Nutrition and the Teen Athlete WINNING THE GAME Pinning Down the

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Nutrition and the Teen Athlete WINNING THE GAME Pinning Down the Powered By Docstoc
					WINNING THE GAME
Pinning Down the Facts for Wrestlers
               Program game plan developed from
                      materials written by:

                      Amy Peterson, MS, RD
                  Polk County Extension Educator


         University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension
       Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources


University of Nebraska Cooperative Extension educational programs abide with the
  nondiscrimination policies of the University of Nebraska and the United States
                            Department of Agriculture

                              November, 2007
BEATING the COMPETITION
    Eating to Compete
       Young athletes need to fuel for
         growth AND competition.




Picture Source: EAT, Wrestle and WIN, A Nutritional Guide for Wrestlers, Eileen G. Bower, M.A., ATC
   The sport of Wrestling
        is changing.
Picture Source: EAT, Wrestle and WIN, A Nutritional Guide for Wrestlers, Eileen G. Bower, M.A., ATC
“The new weigh-in policies have been a
major move forward for the sport of
wrestling. These changes have allowed the
athletes to focus on the sport of wrestling
rather than the sport of making weight.”




                                                                          John Smith
                                                                         Oklahoma State
                                                                          Head Coach
Source: EAT, Wrestle and WIN, A Nutritional Guide for Wrestlers, Eileen G. Bower, M.A., ATC
       The Wrestler’s Parent
• YOU also are a part of the wrestling program!
• YOU provide food that supports your wrestler's plan
  – make sure you know MyPyramid!
• YOU can encourage your child to eat well, stay
  hydrated and, if needed, take a multi-vitamin.
• YOU maintain communication. Be proud of your
  wrestler!




        Source: EAT, Wrestle and WIN, A Nutritional Guide for Wrestlers, Eileen G. Bower, M.A., ATC
    The Road to Success
              Focuses on FUEL!
               Carbohydrates

       Fats                    Protein



 Fluids and                      Vitamins and
Supplements                        Minerals
 Why are high carbohydrate
foods important to wrestlers?




 Source: Eating for Wrestling Performance, Iowa High School Athletic Association
    Fuel Up with Carb Foods
• Carbs are a main and immediate
  source of energy during exercise.
• Glucose comes from breaking
  down carbohydrate-rich foods
• Glycogen is a storage form of
  glucose (found in liver and
  muscles) that is used as an energy
  source for short-term exercise
            Power Storage
 Glycogen is the major
source of fuel the first 90
   minutes of activity.

  That’s enough for
  most high school
     activities.
Having trouble maintaining
intensity
during a workout or game?
The Purpose of Protein
         Protein Power
Teen athletes need more than
    the average person.




              Most teens get
             plenty of protein
             through normal
               diet choices.
   About 15-20% of a wrestler’s
calories should come from protein.




 A wrestler should consume about .6 grams of
 protein daily for each pound of body weight. For
 example, a 152# wrestler should consume about 91
 grams of protein per day.
       Source: Eating for Wrestling Performance, Iowa High School Athletic Association
    Good sources of protein include:



•   3 ounces of lean meat, poultry or fish = 21 grams
•   ½ cup of beans or peas = 7 grams
•   1 egg = 7 grams
•   1/4 cup cottage cheese = 7 grams
•   1 ounce of cheese = 7 grams
•   8 ounces of low fat milk or yogurt = 8 grams.
            Source: Eating for Wrestling Performance, Iowa High School Athletic Association
SHOPPING for SUPPLEMENTS?

      Should
   wrestlers use
   any nutritional
   supplements?

If they are concerned about maintaining a healthy diet
they may choose to take a multivitamin, but should not
need any other supplements.
        Source: Eating for Wrestling Performance, Iowa High School Athletic Association
Is there some magic about
    vitamins and minerals?



  Vitamins and minerals do not
provide energy. If you eat enough
carbohydrates, fats, and protein,
 you will likely have the vitamins
  and minerals you need to help
convert these nutrients to energy.
Calcium helps build the strong
 bones athletes depend on!


       •Teens can get what they need from dairy
       foods, such as low-fat milk, yogurt, and
       cheese.

       •Two to three servings is a great way to
       start.

       •Choose milk with your meals and you will
       help build a strong foundation!
  Iron carries oxygen to the
           muscles!


   Eat red meat without a lot of fat, grains that are
   fortified with iron, and green, leafy vegetables.
  Think about the last time you were out of
 breath and gasping for air. When your body
  doesn’t have enough iron, you make less
hemoglobin, and your body has less oxygen.
          The A- Z’s of Zinc
• ZINC is important for healing injuries.
• ZINC is important for growth.
• ZINC is important in metabolism.
      $upplement $afety




     Or is it money down the drain?
The TRUTH about performance-enhancing
            substances…
Supplements may give a
 false sense of security.



        Kids may also assume that any progress they make
    is because of the supplement, and not because of hard
                                        work and training.


  Megadoses of supplements do NOT make up for a lack of
                 talent or training and can be dangerous.
                      The Power of
              Protein Supplements
• 98% of surveyed college students think better
  performance means high protein diets.
• 80% think that this will help increase muscle mass.
• 59% of weight lifters take protein supplements
  although little information supports the effect that
  extra protein has on muscle mass and strength.


Most supplements are supposed to help build muscle
           but in reality they don’t work
      Amino Acid Supplements
                          Amino 2000                Chicken                     100% Whey
                          Amino Acid                Breast                      Protein
                          Supplement                                            Supplement

  Protein/Serving         30 g /18 tablets          31 g / 3.5 ounces           23 g / 1 scoop

Price/31g of Protein $4.03                          $0.62                       $0.93



Too much amino acid supplement                           More for your mealtime
may result in stomach cramps and
diarrhea and may interfere with the                    money to EAT your protein –
 absorption of other amino acids.                      not just pop it in a pill form!

          Source: Eat to Compete – Iowa State University Extension, Ruth Litchfield, PhD, RD, LD
        Herbal Supplements
• Supplements will not improve athletic
  performance.
• Usually used to reduce fatigue, lose
  weight or improve mental alertness.

Beware of health concerns, including strokes,
   seizures, heart attacks or even death.
           Energizer Remedies?
          Does caffeine improve performance?
It does not help
     with fat                    It can help with
    utilization.             ENDURANCE but does        It has been
                             not spare GYLCOGEN     declared an illegal
                                      (fuel).         drug in sports
                                                       competition.



            It can cause
           dehydration,
         nausea, vomiting,
          muscle tremors,
          and headaches.
The Weighty Woes of Wrestling



                Sports that emphasize
                appearance and a lean
                body increase the risk
                  for developing an
                 eating disorder than
               those who require more
                muscle mass, such as
               football or weight lifting.
Health Concerns for
 High Risks Sports
               •   Wrestlers
               •   Gymnasts
               •   Dancers
               •   Swimmers
               •   Divers
           Lethal Weight Loss
              for Wrestlers
• 3 collegiate wrestlers died from rapid weight loss
  programs to qualify for competition.
• Common weight loss tactics used:
   – restricted food and fluid intakes, leading to dehydration.
   – vapor-impermeable suits, which can lead to hyperthermia
   – exercising in hot environments
Disordered Eating Disasters
–   “Forgetting” to eat
–   Weight loss
–   Avoiding food activities
–   Diuretics/laxative use
–   Withdrawal and low self esteem
–   Declining performance
–   Unnecessary weigh-ins


         It’s a losing game, that can’t be won….
 Coaches and health care professionals who
work with high risk athletes need to encourage
 weight loss before the season begins and
promote a slow, steady, and safe weight loss
 during the season, if needed for participation
                 for that sport.



              The goal during the competitive
                 season should be weight
               maintenance, not weight loss.
 Weight certification is meant to
 discourage severe weight loss.
• As a wrestler you should know where you are
  most effective.
• The lowest weight possible is not always the
  strongest.
• Many wrestlers waste mental energy on weight
  loss.
     Weight Loss Winners
• Choose the best foods within calorie limits.
• Try to eat fewer processed foods.
• Choose nutrient dense and readily available
  foods
• Multi-vitamin/mineral supplement with 50-
  100% of RDA is recommended for those
  trying to cut weight.
      Down the Drain With Quick
        Weight Loss Tricks….
• Voluntary dehydration. This includes:
  –   excessive exercise
  –   Saunas
  –    rubber suits
  –   not drinking fluids
  –   using diuretics
• Methods of quick weight loss, which cause
  dehydration, are unsafe and against the
  rules.
        Source: Eating for Wrestling Performance, Iowa High School Athletic Association
    Fill’er Up With Fluids!
   Our muscles, brains,
   blood, and sweat are
 mostly water. If we do not
  have enough, we don’t
  work right, think right,
lose strength, and our heart
       works harder.
  Drinking fluids is the most
       important thing.
Water, or a
sports drink
containing no
more than 8%
carbohydrate,
are both good
choices.
   How to Read a Sports Drink Label
A sodium level of 50 – 170 milligrams
                                                              Nutrition Facts
                                                              Serving Size 8 fl. Oz (240 ml)
per 8 ounces enhances the taste,                              Servings per Container 2
facilitates absorption, and maintains                         Amount Per Serving
body fluids. Higher amounts can lead
to stomach upset and dehydration                              Calories 50
because the body sends water to the                                                                                 % Daily    Value
stomach to dilute the mixture.                                Total Fat 0g                                                          0%
                                                              Sodium 110mg                                                          5%
                                                              Potassium 30mg                                                        1%
Research shows that a 0 – 8%                                  Total Carbohydrate 14g                                                5%
concentration of CHO (0 – 19 grams                            Sugars 14g
per 8 ounces) promotes rapid fluid
                                                              Protein 0g
replacement.
                                                              Not a significant source of Calories from Fat, Saturated Fat, Cholesterol,
                                                              dietary Fiber, Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Calcium, Iron
                                                              * Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet.




          Source: Eat to Compete: What You Should Know About Fluids, Iowa State University Extension PM 1965a February, 2006
Carbohydrate concentration is                          Nutrition Facts
NOT the same as % Daily                                Serving Size 8 fl. Oz (240 ml)
                                                       Servings per Container 2
Value.                                                 Amount Per Serving


To calculate the CHO                                   Calories 50
concentration of any                                                                                        % Daily     Value
beverage as a percentage,                              Total Fat 0g                                                            0%
divide the amount of CHO in                            Sodium 110mg                                                            5%
one serving (in grams) by the                          Potassium 30mg                                                          1%
amount of fluid in one serving                         Total Carbohydrate 14g                                                  5%
(8 ounces equals 240                                   Sugars 14g
milliliters) and then multiply by                      Protein 0g
100.                                                   Not a significant source of Calories from Fat, Saturated Fat, Cholesterol,
                                                       dietary Fiber, Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Calcium, Iron
                                                       * Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet.

    14 grams carbohydrate
    ____________________
                                                 x 100 = 5.83 or 6% CHO concentration
         240 milliliters
          Source: Eat to Compete: What You Should Know About Fluids, Iowa State University Extension PM 1965a February, 2006
INGREDIENTS: WATER, SUCROSE SYRUP, GLUCOSE SYRUP,
GLUCOSE FRUCTOSE SYRUP, CITRIC ACID, NATURAL LEMON
AND LIME FLAVORS WITH OTHER NATURAL FLAVORS, SALT,
SODIUM CITRATE, MONOPOTASSIUM PHOSPHATE, ESTER
GUM, YELLOW 5.

The type of CHO (as well as the
percent) affects the sweetness
and can reduce fluid intake if too
sweet. High fructose levels can
cause gastrointestinal distress by
slowing absorption. (Ingredients
are listed from greatest amount to
least amount.)
Potassium also        Nutrition Facts
                      Serving Size 8 fl. Oz (240 ml)
replaces body         Servings per Container 2
                      Amount Per Serving
losses in             Calories 50
proportion to what                                                         % Daily     Value
is lost in sweat. A   Total Fat 0g                                                          0%
                      Sodium 110mg                                                          5%
potassium level of
                      Potassium 30mg                                                        1%
30 – 50 milligrams    Total Carbohydrate 14g                                                5%
is recommended.       Sugars 14g
                      Protein 0g
                      Not a significant source of Calories from Fat, Saturated Fat, Cholesterol,
                      dietary Fiber, Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Calcium, Iron
                      * Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet.
   What should wrestlers drink
between weigh-in and competition?




     Source: Eating for Wrestling Performance, Iowa High School Athletic Association
 About 2 hours before
competition they should
  drink 2 cups of fluid.
 This fluid may contain
 about 180 calories per
    8-ounce serving.




       Source: Eating for Wrestling Performance, Iowa High School Athletic Association
                              About 1 hour before
                                competition they
                             should drink 2 cups of
                               fluids that contain
                              some carbohydrate
                                and electrolytes,
                             especially sodium and
                                   potassium.


Source: Eating for Wrestling Performance, Iowa High School Athletic Association
                    About 15 - 20 minutes before
                    competition they should
                    drink another 1 ½ - 2 cups of
                    similar fluid or water.




Source: Eating for Wrestling Performance, Iowa High School Athletic Association
Remember to drink after
  your workout, too.




       A mouthful of water is about an
       ounce. Four big gulps from the
       fountain may be as much as ½
       cup of water!!
The Dangers of Dehydration

• Did you Know?
  – An athlete can lose about 1% of their body
    weight through fluid loss with no apparent
    signs of dehydration.
  – Thirst is NOT a good indicator of hydration. If
    you use thirst as your guide, only 50% of your
    fluid needs are replaced.
  – Monitor the color of your urine. Light yellow
    means good hydration, dark yellow means
    dehydration.
  Source: Eat to Compete: What You Should Know About Fluids, Iowa State University Extension PM 1965a February, 2006
What should wrestlers eat during
    an all-day tournament?




    Source: Eating for Wrestling Performance, Iowa High School Athletic Association
         Fluids, Carbohydrates,
              and Protein!
Between matches, drink CHO-fluid replacement
drinks to keep your energy levels up.




Try to have snacks or small meals to keep you fueled
for the entire day.
      Source: Eating for Wrestling Performance, Iowa High School Athletic Association
Baby carrots, celery, fruit, low fat granola
bars, cereal bars, and low fat yogurt are
good carbohydrate choices.
      Source: Eating for Wrestling Performance, Iowa High School Athletic Association
When eating prepackaged
snack foods, choose those that
have 4 grams of carbohydrate
for every 1 gram of fat.

                                                          READ the
                                                        LABEL!!! before
                                                          you EAT!




    Source: Eating for Wrestling Performance, Iowa High School Athletic Association
             After the Finals…



                   Replace fluids first,
                       then food.




Fresh fruits and veggies are     Eat a light meal with protein
a great electrolyte replacer!       to recharge muscles!
Eating fruit, turkey on bread, or a
  cereal bar are good choices.
        Eating “On the Road”
• Plan ahead! There are lots of good choices to drive
  thru!
• Try turkey, lean roast beef, or ham sandwiches, bean
  burritos, rice, pasta, salads with turkey or ham &
  low fat dressings and baked chips.
•      “Heart Healthy Choices” are
  good choices for you, too!
• Skip the butter, gravies, special               sauces,
  etc.

        Source: Eating for Wrestling Performance, Iowa High School Athletic Association
For breakfast on-the-go, cold & hot cereals,
pancakes, waffles, French toast (without
extra butter) are good choices.




   Skip the bacon and sausage.
Say NO to Super Size!




  Super sizing an order can easily
double the fat content compared to a
        regular serving size.
Source: Eating for Wrestling Performance, Iowa High School Athletic Association
   What’s On Your
   Training Table?




What’s right is what works for YOU!
“If you have trained for a year,
you have wasted your time if
you enter a match without
proper nutrition and hydration.”

                           Lincoln Mcllravy
                    Asst. Coach Iowa Univ.
                    3xNCAA, World Silver
                            2xWorld Bronze
        Coming Clean for
         Competition…




Prevent the spread of communicable and
infectious diseases with good hygiene and
proper handwashing.
                           Preventing Unwanted
                               Competition
     • Impetigo
     • Methicillin-resistant
       staphylococcus (MRSA)
     • Herpes gladiatorum (a
       form of herpes that causes
       skin lesions on the head,
       neck and shoulders.)


Source: Play Safe and Clean: How to prevent the spread of communicable and infectious diseases in secondary school sports. Robin Waxenberg
  Staphylococus aureus (Staph)
  • Common bacteria found on the skin
  • Acquired through direct contact (individuals and
    objects)
  • Some carriers have no symptoms
  • Found in nose, armpit, groin and similar areas
  • Causes skin infections and soft tissue infections such
    as boils and impetigo
  • Can cause pneumonia and bloodstream infections
  • Treatment with antibiotics

Source: CA-MRSA in Schools, 2007 Trinity Medical Center CNS Educator Group and Infection Control Practitioners
          Methicillin-resistant
     Staphylococus aureus (MRSA)
• Cannot be treated with common penicillin-like
  antibiotics
• In the past, generally confined to hospitals,
  nursing homes, long-term care
• Community acquired Methicillin-resistant
  Staphylococus aureus (CA-MRSA) more
  common
• Dramatic increase among athletes

Source: CA-MRSA in Schools, 2007 Trinity Medical Center CNS Educator Group and Infection Control Practitioners
                     History of Staph &
                     MRSA in Athletics
 • 1984 - seen in a rugby team in London
 • 1986 - outlook of boils in a football and basketball
   team in Kentucky
 • 1993-1st case of MRSA in a wrestling team in
   Vermont
 • 2002/03 - drastic increase in MRSA in fencers,
   football & wrestlers in CA, IN, CO
 • 2004/05 - spread to high school/college and
   professional athletes ( esp. football and basketball)

Source: CA-MRSA in Schools, 2007 Trinity Medical Center CNS Educator Group and Infection Control Practitioners
                 What do you look for?
  • Often mistaken for spider bites
  • Often appears as boils or ingrown hairs
    (mainly in armpits, groin, neck and buttocks)
  • Cellulitis- redness of the soft tissue, may see
    red streaks
  • Unexplained fever, muscular pain, and/or
    fatigue-especially in the months following a
    skin infection

Source: CA-MRSA in Schools, 2007 Trinity Medical Center CNS Educator Group and Infection Control Practitioners
                MRSA wound                             Examples of
                                                       MRSA
                                                       wound
                                                       infections




                                                                         False Spider bite
Weeping MRSA wound


Source: CA-MRSA in Schools, 2007 Trinity Medical Center CNS Educator Group and Infection Control Practitioners
         How do you avoid MRSA?
Personal Hygiene is Key!
• Wash hands often




Source: CA-MRSA in Schools, 2007 Trinity Medical Center CNS Educator Group and Infection Control Practitioners
            How to wash hands
1. Wet hands with
  WARM water.
2. Soap and scrub for
  20 seconds.
3. Rinse under clean,
  running water.
4. Dry completely
  using a clean cloth
  or paper towel.
         Immediately shower after each
            practice or competition.




Source: Play Safe and Clean: How to prevent the spread of communicable and infectious diseases in secondary school sports. Robin Waxenberg
    Use alcohol-based sanitizers
    during workouts and games




Source: CA-MRSA in Schools, 2007 Trinity Medical Center CNS Educator Group and Infection Control Practitioners
        Do not ask for antibiotics for
        viral illnesses such as colds,
            flu – they will not help




    If you visit someone in the hospital, follow
        infection control precautions closely
Source: CA-MRSA in Schools, 2007 Trinity Medical Center CNS Educator Group and Infection Control Practitioners
  Wash all athletic clothing worn
during practice or competition daily.




                        Launder uniforms/athletic gear in hot
                            water and dry in hot dryer.

Source: Play Safe and Clean: How to prevent the spread of communicable and infectious diseases in secondary school sports. Robin Waxenberg
           Clean and disinfect gym bags
                and/or travel bags.
   • Especially important for the athlete carrying dirty
     workout gear home to be washed and then bringing
     clean gear back to school in the same bag.




   • This problem can be prevented by using disposable
     bags for practice laundry.

Source: Play Safe and Clean: How to prevent the spread of communicable and infectious diseases in secondary school sports. Robin Waxenberg
             Wash athletic gear and pads
             periodically and hang to dry.




Source: Play Safe and Clean: How to prevent the spread of communicable and infectious diseases in secondary school sports. Robin Waxenberg
  Clean and disinfect equipment such as
  helmets, shoulder pads, catcher’s and
  hockey goalie equipment on a regular
            basis with bleach.


                                                                      MRSA can live on
                                                                      surfaces for up to
                                                                          300 days


Source: Play Safe and Clean: How to prevent the spread of communicable and infectious diseases in secondary school sports. Robin Waxenberg
      Do NOT share towels, razors,
     soap or other personal hygiene
     products or items with others.




Source: Play Safe and Clean: How to prevent the spread of communicable and infectious diseases in secondary school sports. Robin Waxenberg
       All skin lesions should be covered
        before practice or competition to
       prevent the risk of infection to the
       wound and transmission of illness
              to other participants.
                                           Only skin infections that have
                                            been properly diagnosed and
                                          treated may be covered to allow
                                             participation of any kind.

Source: Play Safe and Clean: How to prevent the spread of communicable and infectious diseases in secondary school sports. Robin Waxenberg
      When to contact physician for
            skin infections ?
• Keep an eye on minor skin problems, especially in
  small children
• If wounds become infected –see a doctor and ask to
  have MRSA testing done before starting antibiotic
   – Drugs used in ordinary staph do not work
   – Their use could lead to serious illness and more
     resistant bacteria




    Source: CA-MRSA in Schools, 2007 Trinity Medical Center CNS Educator Group and Infection Control Practitioners
TIME for QUESTIONS
       WINNING THE GAME
      Pinning Down the Facts for Wrestlers

                       University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension cooperating with the
                              Counties and the U.S. Department of Agriculture
                                                   2007

                          Additional References Not Cited:
1.   Sports Nutrition, A Guide for the Professional Working With Active People, 2nd Edition,
     Dan Benardot, PhD, RD, Sports and Cardiovasculat Nutritionists, American Dietetic
     Association.
2.   Fueling the Teen Machine, Ellen Shanley and Colleen Thompson, 2001.
3.   Nutrition and the Teen Athlete, Linda Boeckner, RD PhD, Extension Nutrition Specialist,
     University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension.
4.   Winning the Game – Food and Fluids for Teen Athletes, Amy Peterson, MS RD, Extension
     Educator, University of Nebraska – Lincoln Extension

				
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