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					Tilapia Aquaculture – An Overview:
Estrategias de Cultivo en Sistemas Intensivos

                Kevin Fitzsimmons
             University of Arizona, Professor
    World Aquaculture Society, Immediate Past-President
          American Tilapia Association, Sec./Tres.
              Pablo Gonzalez Alanis
      Universidad Autonoma de Tamaulipas, Professor
        World Aquaculture Society, Student Liaison
          Program Coordinator, Aquaculture TIES

             Hermosillo, Son. Mexico
                       Dec. 2, 2005
                  Strategies
 Where   and how will you market your tilapia?
 Which production system will you use?
 Will you buy fingerlings or try to operate your
  own hatchery?
 Which diet(s) will you use to feed your
  tilapia?
 How will you harvest and process your fish?
 How will you address environmental aspects?
Strategies for tilapia farming in Sonora
  1.   Determine market plan.
       A. Sell live to local markets
       B. Sell fresh whole or gutted to local
       restaurant or grocery
       C. Sell to established seafood wholesaler
       D. Sell into Mexican domestic markets
       E. Sell to international markets
  Top prize for marketing !!!
Local sales at Foro Acuicultura
    Scenario 1. Hermosillo area with large
      existing farm and irrigation water
 Integrate with existing infrastructure
 Semi-intensive ponds and above ground tanks
 Grow fingerlings with “greenwater” to supplement feed
 Growout with complete formulated diet
 May need greenhouse covers to maintain warm water
  and bird netting to protect fish
 Select Nile tilapia fingerling source
              Tilapia in ponds
 Intensive  recirculating ponds with aerators
  and settling pond
Tanks and ponds
    Scenario 2. Integration with existing
                shrimp farm
 Use red tilapia
 Rear in cages in the shrimp ponds, or move water from
  tilapia pond to shrimp pond
 Use a complete tilapia diet
 Check frequently for parasites, use freshwater dip to
  remove parasites
 Market through channels developed for shrimp
Tilapia-shrimp polyculture farms (Eritrea)
Tilapia production in outside
ponds with shrimp in covered
      ponds (Ecuador)
Tilapia cages in shrimp ponds
                           Shrimp Pond, Thailand




Shrimp Pond, Philippines
Scenario 3. Small farm, limited water
supply or limited discharge capacity
 Outdoor  recirculation system
 Stock with Nile or red tilapia
 Tank culture
 Complete formulated diets
 Discharge to crops and settling pond/wetland
 Water supply to tanks is mix of new and
  recirculated water
 May use greenhouse covers or bird netting
 Multiple   small
  tanks
 Settling ponds
 Irrigate crops
 Hydroponics /
  Aquaponics
Scenario 4. Access to large reservoir

 Cage system
 Stock with Nile or red tilapia
 Complete floating diet
 Move cages on regular basis and monitor
  impacts
Large cage farms
Effluents to crop irrigation
                                             For Sonora - Integration of
                                             aquaculture and agriculture
 Water  pH reduced from 8.3 to 8.0
 Added 19.7 kg/ha N to 45 kg/ha used
  in standard fertilization schedule.
 Total N applied with water (kg/ha)




                                      25

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Results - Integration of aquaculture
           and agriculture
 Contributed 2.6 kg/ha P to crop.
Total P applied with water (kg/ha)




                                      3
                                     2.5
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                    Plant height with Fish Effluent,
                  Standard Fertilizer and Well Water
                                      Cotton Height
      120                                 2002
      100



          80
height (cm)




          60



          40


                                                              WW          WW+SF
          20

                                                              FE          FE+SF
              0
                        5/15   6/12       7/8   7/16   8/19        9/21
              Feeding strategy
 Juvenile  fish are especially good at filter
  feeding phytoplankton.
 Many hatcheries utilize greenwater culture
 Juveniles also filter feed on small
  zooplankters (especially crustaceans)
 Save money on juvenile feeds by partial
  nutrition from natural feed in juvenile ponds
  and tanks
       Tilapia nutrition decisions
 Natural herbivores and detritivores.
 Opportunistic feeders grazing on algae and
  bacteria in production system.
 Fry and fingerlings need high protein
  (50-40%) diet
 Growout needs lower protein (32-28%) diet
 “Organic” diets may be needed for “organic”
  buyers
 Compare FCR to decide most efficient diet
    Tilapia: Exotic species in Mexico

 Introduced many years ago across all of Mexico
 Became major biomass in many new reservoirs
 Stocked into irrigation canals for weed control


 Competes   with some native cichlids (mojaras)
 For sustainable aquaculture we should strive to
  reduce impacts
           Environmental concerns

 Exotic  species that has been widely introduced
 Further introductions should be reduced
 Effluents from cage farms may contribute to
  eutrophication
 Methytestosterone used in sex-reversal should
  not leave farm in effluents
 Migratory and endangered birds are attracted to
  fish farms
   Technologies to reduce externalities
              (escapees)

Furtherincrease domestication
Reduce survival rate of escapees
More red skin varieties
  Technologies to reduce externalities
              (effluents)
Nutrient dense feeds, to reduce effluents
Improved feed systems, reduce waste
Recover water and wastes for
 aquaponics or other irrigation
Reduce or eliminate MT use (mixed sex,
 cages, YY, hybrids, salt-water culture)
Remove effluent MT with carbon, UV,
 or ozone
Future Sonoran tilapia production
 Integrationwith existing agriculture and
  shrimp aquaculture
 Mix of large and small farm scenarios
 Much of the marketing will be local
 Will develop as a sustainable
  (environmentally and economically)
  enterprise

				
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