes the heart beat.

    Heart rate (HR) = the number of times your heart
                    beats in a minute
Each heart beat pumps blood into your arteries which causes them to
expand then contract. This is know as a pulse. You can feel this at
several places in your body, the wrist and carotid artery in your neck
are the most common places.
By counting the pulses you can tell your heart rate.
•Average HR at rest is 70bpm.            •Your HR increases as you
                                         exercise to get more oxygen to
•The lower your HR at rest the fitter
                                         your working muscles.
you are.
                                         •Your max HR is 220 – your
•With training your circulatory
system will pump more blood with
each beat.
       The effect of exercise on the
            circulatory system

The short term effects:    The long term effects:
•Heart beats faster        •More blood cells produced
                           so more oxygen can be
•Heart pumps more blood
•Arteries widen
                           •More capillaries so that
•Blood vessels under the   gaseous exchange can
skin vasodilate            take place quicker
The Respiratory System
              The Action of Breathing

Inspiration – Breathing in      Expiration – Breathing out
 1. Diaphragm contracts          1. Diaphragm relaxes and
     flattens and moves             becomes dome shaped
                                 2. The intercostal muscles
2. Intercostal muscles force        relax and return to their
       ribs upwards and                 normal position
                                  3. There is increased air
3. Expansion of chest cavity       pressure in the chest cavity
   decrease air pressure in
                               4. Air is forced out of the lungs
       the chest cavity
  4. Air forced into lungs
            Gaseous exchange
•Alveoli is the site for gaseous exchange
•This is when oxygen goes into the blood and carbon dioxide is
taken from the blood.
•There are thousands of alveoli. They are thin walled air sacs.
•The more we train the number of alveoli in our lungs increases.

The removal of carbon dioxide:
•The lungs remove carbon dioxide from the body.
•The brain monitors the level of carbon dioxide in the blood,
which is more when exercising.
•As carbon dioxide increases the brain sends a message to the
diaphragm to inspire more frequently, thus taking in more
oxygen and expelling more carbon dioxide.
               Cell Respiration

Movement is caused by muscles, this needs energy. We
get energy from our food. Cell respiration is when we get
energy from our food.

When we eat this is what happens to our food:
•The food is digested in our gut and turned into liquid.
•Liquid food passes through the gut wall and into the
•The blood carries it to all cells including muscle to be
used for energy.
            Cell respiration continued

    There are 2 ways to get energy from our food, with
    oxygen and without oxygen.

With oxygen is called Aerobic respiration:
Glucose + Oxygen = carbon dioxide + water + energy

Without oxygen is called Anaerobic respiration:
             Glucose = Energy + Lactic acid
                     Oxygen debt

When your muscles have gained energy from your food without
oxygen it creates lactic acid. Extra oxygen is needed to get rid of

Oxygen debt = The amount of oxygen needed to get
the body back to it’s resting state. This is why we
continue to breath heavily after exercise.

Lactic acid is painful if you do not get it out of your
muscles. It is turned into carbon dioxide and water.
    Summary of the effects of training
                  Decrease in        Decrease in resting
                     blood               heart rate
Heart grows        pressure                           Decrease in
bigger and                                           recovery rate

The number          The effects of aerobic             The number of
 of alveoli                training                      capillaries
 increase                                                increases

Volume of blood                                      Arteries grow
 in your body              Rib muscles and         larger and more
   increases               diaphragm grow               elastic
Your heart                              Your muscles are
walls grow                                able to tolerate
 thicker                                 lactic acid more

             The effects of anaerobic

                You can become
                more efficient at
                clearing lactic
  More efficient at                      Be able to repeat
   using oxygen                         muscular contractions
                                             for longer

                  Effects of muscular
                  endurance training

Better at using                         More capillaries grow
fat for energy                          around the muscles
Increase in                              Muscles contract
muscle size -                             more strongly

                   The effects of
                 strength training

                Tendons get bigger and
                     become stronger
Increase in bone
                                                More fat burned
                                                during exercise

                    Other effects of

   Cartilage                                    Increased range
becomes thicker                                 of movement at a
 so can absorb                                        joint
  shock better
                   Increased BMR so you burn
                   stored fat quicker at rest