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Guam Integrated Military Development Plan

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operational force laydown requirements

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									JOINT GUAM DEVELOPMENT GROUP

GUAM INTEGRATED MILITARY DEVELOPMENT PLAN
INTERNAL REVIEW COPY RELEASABLE | 11 July 2006

PREPARED FOR: U.S. Pacific Command PREPARED BY: Helber Hastert & Fee, Planners

JOINT GUAM DEVELOPMENT GROUP

GUAM INTEGRATED MILITARY DEVELOPMENT PLAN
INTERNAL REVIEW COPY RELEASABLE | 11 July 2006

PREPARED FOR: U.S. Pacific Command PREPARED BY: Helber Hastert & Fee, Planners

Guam Integrated Military Development Plan (Releasable)

Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .......................................... ES-1 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ..................................1-1
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 PURPOSE....................................................................1-1 OBJECTIVE OF STUDY ..............................................1-1 BACKGROUND ...........................................................1-1 METHODOLOGY.........................................................1-2 1.4.1 Data Collection and Review ..........................1-3 1.4.2 Notional Development Plans .........................1-5 1.4.3 Cost Estimates ..............................................1-6 1.4.4 Review and Briefings.....................................1-6 1.4.5 Implementation Plan......................................1-6 ASSUMPTIONS ...........................................................1-7 REPORT ORGANIZATION..........................................1-8 2.3 2.2.2 U.S. Navy Landholdings ...................................2-6 2.2.3 U.S. Coast Guard Landholdings .....................2-10 2.2.4 DOD Fuel Infrastructure .................................2-10 PUBLIC INFRASTRUCTURE ....................................2-12 2.3.1 Potable Water.................................................2-12 2.3.2 Wastewater (Sewer) .......................................2-13 2.3.3 Solid Waste Disposal......................................2-13 2.3.4 Power Generation and Distribution.................2-14 2.3.5 Roadways .......................................................2-15 2.3.6 Other Public Infrastructure..............................2-16 ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS ...................2-17 2.4.1 Biological Resources ......................................2-17 2.4.2 Air Quality and Noise......................................2-17 2.4.3 Ground and Surface Water Resources ..........2-18 2.4.4 Natural Disasters ............................................2-18 2.4.5 Brown Tree Snake Eradication .......................2-18 SUMMARY OF OPPORTUNITIES & CONSTRAINTS..........................................................2-19

2.4

1.5 1.6

CHAPTER 2: EXISTING CONDITIONS.......................2-1
2.1 GUAM OVERVIEW ......................................................2-1 2.1.1 Location.........................................................2-1 2.1.2 History ...........................................................2-3 2.1.3 Socio-Economic Conditions ..........................2-4 2.1.4 Guam's Institutional Structure and Information Flow............................................2-4 2.1.5 Federal Government on Guam......................2-4 2.1.6 Construction Industry ....................................2-4 DOD BASES AND LAND HOLDINGS .........................2-5 2.2.1 U.S. Air Force Landholdings ............................2-5 2.5

CHAPTER 3: FACILITY REQUIREMENTS AND ANALYSIS ...........................................3-1
3.1 3.2 GIMDP BASELINE LOADING......................................3-2 SERVICE MISSION SUPPORT REQUIREMENTS .....3-2 3.2.1 U.S. Marine Corps .........................................3-2 3.2.2 Command Element ........................................3-4 3.2.2 (a) Ground Combat Element.................3-5

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3.3

3.4

3.2.2 (b) Logistic Support Element ................3-5 3.2.2 (c) Aviation Combat Element................3-6 3.2.3 Training .........................................................3-7 3.2.4 Ordnance.......................................................3-7 3.2.5 U.S. Air Force ................................................3-8 3.2.5 (a) Global Hawks ..................................3-8 3.2.5 (b) Tankers ...........................................3-8 3.2.6 Transient Fighters/Bombers ..........................3-9 3.2.7 U.S. Navy ......................................................3-9 3.2.7 (a) Nuclear-Powered Guided Missile Submarine ...................................................3-10 3.2.7 (b) Transient CVN ..............................3-10 3.2.7 (c) Littoral Combat Ship......................3-10 3.2.7 (d) Multi-Mission Aircraft ....................3-10 3.2.7 (e) HSC-25 .........................................3-10 3.2.8 U.S. Army ....................................................3-11 3.2.9 U.S. Coast Guard ........................................3-11 3.2.10 Special Operations Forces ..........................3-11 JOINT SERVICE COMMUNITY SUPPORT REQUIREMENTS ......................................................3-11 3.3.1 Family Housing............................................3-11 3.3.2 Bachelor Housing ........................................3-12 3.3.3 Schools........................................................3-12 3.3.4 Medical ........................................................3-12 3.3.5 Other QOL ...................................................3-13 3.3.6 Utilities.........................................................3-13 ALTERNATIVE BASING ANALYSIS .........................3-13 3.4.1 ACE Bed-down ............................................3-13

3.5

Training Ranges ..........................................3-16 Finegayan Development Options ................3-18 USMC Embarkation .....................................3-20 3.4.4 (a) Victor Wharf Option .......................3-20 3.4.4 (b) Former SRF Option .......................3-21 3.4.5 Transient CVN .............................................3-21 3.4.5 (a) Former SRF Option .......................3-22 3.4.5 (b) Polaris Point Option.......................3-23 GIMDP BASING ANALYSIS CONCLUSIONS ...........3-23

3.4.2 3.4.3 3.4.4

CHAPTER 4: NOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN ....4-1
ANDERSEN AFB .........................................................4-2 ANDERSEN NORTHWEST FIELD ..............................4-6 FINEGAYAN.................................................................4-6 ANDERSEN SOUTH....................................................4-8 BARRIGADA ................................................................4-8 APRA HARBOR .........................................................4-10 ORDNANCE ANNEX .................................................4-12 NAVAL HOSPITAL.....................................................4-14 INFRASTRUCTURE ..................................................4-15 4.9.1 Traffic / Roadways .......................................4-15 4.9.2 Electrical ......................................................4-15 4.9.3 Potable Water ..............................................4-16 4.9.4 Wastewater..................................................4-16 4.9.5 Solid Waste..................................................4-17 4.10 ISLAND WIDE CONSTRAINTS & BREAK POINTS ..4-18 4.10.1 Water ..........................................................4-18 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9

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4.10.2 4.10.3 4.10.4

Waste Water................................................4-19 Roadways....................................................4-19 Electrical Generation Capacity ....................4-20

References
List of Figures Figure 1-1: Figure 1-2: Figure 2-1: Figure 2-2: Figure 2-3: Figure 2-4: Figure 2-5: Figure 2-6: Figure 2-7: Figure 2-8: Figure 2-9: Figure 3-1: Figure 3-2: Figure 3-3: Figure 3-4: Figure 3-5: Figure 3-6: GIMDP Study Area...........................................1-2 Study Methodology...........................................1-4 Pacific Region ..................................................2-2 Mariana Archipelago ........................................2-3 Andersen Air Force Base .................................2-7 Apra Harbor Naval Complex ............................2-9 NCTS Finegayan............................................2-11 Water, Wastewater, and Solid Waste Systems .....................................2-14 Electrical System/Roadways ..........................2-15 Northern Guam Opportunities and Constraints .....................................................2-20 Southern Guam Opportunities and Constraints .....................................................2-21 ACE Beddown Alternatives ............................3-15 Training Requirements ...................................3-17 Finegayan Development Option No. 1 ...........3-19 Finegayan Development Option No. 2 ...........3-19 USMC Embarkation Analysis .........................3-20 Transient CVN Site Analysis ..........................3-22

Figure 4-1: Andersen AFB Development Plan ....................4-3 Figure 4-2: Notional Andersen AFB North Ramp Development Plan ............................................4-5 Figure 4-3: Notional Finegayan Development Plan ............4-7 Figure 4-4: Notional NCTS Barrigada Development Plan ............................................4-9 Figure 4-5: Notional Apra Harbor Plan..............................4-11 Figure 4-6: Notional Ordnance Annex Development Plan ..........................................4-13 List of Tables Table 1-1: DOD Commands and Staffs Consulted ............1-5 Table 2-1: DOD Landholdings on Guam ...........................2-5 Table 3-1: Guam DOD Existing and Notional Loading ......3-3 Table 3-2: GIMDP Notional Increase Service Breakdown .3-4 Table 3-3: USMC Individual Training Requirements .........3-7 Table 3-4: GIMDP Notional Student Loading Summary ..3-12

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Guam Integrated Military Development Plan (Releasable)

Executive Summary

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The proposed military buildup on Guam is a key component of the United States (U.S.) Pacific Command’s (USPACOM) initiative known as the “Integrated Global Presence and Basing Strategy (IGPBS).” The principal elements of the IGPBS initiative include: ! ! Relocating U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) Expeditionary Force components and headquarters to Guam; Improving Naval Base Guam to serve as a forward operational and logistic support hub for a mix of platforms and joint operations; Continuing development of Andersen Air Force Base (AFB) to serve new forward-based and rotational mission requirements; and Associated infrastructure, housing and quality of life (QOL) improvements. ! ! Identification of impacts to the military and civilian communities; Analysis of utility system carrying capacity;

Based on a feasibility evaluation of requirements and available lands, the following joint basing opportunities are recommended: ! Andersen AFB: Implement proposed Air Force initiatives for Global Hawk, tankers, rotational fighters and bombers. Consolidate rotary wing/tilt-rotor aircraft along the North Ramp area, including the Marine Air Combat Element (ACE), Navy HSC-25, and Special Operations squadrons. Future Navy Multi Mission Aircraft and transient Carrier Air Wing (CVW) aircraft are also recommended to bed-down at Andersen AFB. Bachelor quarters and related QOL facilities required to support the ACE should be constructed within the appropriate zoning district along the South Ramp. Construction of new passenger terminal capacity and cargo terminal space for equipment marshalling, inspection, and holding area related to USMC air embarkation activities is recommended. Andersen Northwest Field: Incorporate USMC rotary wing outlying landing field training with Air Force austere landing field training and proposed RED HORSE and other new training activities. Naval Computer and Telecommunications Station (NCTS) Finegayan / South Finegayan: Construct a major joint

!

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The Guam Integrated Military Development Plan (GIMDP) provides feasibility and base planning guidance for USPACOM in carrying out the major force initiatives contemplated for Guam. The plan is based upon a notional force list that was used to generate land and facility requirements for basing, operations, logistics, training, and quality of life. The GIMDP achieves the following objectives: ! ! Verification of the general facility requirements of the notional force structure list; Evaluation of joint basing alternatives;

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Executive Summary

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service community that includes operational, support, and bachelor housing facilities for USMC headquarters, ground, and logistic elements. Continue Navy communication operations and construct QOL facilities as required, such as family housing, schools, medical/dental clinic, exchange/commissary, and recreational areas. Incorporation of major firing ranges (rifle and machine gun) at Finegayan to address military service requirements for individual training on Guam. !" Andersen South: Develop opportunities for small unit maneuver training, Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT) training with blank ammunition, and training with motorized vehicles such as amphibious assault and other tracked vehicles. !" NCTS Barrigada: Construct Army Brigade Headquarters and Battalion facilities, along with the continuation of Navy transmitter communications operations. !" Apra Harbor Naval Complex: Expand Navy waterfront capabilities and shore side facilities to accommodate forward-deployed ships, new support ship platforms, transient nuclear-powered aircraft carrier (CVN), and USMC embarkation operations. !" Ordnance Annex: Construct a limited indirect fire (mortar 60 millimeter (mm) / 81 mm and 40 mm [training projectile]) training range to address individual training requirements for military services. Construct new ordnance magazines to incorporate USMC storage with Navy facilities.

A key conclusion of the study is that force structure initiatives that have guided this effort can be accommodated on Guam, with the exception of some USMC individual, unit, and all organizational training that will need to be accommodated elsewhere in the region. Additional conclusions include: !" The carrying capacity of islandwide utility systems is inadequate to meet the projected demand from proposed GIMDP requirements. Systemic improvements must be planned for public services including water, wastewater, electricity, solid waste disposal, and roadways to ensure their reliability. !" Development will stress other socio-economic factors that will challenge the island’s development capacity. Such challenges include the availability of contract labor, the potential constraints of the civilian harbor and its ability to import construction materials, and the availability of life support functions (e.g., medical, schools, housing, recreation, etc.) to support a growing civilian population. !" The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process requires rigorous and objective evaluation with public and agency consultations. The process frequently requires inter-agency agreements, and allows for challenges in administrative and judicial venues by citizens or agencies with standing. The NEPA process is expected to take at least 24 months to complete.

ES-2

1.
INTRODUCTION

Guam Integrated Military Development Plan (Releasable)

Chapter 1: Introduction

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1 PURPOSE
The proposed military buildup on Guam is a key component of the United States (U.S.) Pacific Command’s (USPACOM) initiative known as the “Integrated Global Presence and Basing Strategy (IGPBS).” The principal elements of the IGPBS initiative include: ! ! Relocate U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) ground and air assets to Guam from various locations; Create a U.S. based forward operating port for modern littoral warfare ships, combat logistics force ships, submarines, surface combatants, and high-speed transport vessels; Continue efforts to develop U.S. Air Force Global Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) and Strike hub; and Develop / maintain a robust Western Pacific logistics hub sufficient to support USPACOM requirements. Defense (DOD), and component services and agencies by investigating and evaluating the feasibility of various basing options in Guam. Capacity constraints or “tipping points” are identified which could inherently constrain the level of potential force relocation and base development on Guam. Estimates of anticipated capital costs to implement the plan are provided.

1.3 BACKGROUND
The notional base loading includes: ! ! ! ! a brigade-sized portion of a Marine Expeditionary Force (MEF (-)); an Army Brigade Headquarters (-) and Army Battalion (mission yet to be determined); various Air Force mission support initiatives; new forward support Littoral Combat Ships (LCS), HighSpeed Vessels/Theater Support Vessels (HSV/TSV), Auxiliary Dry Cargo/Ammunition Ships (T-AKE) that will replace aging Auxiliary Ammunition Ships (T-AE) and Auxiliary Combat Stores Ships (T-AFS), in addition to existing homeport Nuclear Attack Submarines (SSN); and berthing accommodations for a transient nuclear powered aircraft carrier (CVN) and support for the carrier air wing (CVW), infrastructure for transient ships that support USMC embarkation activities, and various training & support elements.

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This study, known as the Guam Integrated Military Development Plan (GIMDP), examines the feasibility of proposed joint military basing and force bed-down on Guam as described in following chapters.

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1.2 OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
The major objective of the GIMDP is to provide strategic decision-making guidance to USPACOM, the Department of

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Chapter 1: Introduction

Guam Integrated Military Development Plan (Releasable)

The GIMDP study area (Figure 1-1) comprises the entire island of Guam. Existing and former Federal/DOD land areas were evaluated for potential use. Air Force property in the northern portion of the island includes Andersen Air Force Base (AFB), consisting of the main base, the munitions storage area (MSA), and Northwest Field (NWF), Andersen Administration Annex (Andersen South), and the Andersen Communications Annex Barrigada Transmitter site near the Guam International Airport (GIAP). As shown in Figure 1-1, Navy property includes the Naval Computer and Telecommunications Station (NCTS) Finegayan, South Finegayan Housing Area, NCTS Barrigada Transmitter Site, Naval Hospital area, Nimitz Hill, areas around the Apra Harbor Naval Complex including Polaris Point, and the Ordnance Annex. Other lands evaluated for the purposes of this study include former DOD lands in Finegayan (Guam Land Use Plan [GLUP] 77), former Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) land in Finegayan, and former Naval Air Station (NAS) Agana lands in Tiyan, adjacent to the GIAP.

1.4 METHODOLOGY
The GIMDP is based on a force list developed by service commands and adopted by USPACOM as the notional planning factor. Subsequent planning was based on an analysis of the operational and supporting requirements needed for the commands and organizations in that force list to function in a joint environment on Guam, including analysis of alternatives as appropriate. Planning considerations included:

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Guam Integrated Military Development Plan (Releasable)

Chapter 1: Introduction

! Concepts for operations and training, and required base support infrastructure; ! ! ! ! Induced base loading, personnel and family support, and Quality of Life (QOL) infrastructure; Physical size and geographic sufficiency of available lands to establish required base infrastructure; Land use planning and legal limitations that would constrain implementation; and Estimated costs to implement.

5. Implementation Evaluation Figure 1-2 identifies the five stages of the study and the tasks performed within each stage. The methodological process was iterative in nature, as changes in the conceptual development plan and the cost estimates were refined during the planning and evaluation process. 1.4.1 Data Collection and Review

Procedurally, a notional list of facilities was developed for the designated force list. The list was then used to develop potential basing configurations to accommodate those facilities. Basing configurations were subsequently evaluated in light of various criteria, including matters both of functionality to support the mission (effectiveness and efficiency), as well as matters of implementation feasibility. Troop welfare and morale, affect upon ongoing missions and plans, and costs are primary factors of consideration. Preliminary options, those found both feasible and sufficient for the requirements, were further analyzed for needed improvements, development costs, and programming timeframes. The overall evaluation, which included on-site work on Guam, was done in five stages: 1. Data Collection and Review 2. Preliminary Plan Development 3. Review, Briefing, and Refinement 4. Cost Estimates Development

From September 2005 to April 2006, numerous interviews were conducted with project stakeholders (see Table 1-1). Discussions were held with all DOD service elements (Air Force, Army, Navy, USMC) and the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG). In order to maintain security classification requirements, interviews were conducted only with DOD or other appropriate entities. Interviews were not conducted with non-DOD and non-USCG entities. Various commands and staff offices were interviewed regarding the range of issues, including waterfront operations, supply, fuel, maintenance, aviation, shipyard, facilities, training, ordnance, housing, recreation, medical/dental, and security. A Guam site visit was conducted in March 2006. Briefings and discussions were held with, among others, the staffs at Commander, U.S. Naval Forces Marianas (COMNAVMARIANAS), Commander, 36th Wing at Andersen AFB, PACAF at Hickam AFB, MARFORPAC, and COMPACFLT. Relevant studies were reviewed to augment information derived during the interviews. These included regional functional studies, Regional Shore Infrastructure Plans, Integrated Cultural Resource Management Plans, housing market analyses, and others.

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Chapter 1: Introduction

Table 1-1: DOD Commands and Staffs Consulted
Theme GIMDP (General) Commands, Staffs, and Personnel Consulted ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Air Force Operations ! ! ! Navy Operations ! USPACOM (J44, J53, J63) Military Sealift Command (MSC), Guam Defense Energy Support Center Middle Pacific (DESC-MP) Naval Hospital Guam U.S. Marine Corps Pacific (MARFORPAC) (G3, G4, G5) USMC Training and Education Command (TECOM) (Range Requirements) Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH) Kaneohe (Base Operations, Airfield Operations) Commander, Pacific Air Forces (PACAF) (Civil Engineering & Base Planning) 36th Wing, Andersen AFB (Command Element, Housing, Base Planning, Medical, Base Services) Commander, Pacific Fleet (COMPACFLT) (N01CE, N41, N42, N43, N5, N7, N8) Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Pacific (NAVFACPAC) COMNAVMARIANAS (Command Staff, NAVFAC MAR, Port Operations, Port Security, MSS-7, EODMU-5, HSC-25, Housing, QOL, Ordnance, Religious Services, Fuels) NCTS Guam Commander, Submarine Forces, U.S. Pacific Fleet (COMSUBPAC N4)

1.4.2

Notional Development Plans

USMC Operations

Notional development plans were prepared to help define projects at various locations required to implement GIMDP initiatives. The first stage involved base selection for the loading elements. This included an evaluation of the gross facility requirements, and an estimation of the gross land area to meet the requirement. With gross requirements identified, potentially feasible basing configurations were developed for evaluation. The criteria below are representative of considerations used in the subsequent planning and analysis process: ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Assuring operational suitability and compatibility; Meeting QOL standards; Direct cost; Time, feasibility, and uncertainty in implementation; Operational efficiency and effectiveness; Potential for disruption to ongoing plans and missions, and compatibility with adjacent land uses; Induced cost, including required infrastructure and ground support; Induced traffic and roadway demand; Accommodating safety, security, and Anti-Terrorism Force Protection (AT/FP) considerations; and Minimizing implementation risk.

! ! Army Operations USCG Operations DOD Schools Quality of Life Issues

! U.S. Army Pacific (USARPAC) ! ! ! ! 14th Coast Guard District, Honolulu 14th Coast Guard District Civil Engineering Unit (CEU) Commander, Coast Guard Marianas Section Department of Defense Dependent Schools (DODDS) Pacific ! Department of Defense Education Activity, Guam ! Defense Commissary Agency (DeCA) Region Office (West) ! DeCA Guam

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Once feasible sites were identified, conceptual development at each location was addressed. Where available, individual service input regarding baseline facility requirements was used as a guide for developing overall facility requirements. Information gathered during interviews and site visits, along with facility planning criteria of Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFACENGCOM) Manual P-80 (Facility Planning Factor Criteria for Navy and Marine Corps Shore Installations) were used to evaluate island-wide requirements. 1.4.3 Cost Estimates

plan proposals were modified iteratively to reflect the results of this interaction. 1.4.5 Implementation Plan

Implementation of the notional plan proposals presented in this study could be affected by several key factors such as the volume and scope of the construction work to be done, the inherent limitations of the island (economic, environmental, geographic), and regulatory constraints and processes – especially the NEPA process with associated laws and regulations. Other pacing events include: ! The specified dates for arrival of Force List components. This determines the operational ready date by which priority projects must be completed. For the purposes of this study, earliest possible arrival is assumed where no such specification has been made, most notably for USMC forces. Arrival of USMC components is constrained by the time required to develop the necessary facilities. Under this scenario, the significant force arrival will begin no earlier than 2010. ! Land use, licensing, and leasing agreements. These are needed to authorize use of non-DOD properties if required for certain facilities and training ranges. ! Permitting and procedural requirements. Generally, land use entitlements must be obtained before new construction or renovations can begin. Major procedural requirements are needed for NEPA, including an Environmental Impact

Cost estimates were an integral aspect of the overall planning and evaluation. After completion of notional development plans, projects were identified as: ! ! ! New construction Use of existing facilities Renovation of existing facilities

Based on analytical methodology using baseline costs from the 2005 DOD Facility Pricing Guide, professional cost resources, and Guam costing indexes, notional costs were developed to validate the feasibility of proposed planning actions. 1.4.4 Review and Briefings

Notional plans and various options were briefed to the USPACOM Executive Steering Group (ESG), the Joint Guam Development Group (JGDG), and the lead service commands on a regular basis during the planning process. Formal briefings were conducted as required. As a result, the notional

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Chapter 1: Introduction

Statement (EIS)1 and ROD, Clean Water Act (CWA) permits, and Endangered Species Act (ESA) compliance. Various projects were grouped and prioritized based on necessity to accommodate the arrival of initial forces, ships, and aircraft. Air Force projects, now well along in separate planning initiatives, were distributed uniformly over the time allotted by Air Force Planners. Navy projects were prioritized to meet the Operational Ready dates established for the forces to be supported. The MEF(-) constitutes the majority of construction requirements under the GIMDP. This force component is phased over time based on notional priorities established by MARFORPAC using the basing alternatives recommended herein. These priorities are presented as a “first-cut” overview and require further evaluation and input from MARFORPAC. General utility and transportation infrastructure construction needed to enable base development is performed as early as possible in the development timetable. Four levels of priority were identified for MEF(-) forces: Priority 1: Ground Combat Element (GCE) Unit Deployment Program (UDP) infantry battalions and some supporting elements Priority 2: GCE headquarters and remaining supporting elements, along with a portion of the Logistic Support Element (LSE) forces required by the GCE

Priority 3: Air Combat Element (ACE) and remaining logistic support Priority 4: MEF Command Element (CE) Because Guam is limited in its construction capacity due to its inherent economic and infrastructure sustainability, a maximum feasible construction implementation schedule is estimated and used to pace the execution of the phased projects.

1.5 ASSUMPTIONS
It was essential to identify and define the operational context of the GIMDP early in the study process. The following text provides an overview of training and operational concepts for individual elements of the plan, which were primary considerations and findings in developing the GIMDP: ! ! ! For MEF(-) units, preferably one, or at most two bases would be developed. Individual and unit level training on Guam and at the home base is to be maximized to the extent feasible. Weapons ranges routinely used by the USMC are to be at the primary base. By virtue of both size and proximity to ocean waters for weapons range Surface Danger Zones (SDZ), the only feasible location for the range siting and GCE / LSE base is NCTS Finegayan. Notional bed-down locations for the ACE include Andersen AFB North Ramp, Andersen NWF, or the former NAS Agana adjacent to GIAP. The former NAS Agana

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The EIS will require compliance with NEPA and other environmental statutes, e.g., ESA, Marine Mammal Protection Act, National Historic Protection Act, Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA), and Magnusson Stevens Fisheries Act, among others.

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was subsequently eliminated from detailed evaluation as operationally inadequate and infeasible to implement. ! The MEF Headquarters element should be sited close to other USMC operations and personnel. Alternate siting options initially discussed but discarded included centrally located areas such as Barrigada and Nimitz Hill. With exception of a Squad Fire and Maneuver Range, all individual and unit level training ranges identified herein could notionally be sited on existing DOD lands. Training ranges at Finegayan require establishment of SDZ over off-shore waters.2 With exception of ACE bachelor housing, all northern Guam military family housing (MFH) and bachelor quarters (BQ) would be located at Finegayan, either at NCTS or the South Finegayan housing area. Basing / bed-down alternatives were evaluated using six primary factors: Construction cost Effectiveness and efficiency in operation Troop welfare and morale Implementation risk Ongoing plans and operations Travel time and distance between billeting and work

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Existing Air Force planning initiatives for Andersen AFB and Andersen NWF were incorporated into the GIMDP planning, with notional GIMDP requirements evaluated in a manner to minimize or mitigate impacts to existing and planned Air Force operations. Co-location of Army operations with Guam Army National Guard (GUARNG) units at Barrigada provides a good fit. Only projects and improvements required for the GIMDP are identified; no improvements to allay existing deficiencies are included unless upgrading is required to accommodate induced GIMDP demand. The GIMDP-induced population increase is approximately 26,000 persons (PN) (14,560 military personnel and 11,630 dependents). This population estimate is based on service element inputs and notional ship’s crew sizes, plus a standard 7.5% active duty facility support ratio for induced base support personnel not otherwise identified. Rank-based married-to-bachelor ratios, and a standard dependent ratio of 2.5 per married/accompanied active duty member were also assumed. BQ and family housing requirements were calculated at 100% of total loading due to anticipated lack of capacity in the Guam housing market.

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1.6 REPORT ORGANIZATION
! Chapter 1 presents a description of the purpose and objectives of the plan, the planning methodology, and important assumptions which focused the planning analysis and evaluation.

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See 33 CFR §334, Danger Zone and Restricted Area Regulations for details.

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Chapter 1: Introduction

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Chapter 2 presents a brief background and history of Guam, along with a summary of relevant existing conditions on the island as it relates to U.S. military forces. Chapter 3 presents the facility requirements and planning analysis, with baseline loading, special considerations, alternatives, and feasible basing / bed-down solutions. Chapter 4 presents the notional GIMDP development plan for all basing/bed-down areas. The chapter addresses all operational, maintenance, training, logistics, and quality of life requirements identified during the assessment and evaluation process, with associated capital improvement costs.

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2.
EXISTING CONDITIONS

Guam Integrated Military Development Plan (Releasable)

Chapter 2: Existing Conditions

CHAPTER 2: EXISTING CONDITIONS
Guam is an unincorporated territory of the U.S. and has served as a key strategic base for American military operations since 1898. The population of Guam, estimated at 164,000 in 2003, is diverse in ethnic origin – 37% Chamorro, 26% Filipino, 10% Caucasian, 7% Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander, and 6% other Asian. The remaining 14% is a mix of other ethnic groups. The major components of Guam’s economy are government, military, tourism, and construction. Significant growth in the tourist industry in the 1990’s reduced reliance on the military. This trend leveled off by 2000, and was critically impacted by the 9/11 terrorist attack in 2001. In 2005, the territory attracted just over one million visitors, but the post 9/11 slump left the government with record level debt of over $400 million (M) (Bank of Hawaii [BOH] Economic Report, 2004). Government and military employment account for almost one-third of all jobs on Guam. As noted in Chapter 1, the primary DOD components on Guam are the Navy, with facilities located primarily in the Apra Harbor area in the south, and the Air Force, headquartered at Andersen AFB in the north. There are also several Army Reserve, Air National Guard, and Army National Guard units housed at Andersen AFB, and a GUARNG facility located in Barrigada in the central portion of the island. The number of military personnel stationed on the island was at a high of 11,500 PN in 1993 and dropped to its lowest point during the late 1990s and the early 2000s. The population as of 2005 was 6,500 PN.

2.1 GUAM OVERVIEW
2.1.1 Location The island of Guam is strategically located at the boundary between the Pacific Ocean and Philippine Sea within easy reach of some of the most important areas in Asia. Guam is approximately 1,600 miles east of Manilla, Philippines, 1,560 miles south of Tokyo, Japan, and 3,800 miles west of Honolulu, Hawaii (Figure 2-1). Guam is a vital link in the logistics and communication system that supports U.S. Pacific Forces in the Western Pacific (WESTPAC). In 1950, Congress passed the Organic Act under which Guam became an organized unincorporated territory of the U.S. and the native Chamorro population of Guam became U.S. citizens. Guam elected its first delegate to the U.S. Congress in 1972. Guam is the southernmost and largest island of the Mariana Archipelago, an underwater mountain range extending southward from Japan (Figure 2-2). Guam has a total land area of approximately 212 square miles. The island is 30 miles long and has a width varying from approximately 8.5 miles in the north, to 4 miles at its center, to 11.5 miles in the south. The island is surrounded by active reefs and a number of uninhabited limestone islands. After more than 300 years of foreign control, the 14 Northern Mariana Islands located north of Guam became self-governing in January 1978 as the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI). The indigenous population was granted U.S. citizenship in 1986 and granted many benefits

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associated with that status, while retaining the right to control their own immigration, minimum wage, and tax system (Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan, CNMI, 2004). 2.1.2 History

Descendants of the first settlers on Guam lived in relative isolation in the western Pacific for about 3,000 years, until the arrival of the Spanish explorer Magellan and a small Spanish fleet in 1521. Spain used the Marianas as a stop along their trade-route to Manila. Under Spanish occupation the indigenous Chamorro culture changed and their population declined. As a result of the U.S. victory in the SpanishAmerican War of 1898, Guam was ceded to the U.S. by the Treaty of Paris, and subsequently became a remote coaling outpost for the U.S. Navy. With its natural harbor setting, Apra Harbor became a primary location for military operations. The strategic position of Guam resulted in its use as a coaling port at the beginning of this century, and subsequently as a port-ofcall for Pan American Airlines’ first trans-Pacific air route. By 1941, Apra Harbor had become the military, commercial, communications, and transportation center for Guam. Japan invaded Guam on December 10, 1941, converting the island into its own military outpost. In the summer of 1944, after a three-week period of naval and air bombardment, U.S. forces liberated the island. Guam went on to play an important role in the Allied push towards Japan during the later stages of World War II, becoming a major staging area for military operations in the Western Pacific. In 1949, an executive order (EO) transferred the government of Guam from the Navy to

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the Department of the Interior, and as noted above, Guam became an unincorporated territory in 1950. 2.1.3 Socio-Economic Conditions

popularly elected mayors and councils, but these have only advisory powers. 2.1.5 Federal Government on Guam

Guam’s economy would benefit directly and indirectly from an increased commitment of military forces on the island. The island’s overall financial health has been problematic the past ten years, with huge declines in tourism,* a reduction in military loading, and the Asian financial crisis of 1997-98. Aging tourist and public infrastructure, along with extensive damage caused by a series of destructive typhoons in the last few years have combined to slow the Territory’s economic recovery. Global events together with the natural disasters and economic problems in the region have continued a contraction in Guam’s economy. From 1996-2002, DOD spending on Guam decreased from $507 M to $461 M. While this is a small cutback, Federal employees, whether in uniform or civilians, generally receive more in wages, salaries and benefits than those employed in tourism and other civilian services on the island. 2.1.4 Guam’s Institutional Structure and Information Flow

Government on Guam consists of two components: Federal (mainly military bases and their civilian employees), and GOVGUAM, the territorial government. There is no municipal or other form of government with taxing powers. A major employer on Guam, the Federal government civilian employment made up 21% of public employment on the island. Reduced military spending, however, has threatened this advantage in recent years. Since Guam has no other major industry other than tourism, there are no alternative sources of work and the usual employment benefits to replace national defense. The search for offshore insurance and trust business has yet to produce the workers and taxes that would revive its declining economy. Given the competitive nature of financial services regionally, it may not be feasible to attract to a small island economy top-ranking financial firms. In the digital age, location may not be as pivotal as it once was, except for defense purposes. 2.1.6 Construction Industry

Guam’s governmental structure generally follows that of a U.S. state. The executive branch is headed by a popularly-elected governor who serves a four-year term. The 15 member unicameral legislature is composed of popularly elected senators that serve two-year terms. Individual villages have
*

Guam’s construction industry has contracted considerably in recent years. Employing over 12,500 workers, or 25% of the island’s workforce during the height of the building boom in the 1990’s, by 2005 that figure had shrunk to under 4,000 workers, or 9% of the island’s workforce.† Military repair and rehabilitation of existing facilities, as well as new military
†

Tourism dropped after the Asian financial crisis, then again after 9/11, and was slowed further by the SARs epidemic.

See BOH Economic Report.

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construction on Guam would be expected to increase the construction workforce significantly.

2.2 DOD BASES AND LAND HOLDINGS
During the past two decades, the DOD presence on Guam has decreased. Past actions of the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission have identified land at the former NAS Agana and former Ship Repair Facility (SRF) in Apra Harbor for closure. Today, portions of land at the former NAS are utilized to support airfield operations at the GIAP. Other lands are controlled by GOVGUAM or transferred to original landowners. Approximately 100 acres at the former SRF have been leased to the Guam Economic Development Authority (GEDA) who sub-leases the property to the Guam Shipyard (GSY), a private ship repair contractor that provides services to the U.S. Navy and civilian customers. Planning studies in 1977 and 1994 (GLUP 77 and GLUP 94) conducted additional evaluation of DOD land requirements on Guam and recommended release of substantial amounts of land. Since these studies were finalized, significant areas of land (notably around Finegayan, Barrigada, Nimitz Hill, and Sasa Valley/Tenjo Vista) have been released to GOVGUAM. Other lands recommended for release, including areas of Andersen NWF and Andersen South, have been retained and are available for continued DOD use. As noted in Chapter 1, all existing and some former DOD land areas are considered in this study to meet to satisfy GIMDP planning initiatives. Table 2-1 summarizes existing DOD landholdings and provides approximate acreages for major U.S. Air Force and

U.S. Navy installations on Guam. The following section provides an overview discussion of these landholdings (also see Figure 1-1 in the previous chapter).

Table 2-1: DOD Landholdings on Guam Location Andersen AFB Andersen South Andersen Barrigada Communications Annex Apra Harbor Naval Complex Naval Base Guam Ordnance Annex NCTS Finegayan NCTS Barrigada Naval Hospital Guam Total Size (Acres) 15,500 2,000 430 9,100 8,800 3,000 1,100 90 40,000

2.2.1

U.S. Air Force Landholdings

Andersen AFB One of the largest airfields in the U.S. Air Force, Andersen AFB covers 24.5 square miles, or about 15,500 acres, of a relatively flat, uplifted limestone plateau at the northern end of the island. To the north, west, and east of the plateau, steep cliffs drop 500 to 600 feet to a coastal terrace and the 2-5

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shoreline. The main operations area shown in Figure 2-3 includes the main active airfield (includes south runway 06R/24L with 11,100 feet and north runway 06L/24R with 10,500 feet) and an array of operations, maintenance, and community support facilities. A majority of these activities are located along the South Ramp. The North Ramp area includes operations of the Navy’s HSC-25, munitions storage in the former Strategic Command storage area, and parking apron space for contingency operations. To the west of the airfield operations area is the MSA which provides land for current and projected U.S. Air Force ordnance storage requirements on Guam. Explosive Safety Quantity Distance (ESQD) arcs from the existing magazines impact much of the central portion of the base. Northwest Field lies to the west of the MSA and includes approximately 4,400 acres of mostly undeveloped, environmentally sensitive areas. Originally constructed with two 10,000-foot runways, parallel taxiways, and sizeable parking ramps, the last major renovation on the runways occurred in 1972. No units have operated from NWF since the early 1970’s and facilities, runways/taxiways, and other infrastructure have deteriorated to an inadequate or nonexistent condition (PACAF 2005). The area around NWF is used mostly for helicopter and fixed wing Outlying Landing Field (OLF) and austere landing training, Red Horse combat engineer training, and is home to Detachment 5, 22nd Space Operations Squadron (Air Force Space Command). Much of Andersen AFB is undeveloped, approximately 10,000 acres primarily in the MSA, NWF and coastal areas, some of which is native limestone forest. Undeveloped land in this area poses

difficulties with regard to development due to environmental concerns, including preservation of native forests (some of which are primary limestone forests) and threatened / endangered species habitat. Undeveloped acreage is designated a National Wildlife Refuge, Military Overlay, and is subject to a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). Andersen South Formerly known as the Andersen Administrative Annex, Air Force operations at Andersen South have stopped and facilities in the area have been abandoned. Family housing and bachelor quarter buildings that remain are in disrepair, and the base infrastructure has not been maintained. The area, encompassing approximately 2,000 acres, is available for reuse. 2.2.2 U.S. Navy Landholdings

U.S. Navy operations are focused around waterfront landholdings at Apra Harbor, but also include major areas such as the Ordnance Annex, Sasa Valley/Tenjo Vista (fuel storage) Nimitz Hill (Department of Defense Elementary and Secondary Schools (DDESS) high school and family housing), Naval Hospital, NCTS Barrigada (communication transmitters), NCTS Finegayan (communication receivers), and other outlying family housing areas.

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Apra Harbor Naval Complex Land use at the Main Base is typical of an established naval station. Romeo, Sierra, and Tango Wharves (Figure 2-4) are the primary general purpose berths that support MSC operations and frequent transient combatant ships. Lands adjacent to ship berths are primarily mission related, with administrative and personnel support, housing, and bachelor quarters generally located inland from the waterfront. Orote Peninsula, site of a World War II airfield, is encumbered by a SDZ from small arms range, as well as ESQD arcs generated by ordnance operations at Kilo Wharf and Buoy 702 in the Outer Harbor which is used for Military Preposition Ships (MPS) and the Seabee quarry area. Existing homeport submarines and the USS FRANK CABLE (Tender) are berthed on Polaris Point at the entrance to the Inner Apra Harbor. The former SRF area is currently leased to a private ship repair company. Ordnance Annex The Ordnance Annex, located in the south-central section of the island occupies an area of approximately 8,800 acres. It provides support to U.S. Forces operating in WESTPAC. The Annex is the site of the Fena Watershed and reservoir, the primary source of potable water for the Navy water system that provides approximately 60% of the military’s water supply on the island, and roughly 16% of the total island’s fresh water supply. Sasa Valley / Tenjo Vista U.S. Navy fueling wharves (Delta and Echo) are located in the Outer Apra Harbor near the commercial port. The wharves are 2-8

capable of berthing ships up to 800 feet in length. The Defense Fuel Support Point (DFSP) Guam consists of five major areas: Fuel wharves, Lower Sasa Valley, Upper Sasa Valley Tank Farm, Tenjo Vista Tank Farm, and the Navy segment of the DFSP Guam to Andersen AFB pipeline. The tank farms are connected by an internal pipeline system to the fuel wharves. The Upper Valley Tank Farm has pipeline transfer pumps that support pipeline transfers to Andersen AFB. The Lower Sasa Valley area contains administrative offices, a small fuel lab, tanker truck fill racks, Fuel Oil Return (FOR) tanks, and a small operating tank farm. The Upper Sasa Valley Tank Farm consists of twenty 50 million-barrel (MBBL) capacity cut and cover tanks built between 1952 and 1957. All of the DFSP JP-5 and JP-8 inventory, as well as 25% of the F76 inventory are held in this tank farm. The Tenjo Vista Tank Farm holds the remaining 75% (440 MBBL) of the overall F-76 inventory. Four 50 MBBL cut and cover tanks were built in 1960, and three 80 MBBL tanks in 1970. Naval Hospital / Nimitz Hill Nimitz Hill and the Naval Hospital Guam areas are centrally located near the capital city of Hagåtña. Planning initiatives for the Naval Hospital complex include construction of a new state-of-the-art Naval Hospital, and demolition of the existing hospital and related facilities. Some of the family housing units (FHU) at the Naval Hospital Complex will also be demolished

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to make room for a new DDESS Guam High School, which will replace the existing Guam High School located at Nimitz Hill. Housing areas at Nimitz Hill and the soon to be vacant Guam High School facility (FY08) could be redeveloped for increased use in support of GIMDP initiatives. Finegayan Located in northern Guam along the western shoreline adjacent to Andersen NWF, facilities at the NCTS Finegayan (Figure 2-5) provide space for headquarters and command center communications activities for all DOD services on the island. Much of the land at NCTS was previously constrained from development due to radio frequency interference (RFI) zone restrictions associated with the communication mission of the Circular Dipole Array Antenna (CDAA) and other on-site receiver facilities. Technological advances and mission changes have eliminated most of the RFI restrictions. Further, reductions in the number of personnel required to support the mission at NCTS have allowed for a number of facilities to be demolished or left vacant. Large areas of land previously restricted from development are now available for re-use. One and a half miles south of NCTS, the South Finegayan housing area provides space for U.S. Navy personnel working in northern Guam. Because of the reduction in force at NCTS, a number of family housing units have been demolished at South Finegayan, and others are programmed for demolition in the near future. Additionally, some newer units will be revitalized with a recently awarded contract to meet existing demand. Land is available for re-use.

Barrigada Land at Barrigada is largely used to support DOD communication high frequency transmitting activities. Headquarter facilities for the GUARNG are located adjacent to Navy land at Barrigada. Similar to NCTS Finegayan, changes in mission requirements and technological advances have reduced constraints on land areas previously restricted from development due electromagnetic radiation (EMR) zones, thus making some areas available for re-use. 2.2.3 U.S. Coast Guard Landholdings

The USCG mission in Guam includes maritime safety, search and rescue (SAR), maritime security, national defense (readiness), maritime mobility (aids to navigation), and protection of natural resources. Operations are consolidated at Victor Wharf on approximately 13 acres of land (Figure 2-4) owned by the USCG, which includes 200 feet of berthing along the wharf. USCG also has a license agreement on an additional 250 feet of berthing fronting its compound. Three main facilities, plus a K-span and several smaller structures in the area provide a total of 21,500 SF of space. 2.2.4 DOD Fuel Infrastructure

Navy/Air Force Military pipelines The military pipeline system consists of Navy and Air Force segments that span the 26 miles from DFSP Guam to Andersen AFB. The Navy portion was originally constructed to support operations at the former NAS Agana at Tiyan. The Navy’s 7.5 miles of underground dual 10-inch side by side pipelines are fed by two high pressure transfer pumps (500

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pounds per square inch (psi) discharge pressure) located in the Upper Sasa Valley Fuel Farm. The lines terminate at a transfer pump house in Tiyan, west of the international airport. The pipeline has a maximum operating pressure of 700 psi. The dual lines were designed to provide JP-5 to the former NAS and JP-8 to Andersen AFB. The Former NAS pipeline spur, located at the Tiyan manifold and running underground to the old NAS DFSP (demolished circa 1997) was decommissioned after the closing of the NAS. The Air Force portion of the pipeline consists of a single 10-inch underground pipeline that covers 16.3 miles from the Tiyan manifold to Andersen AFB DFSP. Commercial / Military Tanker Truck Loading Capabilities Tanker truck loading capabilities exist at DSFP Guam and all commercial fuel terminals. Commercial tanker trucks on Guam are limited. The average size is 9,200 gallon capacity consisting of a combination tractor truck and semi-trailer configuration. Airfield Fuel Capabilities The Andersen AFB 36th Logistic Readiness Squadron Fuels Flight Management operates and maintains the Andersen AFB DFSP capabilities. Recent military construction (MILCON) fuel storage upgrades and a four part Type III hydrant MILCON will significantly increase the fuels capabilities at Andersen AFB. For current capabilities at Andersen AFB refer to PACAF Base Support Plan.

2.3 PUBLIC INFRASTRUCTURE
Public infrastructure is currently provided or is readily available to all notional basing sites. The Navy owns the potable water treatment, storage, and distribution facilities for most of southern Guam, including the Naval Hospital Complex and Apra Harbor Naval Complex. Electrical power to all sites is provided by the Guam Power Authority (GPA). 2.3.1 Potable Water

Public drinking water is derived from several sources including ground, surface, and spring water (Figure 2-6). The island’s principal source of potable water comes from groundwater contained in the aquifer beneath the northern half of the island, commonly referred to as the Northern Lens Aquifer. Groundwater is pumped from this underground aquifer into the water distribution system by over 100 wells. A Northern Guam Lens Study† indicates a safe yield of 59 million gallons per day (mgd). Surface sources used by Guam Waterworks Authority (GWA) include an impoundment on the Ugum River and water purchased from the US Navy Water System (Fena). Spring water from Asan and Santa Rita supplements water supply to Asan, Piti, Anigua, and Santa Rita villages.‡ The Ugum River

†

“Final Report, Northern Guam Lens study, Groundwater Management Program, Aquifer Yield Report” prepared for GOVGUAM, Guam Environmnetal Protection Agency (EPA), by Camp Dresser & McKee in association with Barrett, Harris & Associates, Inc., December 1982.

U.S. Department of Interior, Office of Insular Affairs, A Report on the State of the Islands, at http://www.doi.gov/oia/StateIsland/chapter4.html (last visited 4/13/06) and Guam Waterworks Authority website at http://www.guamwaterworks.org/quality.html (last visited 4/13/06).

‡

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produces about 2 mgd, and GWA purchases up to 5 mgd from Fena to service its customers. Nearly 40 mgd is pumped out of the Northern Lens Aquifer each day, with approximately 30 mgd going to GWA customers. * Current DOD water demand is about 9 mgd. Water leaks in the distribution system are common. The GOVGUAM Water Facilities Master Plan indicates that 30 to 40% of daily water production is unaccounted for.† Leakage and un-metered use account for much of the total loss. 2.3.2 Wastewater (Sewer)

secondary treatment capacity, phasing out the former Navyowned and dilapidated Santa Rita/Agat WWTP and the Apra Harbor Port treatment facility, with the effluent pumped to the Hagåtña WWTP. The island’s total estimated primary WWTP capacity is almost 19 mgd. The Navy facility at Apra Harbor provides 4.3 mgd of this capacity. The total existing load on Guam is just over 13 mgd. 2.3.3 Solid Waste Disposal

Primary wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) are located in the Northern District near Tanguisson, the Central District in Hagåtña, Naval Base Guam at Apra Harbor, Santa Rita/Agat, and various other areas in southern Guam (Figure 2-6). In a 2003 statement, the U.S. EPA noted that five WWTP on Guam have a long history of failing to meet permit limits for pollutants discharged from the plants. Following this finding, GOVGUAM and GWA agreed to take specific measure to improve wastewater systems, including completion of short-term construction and rehabilitation projects and improvement of its management and operations and maintenance. GWA has sought a joint agreement with the Navy to develop a new Agat WWTP with a shared outfall with the Navy’s Apra Harbor WWTP. The new plant would provide 20 mgd of
*

Guam first enacted legislation in 1995 to charge user fees for the collection and dumping of solid waste at the government landfill (prior to that, garbage collection and dumping was freeof-charge). On February 11, 2004, GOVGUAM entered into a Consent Decree with the U.S. EPA regarding the operations of the island’s landfill in Ordot. The Consent Decree is a settlement agreement to resolve issues related to the unauthorized discharge of pollutants from the Ordot Dump to the Lonfit River in violation of the Clean Water Act (CWA). The Consent Decree requires GOVGUAM to finalize a new landfill design by June of 2006, and begin operations at the new landfill no later than September 2007.‡ The DOD operates two landfills on Guam (Figure 2-6). One, at Andersen AFB, has very limited remaining service life. The Air Force plans to expand the landfill to accept trash until the new Guam landfill is completed. The Navy owns and operates a

Guam Waterworks Authority website at http://www.guamwaterworks.org/quality.html (last visited 4/13/06).
†

U.S. Department of Interior, Office of Insular Affairs, A Report on the State of the Islands, at http://www.doi.gov/oia/StateIsland/chapter4.html (last visited 4/13/06).

‡

See http://www.guamlandfill.org/ (last visited 4/13/06).

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landfill in the Apra Harbor area, which, with projected GIMDP loading, has approximately 10-13 years of remaining service life. 2.3.4 Power Generation and Distribution

The GPA, an autonomous agency of GOVGUAM, has the responsibility to provide electricity throughout the island. Peak demand in 2005 was approximately 260 megawatts (MW), with an average daily production of just over 5 million kilowatt hours (KWH).* The average KWH per customer in 2005 was 12,064. GPA’s current available generation capacity is approximately 550 MW (includes generating units that are in operation and units that are down for repair), with a present peak coincident demand about 265 MW. The electrical system (Figure 2-7) is plagued with transmission problems caused by storms, brown tree snakes, and aging equipment that suffers from lack of recapitalization and poor system design, resulting in brownouts and load shifting. There is a non-attainment area down wind of and associated with the GPA power plants at Cabras/Piti, which could be exacerbated by increased demand for electrical generation. Air Force project AJJY336449 and Navy P-494 are intended to provide critical upgrades within DOD systems on the island. Also, GPA has identified a number of projects to support future growth on the island. The Guam Five Year Capital Improvement Plan (CIP) dated April 2005 proposes $50M in new projects, largely to underground existing 34.5 kV lines.
See http://www.guampowerauthority.com/operations/generationupdate.html (last visited 4/13/06).
*

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2.3.5

Roadways

The estimated length of the road network on Guam is approximately 600 miles.* As illustrated in Figure 2-7, the primary network of paved roadways is anchored by Marine Drive (Route1), a mostly four-lane highway running from Naval Base Guam in the south through Hagåtña to Andersen AFB. Route 16 is also a four-lane roadway that runs from Marine Drive in Hagåtña, into the central portion of the island, around the former NAS Agana at Tiyan, into Barrigada, then on to Harmon where the roadway once again intersects Marine Drive. Route 3 branches from Marine Drive in Dededo, with four lanes running along the northwest side of the island to the NCTS Finegayan gate. The roadway narrows to two lanes past NCTS Finegayan, and continues on northward to Ritidian Point. Route 9 intersects Route 3 at Potts Junction in the north, providing an east-west junction with Marine Drive at the entrance to Andersen AFB. Route 15 runs along the northeast coast of the island to the Andersen AFB back gate, connecting to Route 10 in Mangilao. The Guam 2020 Highway Master Plan draft report that is currently being reviewed by the Federal Highway Administration, is proposing that improvements to the highway system be based on an average annual increase of 2% in the population on Guam.

*

CIA Guam Factbook, at http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/ docs/notesanddefs.html#2085 (4/13/06).

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2.3.6

Other Public Infrastructure

Airport The A.B. Won Pat Guam International Air Terminal and surrounding facilities are administered by the Guam Airport Authority (GAA). Most of the airport terminal facilities were constructed in the last 10-15 years, and GAA has recently expanded its airport aprons to alleviate the problems of aircraft waiting in the taxiways. A new terminal was completed in 1998, increasing the number of passenger gates to seventeen. The closing of NAS Agana in 1995 provided additional acreage and facilities for expansion of airport and associated operations. The former NAS, which owned the airport's runways, was ordered closed by the BRAC in August, 1993. Former NAS Agana lands have since been released to GOVGUAM. The GIAP facility handles approximately 1,400 flights each month and approximately 1.5 million passengers per year.* The airport is a regional aviation hub and base of operations for Continental Micronesia's (the regional carrier) fleet. Seaport The Port Authority of Guam (PAG) administers the commercial port facilities at Apra Harbor. PAG is a public corporation and autonomous agency of GOVGUAM. Guam's port is a major transshipment center of the Western Pacific and is equipped to move containerized, unitized, break-bulk, and commercial
*

fishing cargo efficiently. Based on 2005 financial statements, the port is solvent and is roughly a break even operation. Historically, Guam’s port has seen a decline in vessel calls of all types, decreasing from a high in 1995 of 594 cargo vessels port calls (excluding fishing and recreational vessels) to a total of 408 in FY 2005, a decline of approximately 30%. Fishing port calls have also declined, but still make up the majority of visits, approximately 800 in 2005. Port calling cargo ships are aggregated into two categories: break bulk / Ro-Ro ships, and container ships, with roughly 25% of the ships calling being container ships, and 75% break bulk or Ro-Ro. However, 91% of the cargo through the port is containerized; of a total of 2,041,807 revenue tons in 2005, approximately 1,850,000 (91%) was containerized. It is anticipated that the port facility will be the primary entry point for construction materials during any build-up of military facilities on Guam. The 2005 Guam Five Year CIP lists a number of projects intended to upgrade the capability and efficiency of the port. These projects total almost $155M, of which only $56M are currently funded. One of the unfunded projects is a new deep draft wharf intended to add 2,900 linear feet of berthing in the civilian harbor. Bulk Petroleum & Fuel All of Guam’s commercial fuel piers are clustered in the north end of Apra Harbor, the island’s only commercial wet/dry cargo deep draft harbor. Apra Harbor also serves as the regional fuel hub supporting the Northern Mariana islands. Two commercial bulk petroleum piers are owned by the GPA. An Exxon-Mobile terminal is located on Cabras Island directly across the channel from DFSP Guam’s fuel piers. The Exxon-

See Guam Airport Statistics at http://www.guamairport.com/pdf/stats/Ops%20stats%20ending%20Feb%20 2006.pdf (4/13/06).

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Mobile Terminal is the regional hub for fuel distribution to other islands in the Marianas. The terminal receives fuel by T-5 sized tankers from the Singapore Mobile refinery. ExxonMobile provides the majority of the gasoline, diesel, and JA-1 distribution for Guam. The Exxon terminal consists of three gasoline and two diesel tanks. Additional Exxon tanks constructed on Port Authority property store JA-1 and waste fuel.

2.4 ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS
Guam’s natural resources and physical setting in the Western Pacific create unique conditions that must be considered while planning for expansion of DOD activities on the island. The following sections provide a brief overview of issues to be considered in further development. 2.4.1 Biological Resources

Outer Apra Harbor is known to have occasional Green Sea Turtles, a listed threatened species of marine reptile. Coral reefs, given protected status in Executive Order 13089, exist throughout Outer Apra Harbor. No species of plants or animals that are listed or proposed for listing as threatened or endangered under ESA have been observed or are expected to occur on any of the sites proposed for development. However, some sites include recovery habitat for endangered species, although no individuals of those species are known to inhabit these areas. Special consideration would be required for any sites containing wetlands, coral reefs, perennial streams, undisturbed limestone forest, or sensitive riparian areas. 2.4.2 Air Quality and Noise

Species and/or habitats of concern exist within Andersen AFB, Andersen NWF, NCTS Finegayan, and the Ordnance Annex. Important environmental areas within Andersen AFB include the Andersen AFB Pati Point Preserve, the Andersen AFB Marine Resources Preserve, and the Guam National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) Overlay that covers over 10,000 acres (Programmatic EIS, Establishment of a Global Strike Task Force, Andersen AFB, Guam, PACAF, October 2005). There are four endangered species that have habitat at Andersen AFB. Under the ESA, the habitat has to be managed as if the species exist. Actions in these areas require extensive Section 7 consultation.

According to the Guam Energy Office, the Territory of Guam is generally free from serious air pollution. Despite the high concentration of human activity in the Hagåtña-Tamuning metropolitan area, favorable meteorological conditions, in particular the nearly constant trade winds, have prevented the build-up of any significant pollutants (Guam Energy Offfice, no date.). As noted previously, there is, however, a nonattainment area down wind of and associated with the GPA power plants at Cabras/Piti, which could be exacerbated by increased demand for electrical generation. The primary source of noise relate to DOD activities on Guam involves airfield operations in the vicinity of Andersen AFB. Due to the size of the base and location of the runways relative to the shoreline, few civilian areas on Guam are affected by normal aircraft operations. Future operations at

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Andersen AFB are not anticipated to generate noise impacts on surrounding areas. 2.4.3 Ground and Surface Water Resources

Water quality on Guam is monitored by the Guam EPA in compliance with existing Federal and local regulations. Guam’s ground water is generally free from pollution discharges, and island wide water quality is consistently high. 2.4.4 Natural Disasters

Guam is located in an area of the Pacific commonly referred to as “Typhoon Alley,” where an average of 31 tropical storms develop annually. On average, at least one or more tropical cyclones affect Guam each year. Since 1970, over 16 typhoons* have hit the island. Guam experiences some of the most intense typhoons in the world. Typhoons in this region pose a threat all year long, but are most frequent between the months of June and December. One of the most intense typhoons to ever strike Guam was typhoon Karen, which passed over the southern part of the island in 1962. Wind gusts estimated near 185 mph destroyed 95% of all homes on the island. Super Typhoon Pongsona in 2002 had measured wind gusts up to 184 mph, destroying over 1,300 homes, devastating island infrastructure, and causing over $800M in damage. Super Typhoon Paka in 1997 struck the northern past of the island with wind gusts of up to 240 mph.

Earthquake risk in Guam is caused by the island’s proximity to the Mariana Trench, where the subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the Philippine Plate occurs. This motion leads to earthquakes throughout the Mariana Island chain. The 1849 Guam earthquake and tsunami caused extensive damage to Agana, the largest city on Guam, as did the 1902, 1975, and 1978 earthquakes. The 1993 Guam earthquake measured 8.2 in magnitude. Several high-rise buildings in Tumon Bay, mostly hotels, sustained enough damage to warrant demolition, while liquefaction and lateral spreading resulted in an estimated $8-10M in repair costs to the main port for Guam. Uniform Wharf in the Inner Apra Harbor has been condemned due to damage suffered during the 1993 earthquake. 2.4.5 Brown Tree Snake Eradication

A native to Indonesia, the brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis) was first introduced into Guam during World War II by military cargo ships and aircraft. Having become well established throughout Guam by the late 1960s, the brown tree snake is considered an invasive species. It has been sighted, but is not established in the Northern Mariana Islands (Saipan, Tinian, and Rota) or other islands of Micronesia. Currently, there are up to 12,000 to 15,000 snakes per square mile on Guam. The only known natural predators of the brown tree snake are pigs and monitor lizards. An active nocturnal species, the brown tree snake is directly responsible for an extraordinary decline in Guam's biodiversity. The snake preys upon lizards, introduced and domestic birds, rats, geckos, skinks, and any other available vertebrates. Over

*

A typhoon is a severe tropical storm with sustained winds 75 mph or greater. No different than a hurricane, the term “typhoon” is used for storms occurring in the western Pacific or Indian oceans.

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the past two decades, this predator has caused the disappearance of nearly all of the native forest birds on Guam, including the extinction of the Guam rail and the Micronesian kingfisher. The snake’s decimation of the bird population and resultant loss of avian seed dispersers has also caused declines in the reproductive rate of introduced plants and shrubs. The abundance of the brown tree snake has also caused farreaching secondary ecological impacts. The snake is responsible for the decline of the flying fox, a crucial species for the pollination and seed dispersal of tropical trees. Also, without the presence of certain avian insectivores, the insect population may experience a population boom and therefore negatively impact local agriculture. The cultural fabric of the island communities are negatively impacted by the brown tree snake as well. Fruit bats, an important part of indigenous rituals and celebrations on the Mariana Islands, have shown great declines since the introduction of the brown tree snake. In addition to these negative biological impacts, the brown tree snake impacts the economy of the island through large-scale electrical power outages and damages to equipment. Since 1978, over 1200 power outages have occurred as a result of the brown tree snake shorting high voltage electrical lines and transformers. Moreover, continuously increasing populations of the brown tree snake are responsible for predation of farm animals, poultry, and pets, leading to further economic consequences. The snakes are mildly venomous to humans and their non-fatal bite can cause severe sickness in young children.

Containment of this invasive species is a concern for military operations. The significance of the ecological and economical destruction caused by the brown tree snake has prompted Federal legislative action under U.S. Code Title 16, Section 4728, which states that a task force should develop a "comprehensive, environmentally sound program in coordination with regional, territorial, state, and local entities to control the brown tree snake in Guam and other areas where the species is established outside of its historic range." The Secretary of Defense has committed to a 100 percent inspection rate for all military airlift leaving Guam.

2.5 SUMMARY OF OPPORTUNITIES & CONSTRAINTS
Guam has a well-developed infrastructure that once was sized for a much more robust military presence. In general, Guam’s civilian infrastructure has aged without maintenance or recapitalization as a result of regional economic conditions and the decline in the military presence. The stressed public infrastructure is frequently impacted by natural disasters such as typhoons and earthquakes, which put additional maintenance and repair demands on the system. Future DOD operations on the island will be constrained by these conditions, along with other natural environmental protection issues that focus on retaining important habitat areas on the island’s limited land resource. As shown in Figure 2-8, much of Andersen AFB and NWF include areas that are considered environmentally important. Depending on the type of activity proposed, development in these areas can be more

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difficult and is subject to litigation that could impact on implementation of a project. In addition to natural constraints, DOD operations add a number of man-made constraints such as explosives safety hazard zones and airfield safety / noise zones that restrict development in certain locations. The reduction in military presence on Guam, along with changes in some mission requirements do, however, create opportunities for the redevelopment and / or expansion into new areas in order to accommodate new DOD initiatives on the island. Most notably, the removal of former RFI-free setback zones and recent building demolition at NCTS Finegayan frees up substantial acreage for redevelopment. Reduction of force requirements and recent demolitions also provide the opportunity for redevelopment at the South Finegayan housing area. Other opportunities in northern Guam include use of Andersen South for unit training (the area is currently used for training), expanded use of the North Ramp at Andersen AFB (the Air Force proposes construction of a “Fighter Town” but additional lands are available for expansion of operational activities), and the discontinuation of communication activities on the western portion of NCTS Barrigada provide an opportunity for re-use of land in the area.

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Opportunities and constraints in southern Guam are highlighted in Figure 2-9. Generally, constraints involve explosives safety hazard zones associated with ordnance storage at the Ordnance Annex, and ordnance handling operations at the ammunition wharf in Apra Harbor. The southern shoreline of the Naval Complex is an ecological preserve area, and much of the land at the Ordnance Annex is constrained with natural and cultural features that require protection. The primary opportunity in the harbor is to recapitalize existing waterfront areas to accommodate a higher DOD operational tempo. There is some opportunity to expand individual training activities at the Ordnance Annex, and facilities at Nimitz Hill will be available for re-use once construction of a new Guam DDESS High School is completed at the Naval Hospital area.

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Chapter 3: Facility Requirements & Analysis

CHAPTER 3: FACILITY REQUIREMENTS AND ANALYSIS
This chapter provides an overview of anticipated facility requirements generated by the notional GIMDP force list, and discusses feasible combinations of basing / bed-down alternatives on Guam. The chapter is organized into the following sections: ! ! Section 3.1, GIMDP Baseline Loading (overview of population for all services and mission support); Section 3.2, Summary of Service Mission Support Requirements (summarizes facility requirements of the notional forces); * Section 3.3, Joint Service Community Support Requirements (overview of notional QOL requirements, including housing, billeting, medical, schools, etc.); Section 3.4, Alternate Basing Analysis (considers alternative base configurations for required facilities); and Section 3.5, Basing Analysis Conclusions. ! ! ! ! Consider the spatial and relational needs of required facilities; Identify potential infrastructure; alternative sites for the required

Select preferred sites; and Project site-specific development costs.

!

! !

This procedure was followed in a series of iterations involving numerous command reviews. From base loading factors described in Section 3.1, facility requirements were generated by use of the NAVFACENGCOM Publication P-80, and service-specific input. Standard templates were used for both BQ and family housing. In the case of the USMC, BQ and related personnel support facilities were grouped with operational facilities to define service and component specific base operational areas. Family housing and related QOL facilities were jointly considered for all services. As a first order of magnitude planning step in the land analysis process, spatial requirements for the required operational facilities were estimated using a 4 to 1 gross square foot floor area ratio, then adding various fields, open lots, and training lands on a 1 to 1 basis. Family housing spatial requirements were estimated at 6 housing units per acre plus associated QOL requirements. Special site planning factors associated with the required facilities (ESQD, SDZ, noise buffers, proximity factors) were integrated with spatial requirements to determine feasible site alternatives. These were then

The principal methodology for this analysis follows a standard facilities planning procedure: !
*

Determine the loading factors that create a need for new facilities;

[Note: the majority of this effort focused on new USMC, Navy, and Army requirements. Air Force requirements for new initiatives were developed prior to the GIMDP planning process, and are generally incorporated into this effort as documented in Air Force plans and environmental reports.];

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evaluated in light of explicit planning criteria to arrive at a preferred basing set.

3.2 SERVICE MISSION SUPPORT REQUIREMENTS
3.2.1 U.S. Marine Corps Notional USMC loading assumes a MEF (-) comprised of a CE, GCE, LSE, and ACE. Significant loading considerations include all facilities required to support a brigade-sized element of the MEF, including sea and air embarkation, training, aviation operations, housing and personnel support, and logistic support. A Marine Littoral Warfare Training Center (MLWTC) has been defined to provide for combined operational training requirements identified by MARFORPAC. The MLWTC would also support Joint Task Force contingency war training and operations. USMC loading is a mixture of home-based personnel (notional 2-year tour with dependents) and UDP organizations (6-month unit deployment from permanent bases elsewhere, without dependents). On-island training facilities associated with the MEF(-) are intended to meet most individual and unit level training requirements, as specified by applicable TECOM guidance. These ranges could also support the needs of other services on Guam. Some individual, unit, and most organizational level training for the MEF(-) is assumed to be conducted off island, and is not evaluated in this study. The MEF CE is the operational headquarters for the entire force, of which the Guam element is but one portion. As such, the CE has substantial operational oversight not related to the Guam-based force.

3.1 GIMDP BASELINE LOADING
The GIMDP baseline loading was established by USPACOM to serve as a basis for establishing planning requirements, and is illustrative of the possible mix of joint military units that could be based or bed-down on Guam. Existing and notional future Guam DOD loading numbers are provided in Table 3-1. The loading is comprised of various USMC, Air Force, Navy, Army, and USCG units. Much of the baseline loading information with regard to sources and specific units is classified SECRET, and will not be explicitly discussed herein. For further information on actual units and loading numbers, authorized personnel should contact USPACOM. For purposes of this study, only UNCLASSIFIED loading information is discussed. The list contained herein is a notional force list, without regard to unit identification or source. The vessel, aircraft, and troop loading assessed in this report are those typical of the type unit or organization under consideration, which are described below and summarized in in terms of permanent party or transient. Table 3-2 lists the notional military strength of each service organization by permanent party and transient personnel. Subsequent breakdowns in the service sub-sections (tabulated in Appendix B, Base Loading Factors) add induced military strength for base support (7.5%) and estimate associated dependent loading. Principal End Items (PEI) of equipment for ground forces are also tabulated in Appendix B.

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Table 3-1: Guam DOD Existing and Notional Loading Baseline (FY05)* Service
Active Duty Dependents Total Active Duty Dependents Total Active Duty Dependents Total

GIMDP Notional Increase**

Total Future Loading Change

USMC Air Force Navy Army USCG SOF Total:

3 1,930 4,350 30 140 -6,450

2 2,280 5,230 50 180 -7,740

5 4,210 9,580 80 320 -14,190

9,700 2,630 1,250 600 30 350 14,560

8,550 1,450 50 900 50 630 11,630

18,250 4,080 1,300 1,500 80 980 26,190

9,700 4,560 5,600 630 170 350 21,010

8,550 3,730 5,280 950 230 630 19,320

18,250 8,290 10,880** 1,580 400 980 40,380

+++ +97% +14% +++ +25% +++ +185%

* Active duty (including rotational Seabees) stationed on Guam as of 31 March 2005 ** Final figures include Air Force personnel related to initiatives at Andersen NWF; SOF figures per draft review input; Navy notional loading does not include transient CVN figures

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Table 3-2: GIMDP Notional Increase Service Breakdown
Service Element USMC Air Force Navy Army USCG SOF Total Active Duty 9,700 2,630 1,250 600 30 350 14,560 Permanent Party 7,200 1,030 25 600 30 350 9,235 Transient* 2,500 1,600 1,225 0 0 0 5,325

3.2.2

Command Element

A notional MEF(-) CE is comprised of approximately 300 officers and 2,500 enlisted personnel. Of these, all are considered permanent personnel (PCS). An estimated 75 officers and 1,300 enlisted would be unaccompanied. Based on general facility requirements, approximately 1.4 million square feet of gross developed area is required for facilities to accommodate the operations of the CE and to house and support unaccompanied personnel. The amount of land needed for development of this infrastructure is approximately 130-135 acres. For planning purposes, the MEF CE is considered to be based as an entity, though opportunities exist to separately locate various portions of the element. The CE, for example, could be moved into an existing structure on Nimitz Hill. However, the total land area available at Nimitz Hill is insufficient to base the rest of the CE. The MLWTC is proposed to enhance the interoperability of USMC deploying elements with regional host country marine and maritime forces. This facility requires a location in the Apra Harbor area, with proximity to berthing for an amphibious vessel, considered to be an Amphibious Assault ShipHelicopter (LPD) 17 for planning purposes. The notional facility is expected to comprise a space of approximately 32,000 square feet, including instructional and administrative space for a staff of 130 and a maximum student load of battalion size (approximately 700 persons). It is anticipated that this facility could be adjacent to a separate Task Force headquarters that would be used during a contingency.

*Figures do not include 5,000 personnel associated with the transient CVN/CVW. Includes UDP personnel for USMC; and Temporary Duty (TDY) personnel for Air Force and Navy.

The GCE, ACE and LSE on Guam are anticipated to have a substantial irregular warfare mission, which would involve task organized elements moving to nearby nations on a frequent basis (by air or sea). Due to the limited size of Guam, organizational training would by necessity be accomplished off island, at other Mariana Island locations (in CNMI) or elsewhere. Thus, frequent on and off island movements are assumed, and efficiency of that movement is a key objective of this plan. Personnel and order of magnitude land requirements for the CE, GCE, LSE and ACE are summarized below. Training requirements are discussed in the following section.

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3.2.2 (a)

Ground Combat Element

The notional GCE is comprised of approximately 350 officers and 2,550 enlisted personnel, of which 250 officers and 2,200 enlisted are assumed to be UDP or PCS unaccompanied. The total facility requirement for the GCE is approximately 1.9M square feet, of which about 1.4M square feet is associated with BQ and related personnel support facilities. This figure does not include training areas, ranges and playing fields, which are discussed in Section 3.2.2. Nor does it include staging areas for gun parks, Light Armored Vehicle (LAV), Amphibious Assault Vehicle (AAV), or Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle (EFV) operations. These should be accommodated as appropriate for operational efficiency. The gross land area required to accommodate the development of GSE infrastructure if about 170-175 acres. The GCE requires both live fire ranges and training maneuver areas. As infantry weapons and supporting arms have extended reach, the only potentially feasible locations on Guam for direct fire ranges is where land is along the shoreline and adjacent to open ocean waters over which SDZ can extend. Ideally, rifle ranges are within walking distance of base areas. Small unit (squad/platoon) training areas should also be within walking distance. The GCE requires waterfront facilities for its AAV / EFV platoon, and for the Reconnaissance Company boathouse and launching ramp. Amphibious Assault Vehicle 3.2.2 (b) Logistic Support Element

The notional LSE is comprised of approximately 125 officers and 1,425 enlisted personnel, of which 50 officers and 750 enlisted are assumed to be PCS unaccompanied. Facility requirements for LSE operations and bachelor personnel support total approximately 1.8M square feet. The gross land area to accommodate this development is approximately 190 acres including open storage areas. The LSE is considered herein as a consolidated operation, but it is likely that portions of the LSE will be located in proximity to the supported elements, and would include a detachment or compound in the port area for embarkation support.

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The LSE requires designated areas to support air and sea embarkation activities. The air embarkation requirements include expansion of the passenger terminal capacity at Andersen AFB, plus space for a cargo terminal near the Air Mobility Squadron compound for equipment marshalling, inspection, and holding area. The port embarkation facility requirement is assumed to be sized to load an LPD, an Amphibious Assault Ship-Multi Purpose (LHD), and a Dock Landing Ship (LSD), or two large and two small HSV simultaneously. An embarkation area comprising approximately 15 acres (14 paved, one under roof) with associated facilities near the loading piers, and an Landing Craft Air Cushion (LCAC), Landing Craft, Utility (LCU), and AAV ramp area of approximately 5 acres, are required in the harbor. It is assumed the harbor compound comprises ship berthing facilities, equipment staging facilities, material handling equipment and maintenance yard, covered storage, command and control facilities, and personnel support for embarkation teams. The LCAC ramp area is sized for 4 LCACs to stage and load simultaneously, and also accommodate AAV / EFVs. 3.2.2 (c) Aviation Combat Element

approximately 1.7M square feet of facility space (920,000 square feet for operational purposes, 755,000 square feet for personnel support). The gross land area required to accommodate this development is about 155-165 acres. Of this total, approximately 70-75 acres are for personnel support infrastructure, and 85-90 acres for operational support, logistic support, flight line purposes, and open storage and miscellaneous hard stands. The ACE also requires a parking apron of approximately 270,000 square yards (2.5M square feet), and a runway configured for Combat Assault and Assault Support MV-22 operations, approximately 1,800 meters (5,900 feet) in length. This runway would be sufficient to accommodate an Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) helipad.

The notional ACE is comprised of approximately 250 officers and 2,150 enlisted personnel, of which 100 officers and 1,300 enlisted are assumed to be UDP or PCS unaccompanied. The ACE requires both operational facilities and aviation operational surfaces such as runways and parking aprons. Including hangars and other flight line facilities (except for operating surfaces), the ACE requires development of

Combat Assault and Assault Support MV-22

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3.2.3

Training

Table 3-3: USMC Individual Training Requirements Element GCE / LSE / ACE Range Description Battle Sight Zero Range Known-Distance (KD) Rifle and Pistol (up to 1,000 meters) Field Firing Range Machine Gun Range GCE / LSE 40 mm Range Engineer Qualification Range Light Demolition Range Maneuver Area Anti-Armor Range Fighting Vehicle Stationary Gunnery Range GCE Mortar Range Fire & Movement Range / Squad Battle Course Hand Grenade Range MOUT Assault Course / MOUT Training Facility Offensive Air Support Range ACE Assault Support Range Electronic Warfare Range

The USMC force on Guam would be a combination of UDP organizations and home-based organizations, reflecting a range of individual, unit, and organizational training readiness at any given time. The training target for the GIMDP is to obtain adequate facilities on Guam to provide as much of individual and unit level training capabilities as possible. Higher levels of training are assumed to be obtained during relatively frequent deployments, and by training events at other Mariana Islands locations (in CNMI). UDP organizations are also assumed to have accomplished full training work-up prior to arrival on Guam including service weapon annual qualification. The principle obstacles to achieving training objectives on Guam are the limitations of land availability, existing patterns of development, and regulatory constraints. Training capabilities proposed by the plan are shown in Table 3.3 and are the same as those listed in Section 7.3 of the MCTEC Draft Required Capabilities Document, Individual Level Training. For efficiency in training implementation, it is preferred that much of the individual and small unit training be available at the home base within foot marching distance. 3.2.4 Ordnance

Notional GIMDP ordnance requirements include unit training ammunition allowances and mount-out stocks as identified by service components. The plan envisions ordnance

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requirements for ground elements (25,000 square feet) to be met within existing and new magazines at the Ordnance Annex, with ready magazines at Finegayan for temporary ordnance storage to support range operations, and aviation ordnance support magazines (4,000 square feet) within the existing Andersen AFB munitions storage area. 3.2.5 U.S. Air Force

conducting a surveillance mission and closed pattern training, with 10-15% of the operations conducted at night. 3.2.5 (b) Tankers

Notional Air Force loading includes personnel and equipment associated with homebased Global Hawks, based tankers, along with transient fighter and bomber detachments. An ISR and Strike (ISR/Strike) capability will be established at Andersen AFB by basing tanker and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) aircraft and personnel, along with rotating fighter and bomber aircraft and personnel from other bases. Appendix C lists the notional requirements. The number of fighter and tanker aircraft, and associated personnel would increase over the next ten years as the ISR/Strike capability is built. 3.2.5 (a) Global Hawk

Up to 12 tankers would be permanently based on Guam, with a total of up to 600 aircrew and support personnel permanently based at Andersen AFB. Requirements would include renovations to existing hangars, mooring and grounding points, family housing, new BQ, and various other QOL upgrades / renovations. Home-based tanker aircrews would average four sorties per flight day that would include aerial refueling and closed-pattern training, with 10-15% of the operations conducted at night.

The Plan includes up to three Global Hawk UAV aircraft assigned to Andersen AFB, with a total of 50 personnel permanently based on Guam. Requirements include an operations and maintenance facility, various maintenance shops, a fuel cell maintenance hangar, family housing, BQ,* and various QOL upgrades / renovations. Homebased UAVs would average one sortie per flight day† that would include
*

The Air Force refers to bachelor quarters as Dormitories. † UAV operations are based on 220 flight days per year. Fighter, tanker, and bomber operations are based on 240 flight days per year.

Global Hawk Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

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3.2.6

Transient Fighters / Bombers

The Plan includes facilities and support infrastructure for up to 48 transient fighters and 6 transient bombers. A total of up to 1,600 personnel would be temporarily based at Andersen AFB on a rotational basis. Requirements would include a Precision Guided Munitions maintenance facility, upgrades to the Armament System Shop, taxiway repairs, new run-up pads, hardened aircraft shelters, engine test cells, various other shops and maintenance facilities, a fighter fuel system maintenance facility, and new/renovated transient lodging. Fighter aircrews would fly up to 20 sorties per flight day, while bomber aircrews would normally fly two sorties per day. Operations would include extensive training exercises in the Northern CNMI and other over-water training areas near Guam. 3.2.7 U.S. Navy

assumed to be deployed at any given time), plus a “likely” transient ship load. Future support ships anticipated to operate out of Guam include new (and yet to be built) LCS and HSV, also referred to as TSV by the Army. New T-AKE will replace smaller T-AE and T-AFS. Future transient vessels include SSGN submarines, a CVN, a 3-ship Amphibious Ready Group (ARG) assumed to include an LHD, LPD, and LSD as discussed in the previous section, and combatant ships (e.g., Guided Missile Cruiser [CG], Guided Missile Destroyer [DDG], Guided Missile Fast Frigate [FFG]) that would accompany a transiting CVN or ARG.

Future waterfront berthing requirements for the Navy incorporate existing homeport ships which include 3 SSN berthed at Polaris Point and a number of permanently forward deployed ships operated by the MSC that provide replenishment support for Fleet operating forces in WESTPAC. For planning purposes, it is assumed that current homeport and MSC loading in Apra Harbor remains constant (potential loading increases for Military Prepositioning Force (Future) (MPF(F)) and Afloat Prepositioning Ship (APS) requirements not addressed in this study). Further, estimating future requirements to accommodate GIMDP planning initiatives is based on providing shore infrastructure of 67% of proposed ships intending to operate out of Guam (others are

High Speed Vessel

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Notional Navy loading also includes a Multi-Mission Aircraft (MMA) detachment, the CVW of the transient CVN, and a continuation of regular visits by CVW-5 from Atsugi, Japan for training purposes. 3.2.7 (a) Nuclear-Powered Guided Missile Submarine

bed-down (anticipated typical stay of 21 days) at Andersen AFB. 3.2.7 (c) Littoral Combat Ship

Transient Nuclear-Powered Guided Missile Submarine (SSGN) in-port periods are expected to begin in FY08 with one ship making three annual 3-week port visits to conduct maintenance, repair, and crew turnover. A second transient SSGN is expected to begin similar maintenance, repair, and crew turnover port visits several years later. The SSGN loading will consist of a crew 15 officer and 144 enlisted personnel, a Special Operations Forces (SOF) compliment of 12 officers and 54 enlisted, and a maintenance support team consisting of 10 military and 90 civilians for each ship. For facility planning purposes, only one SSGN is anticipated to be in port at a time. 3.2.7 (b) Transient CVN

Forward deployed LCS are expected to operate out of Guam. Planning for three ships is included, with the first ship arriving in Guam no earlier than FY10. Support in Guam would include crew and maintenance team quarters, as well as a mission package support facility (59,000 square feet) and an operations support facility (34,000 square feet). LCS loading would be expected to consist of a crew of 13 officers and 137 enlisted, a maintenance team of one officer and 20 enlisted, and a module swap / maintenance team of one officer and 9 enlisted for each ship, a total of 180 personnel per ship. Maintenance shop requirements for the LCS have yet to be defined, but may require additional construction in the future. 3.2.7 (d) Multi-Mission Aircraft

Transient CVN port visits to Guam occur now, but the ship can only be accommodated at the existing Kilo Wharf ammunition pier. This can have a negative impact on ordnance handling activities that support ships in WESTPAC. For more frequent and longer port calls, a new carrier pier/wharf with cold iron capabilities would need to be constructed. For planning purposes, no additional infrastructure is required for maintenance or repair facilities. Most of the aircraft (up to 50) of the CVW may be expected to depart from the CVN prior to its port call. These transient aircraft would require temporary

The MMA is not anticipated to be added to the loading on Guam within the next 10 years. Detachments of 4 to 6 aircraft are assumed and would provide support for Pacific Fleet operations, training, and exercises. Loading would be expected to consist of a crew of 5 officers and 6 enlisted, accompanied by a maintenance team of one officer and 14 enlisted for each aircraft, plus one stand-by crew/maintenance team. The aircraft would be bed-down at Andersen AFB on a rotational basis. 3.2.7 (e) HSC-25

Though an existing Navy asset on Guam, HSC-25 requirements have been incorporated into the plan in order to

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capture and accommodate changes and requirements for the squadron. Current HSC-25 loading of 14 aircraft will shrink in the near-term as the MSC transitions to commercial airlift support. For planning purposes, the GIMDP loading assumes three MH-60S aircraft will remain in service to provide Guam SAR support, as well as Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) and SOF training support. Newly assigned missions include airborne mine counter missions, LCS detachment support, and tactical medical evacuation duty. The squadron is receiving new mission kits in 2007 that include enhanced door guns, forward firing capability, and a Forward Looking Infra-red (FLIR) system. Enhanced crew training in weapons and tactics will be required. Ten MH-60R or MH-60S aircraft are expected to join the squadron by FY11 to provide support for the new LCS mission. 3.2.8 U.S. Army

Island Class Patrol Boat (WPB) and a new 45-foot Response Boat – Medium (RB-M). Requirements would include increased housing and shoreside support, as well as additional berthing space for the cutter and patrol boat. Existing facilities in Apra Harbor provide approximately 75% of the overall USCG requirement. 3.2.10 Special Operations Forces Notional SOF loading includes home based personnel and equipment associated with a squadron of CV-22 Osprey (9 aircraft) that would be sited with the USMC ACE in a rotary wing air facility within the next 8 to 10 years. The squadron is assumed to have a total complement of 350 active duty personnel, with approximately 60 officers and 290 enlisted.

3.3 JOINT SERVICE COMMUNITY SUPPORT REQUIREMENTS
As noted in Section 3.1, GIMDP planning initiatives will increase the active duty and dependent populations of all service components on the island. However, a significant majority of the notional increase will be associated with new USMC operations moving to Guam. As a result, substantial investment in housing and community support infrastructure will be associated with the development of a new community in the Finegayan area to support USMC activities. The following sections provide an overview of anticipated quality of life facility requirements. 3.3.1 Family Housing

A notional Army mission has not been specifically defined for GIMDP purposes, but Army loading has been incorporated into the Plan reflective of a typical home-based Brigade-sized force. The notional loading is comprised of approximately 100 officers and 500 enlisted personnel, of which about 60 officers and 270 enlisted would likely be accompanied. The facility support requirements would be expected to have a base area comprising 14 acres of operational land, 20 acres for bachelor housing and personnel support, and 59 acres for family housing. 3.2.9 U.S. Coast Guard

Notional USCG loading includes up to 30 homeported personnel and equipment associate with an additional 110-foot

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applying married / bachelor personnel ratios to total permanent party personnel. These ratios reflect general DOD shore facility percentage splits, and were applied to each service’s notional permanent party loading factors. Using a 100% accommodation factor, approximately 4,100 FHU would be required on island, most of which would be new construction. This includes approximately 200 FHU at Andersen AFB, 3,800 FHU at Finegayan, and 100 units at Apra Harbor. 3.3.2 Bachelor Housing

Approximately 9,850 additional BQ units would be required on island to support all GIMDP initiatives. The estimate is based on a 100% accommodation factor for bachelor and UDP / transient personnel. This will require significant new construction to address USMC requirements coming on to the island. New construction and existing facility upgrades will also be required at Andersen AFB and Apra Harbor. While new construction at Apra Harbor resulting from GIMDP initiatives will be limited compared to other services, an existing deficit of BQ space for 1,600 bachelors in Apra Harbor would be exacerbated. 3.3.3 Schools

schools, a new middle school, a new Northern Guam High School, and upgrades to the existing Andersen AFB elementary / middle school (ES/MS) would be required to accommodate the notional GIMDP 3,700 school age dependent children. The programmed McCool ES/MS at Naval Activities Apra Harbor would absorb the notional southern Guam impact without facility changes, though additional staffing would likely be required. The new Northern Guam High School would eliminate / mitigate any GIMDP impact to the new Guam High School at Naval Hospital, reducing loading on the Guam High School by providing a separate facility for both GIMDP high school students and existing northern Guam high school students.

Table 3-4: GIMDP Notional Student Loading Summary
Location Andersen AFB Finegayan Apra Harbor Total Total Dependents 1,450 10,080 100 11,630 Grades K-6 310 2,120 20 2,450 Grades 7-9 110 690 10 810 Grades 10-12 110 690 10 810

As shown in Table 3-4, impacts of the GIMDP initiatives to the Guam DDESS school system were estimated by projecting the number of school age children associated with active duty and dependent personnel. After determining the number of families, NAVFAC P-80 provides guidance on the number of children per family expected to attend school. Based on these estimates and gross feasibility information obtained during interviews with Guam DDESS officials, two new elementary

3.3.4

Medical

The Bureau of Medicine and Surgery, Department of the Navy (BUMED) is currently planning to replace the existing Guam Naval Hospital (FY10-12). The design of the new hospital is to accommodate the existing patient service loading of 20,000 to

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22,000. The increased personnel loading associated with GIMDP would likely require expansion of the primary care facility. In addition to a physical expansion, there would be a requirement for the expansion of medical services such as neonatal intensive care, neurosurgery, oncology, orthopedics, and others at the new hospital. A new medical and dental clinic at Andersen AFB was completed in 2006 to meet existing and future requirements at the base. It was designed to accommodate modular expansion. Current medical and dental facilities in Apra Harbor are physically separate and near capacity. Neither facility at Apra Harbor is designed for medical functions (i.e., they are converted administrative and BQ space). The anticipated population growth, particularly that related to the notional relocation of USMC forces to Guam, would require new medical and dental clinic space to meet the demand for outpatient and secondary care medical services. Options include expansion of facilities at Andersen AFB to meet all demand in northern Guam, construction of a clinic at Finegayan to meet USMC and Navy requirements, or some version of both. At this time, BUMED is re-validating the Healthcare Requirements Analysis (HCRA) prepared in 2003. This analysis is expected to be completed in June 2006. The results will provide the most up to date island-wide requirements that will be used to create the final design of the hospital. Following this analysis, BUMED will be able to determine the most appropriate course of action for new clinic construction in the north and at Apra Harbor.

3.3.5

Other QOL

A full complement of community support services such as physical fitness facilities, dependent child-care (2 facilities able to accommodate up to 300 children), youth and teen centers, exchange facilities, religious service facilities (chapels), a new North Guam commissary, outdoor recreation fields/courts, training tanks / swimming pools, base theaters, libraries, bowling alleys, family restaurant/clubs, higher education offices, and personnel payroll facilities would be required to primarily support the new population at Finegayan. 3.3.6 Utilities

Utility requirements include shore power, steam upgrades, potable water, pure water, compressed air, wastewater upgrades, communication lines, and roadway upgrades. Traffic, electrical, water, wastewater, and solid waster assessments were conducted as part of the GIMDP effort. In general, extensive renovations and/or upgrades to the public infrastructure are needed to support and sustain the notional GIMDP loading.

3.4 ALTERNATIVE BASING ANALYSIS
Chapter 1 provided an overview of the planning methodology used for the GIMDP analysis. The process included all identified DOD land areas for use in the basing options, which were considered by weighing operational suitability and compatibility (size, location, existing and adjacent land uses, constraining factors) for specific types of basing use. A primary goal was to maintain / create adequate island-wide QOL standards without compromising existing operations, facilities,

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or infrastructure. The initial evaluation was followed with a cost and feasibility / risk assessment, all of which had a bottom line objective to: ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Meet operational requirements efficiently and effectively; Minimize disruption to ongoing operations; Ensure compatibility with adjacent land uses; Minimize cost, both direct and induced (including required infrastructure and ground support); Minimize traffic and circulation impacts; Accommodate safety, security, and AT/FP considerations; and Minimize implementation risk. ACE Bed-down

proposal or ordnance operations in the former Strategic Command storage area. This could be accomplished by constructing new apron areas, taxiways, hangars, and other operational/maintenance support facilities. The new footprint is expected to impact undeveloped land which is part of the Wildlife Overlay Refuge area discussed in Chapter 2, so a biological assessment including surveys would be required. An unprogrammed Air Force project to construct a new hangar facility for HSC-25 further away from the fighter town area would no longer be applicable. To accommodate the ACE on the North Ramp, a facility siting analysis indicates that the existing HSC-25 hangar could be used within the ACE compound, while potential conflicts with fighter town operations can be minimized. This alternative maximizes joint basing efficiencies by sharing runway and operational support facilities and infrastructure. While some quality of life facilities (e.g., gym/weight room, limited food service) would be included in the design of an ACE compound on the North Ramp, most community support facilities for the ACE (including bachelor housing) would be incorporated within the existing development pattern on the South Ramp at Andersen AFB. The ACE bed-down at Andersen NWF could be accomplished by renovating and extending the runway and building new

3.4.1

Initially, locations potentially suitable for the ACE bed-down included Andersen AFB North Ramp, Andersen NWF, and the former NAS Agana adjacent to the Guam International Airport. The former NAS Agana alternative was eliminated early from consideration due to land use problems (property not owned by DOD), operational inefficiency (could not load ordnance at the site), noise abatement issues (increased activity in the central Guam area where population growth is prominent), foreseeable public opposition (land taking), and inconsistencies with joint planning initiatives. The North Ramp and Northwest Field alternative sites shown in Figure 3-1 are considered viable alternatives and discussed further below. The ACE could bed-down at Andersen AFB North Ramp without negatively impacting the Air Force fighter town 3-14

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taxiways and aprons. Essentially, a totally new air base would be constructed, including hangars and other operational, maintenance and support facilities. This would require the operation of a fully independent airfield, and would eliminate NWF for Air Force austere landing field training and military OLF training. Greater environmental and historical property impacts would be anticipated to implement this alternative. For this alternative, ACE bachelor housing and QOL facilities would be developed at Finegayan. The North Ramp is the recommended site for the ACE beddown. 3.4.2 Training Ranges

training requirements are briefly described below highlighted in Figure 3-2: ! !

and

Rifle, sniper, machine gun, hand grenade, and demolitions ranges at NCTS Finegayan. Squad fire and movement range at an expanded South Finegayan complex that encompasses non-DOD land (access would need to be acquired). Section 3.4.3 below provides additional discussion on the potential need for access to non-DOD property. MOUT and unit level maneuver area at Andersen South which is not considered suitable for live firing. Mortar and MK-19 (TP only) range at the Ordnance Annex. Flight training and air-ground operations such as Helicopter Support Team training at OLF at Andersen NWF. AAV / EFV and reconnaissance small boat in-water training areas in and around Apra Harbor and Tipalao Cove. Open ocean aviation warning area south of Guam and other off-island ground and aviation training ranges in the Northern Mariana Islands / West Pacific theater may also be available (not assessed herein). Various classrooms, trainers, and applied instruction facilities at base locations.

! ! !

An analysis of training opportunities on Guam concluded there are no existing ranges on Guam that are suitable for the needs of the notional USMC force due to their inadequate size (Finegayan pistol range, Andersen AFB range), or lack of reliable availability (Orote Point). There are no indirect fire ranges, and no fire and maneuver ranges. The notional USMC loading drives the most significant training requirements of the GIMDP initiatives. However, facilities constructed to satisfy these requirements could also be used by other Guam-based and transient forces to meet overall DOD requirements. For the USMC, most individual and unit training can be achieved on Guam. However, due to range distance requirements and limited land areas, direct fire ranges need to be located so that surface danger zones extend over water rather than encumber limited land areas. Based on an analysis of opportunities on Guam, the principal individual and unit level 3-16

!

!

!

Finegayan provides the only on-island opportunity to construct firing ranges along the shoreline that allows an over-water venue for range SDZ. Based on a preliminary design analysis,

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this would include the construction of a KD range and a machine gun range, both of which would be in proximity to USMC operational facilities. Development of a fire and movement range would require access to non-DOD land between NCTS Finegayan and the South Finegayan housing area. Only the KD and machine gun ranges are considered feasible on Guam without acquisition of additional land. Primary flight tracks at Andersen AFB and the approach to GIAP are also shown in Figure 3-2. Construction of the firing ranges and establishment of the related SDZ will need to ensure there are no impacts on air operations resulting from training exercises. Another major range requirement on Guam can be accommodated at the Ordnance Annex, which has sufficient space for a limited 60 mm and 81 mm mortar range. This area would also support a 40 mm Training Projectile range. The primary constraint to expanded training activities at the Ordnance Annex involves the explosives safety distance requirements from active magazine areas. In the past, limited training activities have been authorized within the Public Traffic Route (PTR) distance from existing magazines because the amount of training was anticipated to be limited. However, the notional USMC force proposed in the GIMDP would require more frequent training that would require personnel, firing locations, impact areas, and access roads to remain outside of the PTR distance. An analysis of existing ESQD and feasible access points at the Ordnance Annex concluded that a mortar range was feasible, but would require the removal of a number of existing box magazines (on Hard Stand Road) from the list of authorized

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ordnance storage facilities, along with existing substandard igloo magazines along High Road. A “worst case” estimate of replacement magazine space that would need to be constructed is 53,000 square feet. This could be mitigated to some degree by reducing the authorized capacity of some of the magazines (all are currently authorized to store up to 500,000 pounds net explosives weight (NEW)) to reduce the PTR distance, thereby removing the ESQD constraint from the land and allowing for training activities. Land is available within the central portion of the Ordnance Annex for development of replacement magazines. The training analysis concluded there is no potential venue on Guam sufficient to develop a range for the AAV and EFV 25mm and 30 mm guns. It is anticipated that turret trainers will be used for this purpose on Guam. The other major range requirement is an indirect fire range for the M-198, 155 mm howitzer. The analysis similarly concluded there is no area with sufficient depth and breadth for an artillery range. 3.4.3 Finegayan Development Options

a notional density of 6 FHU per acre, plus various QOL facilities (i.e., schools, medical, recreation, etc.), an additional 775 acres of land is required. A total gross land requirement, exclusive of setback areas from firing ranges, is estimated at 1,275 acres. Figures 3-3 and 3-4 illustrate two options to accommodate this development. Option 1 shown in Figure 3-3 accommodates all required development on lands that are currently owned by DOD. This option streamlines development by avoiding the challenges associated with obtaining access to non-DOD land. Consideration could be given to develop housing/QOL facilities at higher density in order to avoid occupying a larger portion of NCTS, which might otherwise push development of operational facilities in areas of higher environmental concern. The primary challenge associated with this option is that the construction of a fire and maneuver range must be considered off-island. Consideration must also be given to the impact of local traffic between NCTS and South Finegayan on Route 3, unless a roadway easement could be obtained through the former FAA site. Option 2 shown in Figure 3-4 accommodates the opportunity discussed above to provide a fire and maneuver range on Guam. As shown in greater detail, the firing point of the range would need to be located on the parcel seaward (west) of the South Finegayan housing area known as GLUP 77. This site is currently under control of the GSA awaiting final disposal to GOVGUAM. The SDZ associated with the range would impact land to the north formerly owned by the FAA. This land was released to GOVGUAM, which further relayed it to the Guam Ancestral Home Commission, which has the authority to

NCTS Finegayan presents the largest contiguous tract of developable DOD land on Guam, and provides the only single base solution for the HQE, GCE and LSE components of the MEF(-). As discussed above, it is also the only on-island location feasible for developing KD and machine gun ranges with SDZ over open ocean areas. A summary of HQE, GCE and LSE land requirements presented earlier in this chapter indicate a gross land area of approximately 500 acres is needed to address development of operational, related support, and bachelor housing facilities. At

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dispose of it, so long as the proceeds are for the use of beneficiaries. In either scenario, the actual development potential of land shown in the options will require further detailed analysis and verification. Constraints to development will include natural topographic features and other environmental conditions that may require expansion of development in the northern portions of NCTS, or development at higher densities that could affect the quality of life in the new community at Finegayan. 3.4.4 USMC Embarkation

As noted in Section 3.2.1, the LSE requires designated areas to support air and sea embarkation activities. Air embarkation would be accommodated at Andersen AFB by increasing the throughput capability of the existing Air Passenger and Air Cargo terminals, and use of existing ramp parking spots. Embarkation by sea requires land and facilities in the harbor (approximately 15 acres) for loading of a notional 3-ship ARG (consisting of an LHD, LPD, and LSD and a total berthing requirement of 2,300 feet), plus another five acres of land for LCAC/AAV landing ramp and laydown area. As shown in Figure 3-5, there are two optional locations in Apra Harbor (Victor Wharf and near the former SRF) that are considered feasible for embarkation activities. These locations are discussed below. 3.4.4 (a) Victor Wharf Option

Victor Wharf provides a contiguous berth that allows for efficient embarkation/debarkation operations. Structural improvements at the intersection of Victor and Uniform

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Wharves would allow for stern loading of LPD / LSD. In order to avoid impacts on USCG operations, and to provide the most efficient setting for the movement of personnel and materials, it is recommended that the USCG operations be relocated to another location within the Inner Harbor area under this option. This would allow the USMC to re-use the existing compound and facilities as a command and control center for embarkation operations. Additional undeveloped land inland from the USCG compound could be developed to satisfy open storage requirements. LCAC/AAV operations would be located on Polaris Point within the Inner Harbor. The Victor Wharf area is closer to the entrance to the Apra Harbor Naval Base so transiting USMC units would require shorter on-base travel distances with heavy equipment. Victor Wharf was used in early 2006 for limited USMC embarkation operations during a transient training exercise to Guam. Other than USCG operations, Victor Wharf is used to berth transient ships from foreign nations and other ships that require drafts of less than 30 feet. Use of Victor Wharf would not impact existing primary berthing areas in the harbor. An analysis of alternative locations for USCG operations recommends making use of shorter-length wharves along the former SRF area. Papa Wharf (510 feet) and Oscar Wharf (570 feet) are currently part of the leased area to Guam Shipyard and mostly used for mooring floating auxiliary craft (i.e., floating cranes, barges, etc.). Redevelopment along these wharves could combine USCG operations with Port Operations and Security Department operations into a Joint Harbor Operations Center (JHOC) (also termed Sector Command Center-Joint, SCC-J), a concept that is currently

under evaluation at higher levels with the U.S. Navy and USCG, and would require an integrated port operations plan for the harbor. The length of the wharves are adequate for the smaller USCG ships, and provide sufficient overall length to meet the USCG requirement (710 feet) plus provide for additional small boat berthing for Port Operations. 3.4.4 (b) Former SRF Option

A portion of the underutilized former SRF area could be used for embarkation operations. In order to provide for the total land requirement, land along Romeo Wharf (or some inland area such as the former public works transportation area) would also be used for USMC laydown. As shown in Figure 35, ship berthing would occur along Romeo / Sierra Wharves, along with one berth at the former SRF. While this option provides adequate land and berthing capability (stern loading could occur at Romeo), the non-contiguous berthing is not as efficient. Additionally, the use of Romeo / Sierra Wharves could create conflicts with MSC operations and transient combatants and SSN which must use these wharves due to deep draft limitations. Based on the analysis above, the use of Victor Wharf and relocation of USCG operations is the preferred option for reasons of long-term operational efficiencies and effectiveness. 3.4.5 Transient CVN

A transient CVN requires 1,300 feet of berthing, 50 feet dredge depth at the pier and turning basin, and hotel services / utilities sufficient to sustain the ship without assistance from organic shipboard systems. Historically, transient CV (primarily from 3-21

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Yokosuka, Japan) have berthed at Delta/Echo Wharves near the civilian port. Due to security concerns and limited water depth, CV/CVN making port calls to Guam now must berth at Kilo Wharf near the entrance to the Outer Harbor. As noted previously in this chapter, this impacts ordnance-handling operations and is not considered a long-term option. Other analysis in the past has considered Sierra Wharf in the Inner Harbor for CVN berthing, but concluded this location not to be a viable option due to dredging costs, costs for wharf reconstruction, impacts on existing primary berthing areas, and limitations of the entrance channel to the Inner Harbor. As shown in Figure 3-6, alternative berthing locations considered feasible for the GIMDP include the northern shorelines (Outer Harbor) of the former SRF area and Polaris Point. It is assumed that development at both locations would require similar dredging in the Outer Harbor channel and turning basin. Other benefits or negatives of each site are discussed below. 3.4.5 (a) Former SRF Option

Land in the former SRF area is highly underutilized (although under lease until 2012) and would provide sufficient space for lay down and efficient loading of materials as required. Since it is within the Main Base boundaries, it would allow for better force protection, access to base QOL support & services, and would be more accessible for other ship berthing when not used by the CVN. Existing warehouses within Main Base could support replenishment of the transient ship.

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Preliminary analysis indicates that infrastructure upgrade costs would be higher at the SRF area due to a greater distance from existing electrical power sources. The former SRF location would also negatively impact dry dock operations by eliminating ship movements in to or out of the dry dock during CVN port calls. Based on past evaluations of off-shore areas, the former SRF area poses a potentially higher environmental risk due to the existence of coral reefs along the shoreline and off-shore areas. 3.4.5 (b) Polaris Point Option

access to off-base civilian resources, no potential impact on dry dock operations, and estimated lower costs to develop utility infrastructure to the site.

3.5 GIMDP BASING ANALYSIS CONCLUSIONS
Based on the discussion of requirements and alternative analysis, the following conclusions are presented: ! The North Ramp at Andersen AFB is the preferred location for development of USMC ACE facilities for reasons of operational efficiency, reduced environmental impacts, and achievement of joint basing objectives. While both the North Ramp and Northwest Field locations are feasible in terms of availability of land, only the North Ramp alternative provides adequate operational capability in terms of runways and apron space without significant improvements. Further, development at Northwest Field would eliminate austere landing field training, and would require operation of a separate, independent air field (operating costs have not been established for GIMDP, but they are assumed to be high). Environmental constraints and concerns will need to be addressed with development on the North Ramp, but these issues would be even more pronounced at Northwest Field and have the potential to delay implementation of DOD actions. Bachelor housing and related community support facilities for USMC ACE personnel will be incorporated into the base zoning plan at Andersen AFB along the South Ramp. USMC and Air Force personnel will have separate housing facilities in order to maintain service/unit integrity.

Lower estimated costs of development on Polaris Point are largely related to construction of electrical lines to the site. There is sufficient lay down space adjacent to the wharf location, and preliminary analysis indicates that impacts to offshore coral reefs would be less. Development on Polaris Point would provide a berth in proximity to the Tender, which has the capability for limited nuclear repair work. Based on its location outside of the Main Base, Polaris Point provides better access to off-base resources (Hagatna, Tumon Bay, etc.) including Andersen AFB for CVW support from the ship. There are no adequate QOL facilities on Polaris Point to accommodate transient CVN personnel. It is assumed that shuttle bus services would be implemented under either scenario. From Polaris Point, traffic increases will create more congestion entering the Main Base. Based on the analysis above, development of a transient CVN berth on Polaris Point is the preferred option for reasons of potential minimal dredging and impact on coral reefs, accessibility for CVW personnel bed-down at Andersen AFB,

!

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!

By virtue of its location and availability of undeveloped land, NCTS Finegayan and the South Finegayan housing area provide the most feasible opportunity for development of a new USMC community that consolidates most operational, housing, and QOL requirements on the island. In order to satisfy the maximum amount of individual training capability, provide the most flexibility for development at appropriate densities, ensure the restriction of incompatible development, and minimize impacts on lands of environmental concern. USMC embarkation activities will focus on Victor Wharf. This will require the relocation of USCG operations to land in the former SRF area, where shorter wharves are more suited for smaller ships. The redevelopment of USCG facilities should consider their consolidation into a JHOC. The analysis for a transient CVN berth indicates a slight edge to Polaris Point. It is assumed that a final decision for this action will require further analysis. Key issues to be addressed include the future need for the dry dock, and the extent of potential impact on coral reefs in the Outer Harbor. Costs for development of cold iron utilties will also need to be evaluated in detail. The LCAC landing area is recommended to be collocated with the GCE’s AAV / EFV compound on the south side of Polaris Point, where noise and other land use conflicts would be reduced.

!

!

!

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CHAPTER 4: NOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN
Previous chapters focused on existing conditions, opportunities, and constraints on Guam, provided details regarding facility requirements necessary to accommodate the GIMDP planning initiatives. The analysis at the end of Chapter 3 provides the basic rationale for notional development plans presented in this chapter. The following sections focus on specific land development proposals for Andersen AFB, NCTS Finegayan / South Finegayan, NCTS Barrigada, and Apra Harbor. Recommendations regarding other DOD property on Guam are also briefly discussed.

NCTS Finegayan

Apra Harbor

Andersen AFB

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4.1

ANDERSEN AFB

The notional development plan for Andersen AFB is shown in Figure 4-1. Based largely on Air Force proposals developed over the last several years that are the subject of existing environmental reports, future Air Force development at the base is anticipated to add approximately 2,250 uniformed personnel and 800 dependents to the base loading. Major operational proposals are based on the establishment of an ISR/Strike capability at Andersen AFB that would include: ! Permanently assigned Global Hawk UAV aircraft with required operational hangar space, maintenance shops, a fuel cell, and related facilities; Permanently assigned tankers (the EIS includes an option to rotate tankers) with a total of up to 600 aircrew and support personnel that requires upgrade of existing maintenance hangar space and construction of new housing and QOL facilities; and Facilities and support infrastructure for rotational fighters and bombers. Over 40 hardened aircraft shelters may be constructed to support rotational and contingency fighter aircraft, plus various other operational and support facilities within the “Fighter Town” concept.

central South Ramp area), and expansion of staging area near the Air Mobility Squadron compound in order to accommodate air embarkation operations. Housing for the 1,500 bachelors of the ACE with associated QOL facilities will be constructed at Andersen AFB in the main base area, within existing base zoning. Accompanied ACE personnel and their dependents will reside at the main USMC community proposed at Finegayan.

!

Andersen AFB

!

Proposed development at Andersen AFB to accommodate USMC and Navy initiatives include the ACE/MMA bed-down on the North Ramp (see following discussion for details), construction of a new fire station along the South Ramp that allows for the expansion of passenger terminal operations into the existing fire station area in Building 17002 (along the

Future ISR/Strike platforms

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Development on the North Ramp at Andersen AFB is proposed to accommodate both the Air Force Fighter Town facilities and the USMC ACE bed-down (Fig. 4-2). As noted above, the Fighter Town area is anticipated to include over 40 hardened aircraft shelters, along with support and administrative facilities. The hardened shelters are proposed to generate ESQD arcs, allowing aircraft to retain their ordnance while in the shelters. Final design of the Fighter Town area has not been completed. As shown in Figure 4-2, the ACE bed-down area is proposed on land adjacent to the Fighter Town area. Major elements of the notional plan include: ! ! Retention of the existing HSC-25 hangar; Construction of additional hangars to accommodate the bed-down of up to 67 rotary aircraft, plus up to 9 Special Operations CV-22 aircraft that would be co-located with the ACE; Construction of helicopter landing/departure pads; ramp space and

is assumed that long-range plans for a rotational MMA Detachment of 4 aircraft would use ramp space on the North Ramp. Maintenance facilities proposed to accommodate the ACE are also assumed to meet future requirements for repair work on MMA. Transient aircraft with the CVW or on annual training exercises would utilize ramp space on a “space available” basis as done currently. Proposed new construction on the North Ramp (including Fighter Town and the ACE beddown area) provides flexibility to accommodate future DOD fixed wing jet operations at Andersen AFB.

! !

Construction of a new Crash Fire Rescue facility with a control tower for visual inspection/control of rotary operations; and Development of up to 70 acres to accommodate other facility requirements for support of the ACE operations on the North Ramp, including limited QOL facilities such as a gymnasium, dining facility, and mini-base exchange (BX). Andersen AFB to be the site of rotational jet aircraft

!

Existing runways and exterior taxiways would be used by the ACE, avoiding the need to construct new operating surfaces. It

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4.2 ANDERSEN NORTHWEST FIELD
Plans for Andersen NWF are not effected by actions of the GIMDP other than the use of the area as an OLF for the ACE. Current Air Force plans for development at NWF to accommodate the bed-down of training and support initiatives for training programs of the RED HORSE squadron and its Silver Flag training unit, the Commando Warrior program, and the Combat Communication squadron. A net increase of approximately 380 Air Force active duty and civilian personnel are anticipated on-site from this initiative. Exercises will include training with equipment associated with heavy construction, defensive fighting position training, combat readiness, electronic system security, and antiterrorism skills training. The site will continue to be an important austere landing field for the Air Force, as well as support continuing operations of the U.S. Space Command, 22nd Space Operations Squadron, Detachment Five (DET 5). The DET 5 mission is to execute on-demand, real-time command and control operations for launch and operation of DOD, national, allied, and civilian satellites, providing warfighting commanders combat power from space through control of early-warning, communication, weather, intelligence, and navigation missions.

areas highlighted in the figure as “Operational” or “Housing/QOL” provide sufficient land currently owned by DOD to satisfy this requirement. However, further detailed onsite analysis is required in order to identify areas that may be unsuitable for development (e.g., topographic constraints). The recommended development plan is the same as Option 1 discussed initially in Chapter 3. It is believed this option provides the most efficient course of action to accommodate future USMC development in the area. Major elements of the notional plan include: ! Retention of critical communications infrastructure including the command operations center and other facilities near the main gate; Development of USMC ground, logistics, and headquarters operational areas in the central portion of NCTS Finegayan. New construction in areas of environmental concern should be minimized to the extent possible. Buildings 200 and 454 provide over 75,000 square feet of existing space that can be re-used for headquarters or other types of operational activities; UDP bachelor housing for over 5,000 personnel and related support functions are included in the development of the operational areas in order to provide an efficient live/work environment for rotational personnel; Construct KD and machine gun ranges at NCTS Finegayan in close proximity to operational USMC areas;

!

!

4.3 FINEGAYAN
Figure 4-3 illustrates the notional development plan for Finegayan. As discussed in Chapter 3, total land requirements for operational, support, and QOL facilities (including Army QOL requirements) amounts to nearly 1,300 acres. Land !

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4.5 BARRIGADA
! Develop roughly 500 acres of land in the southern portion of NCTS Finegayan, plus nearly 300 acres at the South Finegayan housing area for construction of approximately 3,800 FHU, plus medical / dental clinic, base exchange, fitness and health facilities, outdoor recreation areas, child development center, recreation fields, playing courts, a consolidated mess, hobby and craft facilities, religious facilities, and schools; As noted in Chapter 3, possible use of land in the former FAA and GLUP 77 parcels provides opportunities to minimize impacts of development in the area. This could include development of an internal roadway system between NCTS Finegayan and South Finegayan to minimize traffic impacts on civilian roads, or to allow construction in proximity to Route 3 in order to reduce the amount of land required for development in the northern portion of NCTS Finegayan which may have higher impacts on the natural environment. NCTS Barrigada is the recommended location for basing administrative and maintenance facilities of the Army Brigade (-) and Battalion Headquarters in support of subordinate elements located at Andersen AFB and Apra Harbor. The notional development plan for NCTS Barrigada is shown in Figure 4-4. Major elements of the notional plan include: ! Development of a U.S. Army Brigade (-) and Battalion Headquarters compound adjacent to existing and proposed expansion land for GUARNG operations [Note: the operational concept for the capability that may be placed on Guam has yet to be developed. Development of the actual operational concept will require further evaluation of appropriate sites on Guam to ensure their correct placement that will include unique site security requirements.]; and Retention of critical communications land and facilities for the continuation of DOD transmitter operations.

!

!

4.4 ANDERSEN SOUTH
Andersen South provides over 2,000 acres of largely undeveloped land suitable for non-live fire ground maneuver training. Training opportunities in the area include small unit maneuver training, MOUT training with blank ammunition, use of motorized vehicles such as AAV/EFVs, and LAVs and various other wheeled vehicles.

All housing and QOL facilities, with exception of possibly a small location exchange, fitness center, and playing courts, would be constructed at Finegayan in order to minimize the need for additional community support facilities.

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4.6 APRA HARBOR
Naval Base Guam, headquartered in Apra Harbor, is a major logistics hub in WESTPAC that services forward-deployed and transiting Fleet forces in the region. As discussed in the previous chapter, GIMDP initiatives re-enforce this role for Apra Harbor, and expand the island’s capability to accommodate new support ships operating in critical locations west of the base. The notional development plan for Apra Harbor is shown in Figure 4-5. Major elements of the notional plan include: ! Provide utility/dredging upgrades along Romeo/Sierra/ Tango as a first priority in order to ensure the primary berthing wharves are capable of continued and future support of MSC ships, transient combatants, and future support ships such as LCS and HSV; Upgrade Papa/Oscar Wharves (currently part of leased land at the former SRF) and adjacent land to construct new USCG facilities (relocated from Victor Wharf). These facilities could possibly be combined with elements of COMNAVMAR Port Operations and Security Departments into a JHOC; Upgrade Victor Wharf and nearby vacant land to accommodate USMC embarkation activities. Existing USCG facilities will be re-used by the USMC for command and control operations related to embarkation; Develop a site on Polaris Point for LCAC/AAV operations during embarkation;

!

Construct maintenance and operational support facilities on vacant land at Romeo Wharf to accommodate requirements for future LCS; Construct a USMC Littoral Warfare Training Center on underutilized land near Sierra Wharf; Consolidate USCG and Security small craft berthing in the Sumay area to provide easier access to the Outer Apra Harbor; Reserve the north side of Polaris Point for possible development of a transient CVN berth. Current analysis of optional sites for this proposal generally favors the Polaris Point location, but further analysis is required before final selection; and Upgrade Uniform Wharf (structurally inadequate since earthquake in 1993) to accommodate future support ships such as the HSV.

! !

!

!

!

!

!

Ship maintenance requirements in Apra Harbor continue to be evaluated. The current lease with a private shipyard operator covers approximately 100 acres of the former SRF area. Much of the infrastructure in this area is deteriorated and the land unused. It is recommended that a smaller area be designated for continued ship repair operations, thereby allowing other areas to be re-used for future U.S. Navy activities. The area identified in Figure 4-5 is approximately 25 acres. It is assumed the dry dock will continue to operate at its present location. COMNAVMAR is currently moving forward on several projects in order to meet near-term U.S. Navy initiatives that are

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included as part of the overall GIMDP effort. These projects include the extension of Bravo Wharf on Polaris Point in order to adequately berth a future SSGN (first boat ready for deployment scheduled for late 2007), and extension of Kilo Wharf (ammunition wharf) in order to accommodate future TAKE ships. COMNAVMAR currently has a surplus of FHU (229 units are vacant and assignable and 329 inactive units down for major repair or replacement). It is assumed these assets will satisfy requirements of GIMDP initiatives. On the other hand, there is currently a large shortfall of BQ in Apra Harbor. The 1,150 BQ units required by GIMDP initiatives will increase the problem. A Bachelor Housing Functional Plan was recently prepared by COMNAVMAR. The plan will need to be revised in light of the new requirement generated by GIMDP.

An analysis of the existing roads and magazine locations indicates the most efficient option to allow for the development of the mortar range is to remove selected magazines and inadequate (areas overgrown with vegetation) open storage pads from the authorized list of storage infrastructure in the Annex. Since they have not been used for many years, the open storage pads along the western portion of the Annex do not need to be replaced. However, seven box magazines (used for the storage of smokeless powder & projectile (SP&P) materials) and nine igloo magazines (used for storing high explosive (HE) materials) must be replaced to maintain existing storage requirements for the U.S. Navy. These existing facilities have a total square footage of 53,000 square feet. Each has a maximum storage capacity of 500,000 pounds NEW. The notional plan for the Ordnance Annex is shown in Figure 4-6. Major elements of the plan include: ! Construct 53,000 square feet of replacement magazine space in the central portion of the Annex to allow appropriate PTR clearance for roads and areas to be developed as part of the firing range. The area noted in the figure was identified in the COMNAVMAR Ordnance Functional Plan (2003) as a site reservation for potential box magazine construction. [Note: Construction of 53,000 square feet of magazine space is a “worst case” scenario.” Many of the box and igloo magazines are not used to store their maximum NEW capacity. The authorized storage (NEW) capacity of some magazines could be voluntarily reduced in order to reduce PTR distances. This would reduce the amount of new

4.7 ORDNANCE ANNEX
GIMDP initiatives impact the Ordnance Annex as a result of the increased requirement for ammunition storage associated with USMC ground elements, and by the need for an indirect fire training range, which cannot be met elsewhere on Guam. By virtue of its size and location, the Ordnance Annex is the only potential venue for a limited indirect fire mortar (60 millimeters [mm] and 81mm) and 40 mm training projectile (TP) range. However, in order to accommodate development of the range, access roads, firing locations, and target areas must be located outside of the PTR distance (60% of the inhabited building distance) from existing magazines. Existing roads, potential firing locations, and impact area are well within PTR distances.

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construction required, but would also reduce the overall NEW capacity at the Annex.] ! Construct 25,000 square feet of new magazine capacity to accommodate the new requirement generated by USMC ground elements. The area highlighted in Figure 4-6 can also accommodate this requirement. Should explosive safety design constraints become an issue during detailed analysis of new construction in the area, use of NonPropagation Wall/Earth Covered (NPW/EC) magazines are an option to reduce overall ESQD impacts. Construct a Mortar and 40 mm TP training range, with approximately 8-acres of dudded impact area and associated range access road for unexploded ordnance (UXO) clearing and fire fighting. The impact areas, approximately 1.5 to 2 kilometers from the firing points, would be located over a mile from Fena Reservoir, and approximately two miles by drainage way. Both the firing points and impact areas are located outside designated habitat areas.

areas, and frequent inspection and removal of unexploded materials.

4.8 NAVAL HOSPITAL
As noted in Chapter 3 (Section 3.3.4), the Navy BUMED is currently planning to replace the existing Guam Naval Hospital (FY10-12). The design of the new hospital is to accommodate the existing patient service loading. The plan includes construction of a stand-alone Veterans Administration (VA) Community Based Outpatient Clinic (CBOC) on a site adjacent to the Naval Hospital Complex Gate 1, outside of the perimeter fence. The increased personnel loading associated with GIMDP would likely require expansion of the primary care facility. In addition to a physical expansion, there would be a requirement for the expansion of medical services such as neonatal intensive care, neurosurgery, oncology, orthopedics, and others at the new hospital. Construction or expansion of medical/dental clinics at Andersen AFB, Finegayan, and Apra Harbor will provide secondary care services on Guam to meet the future DOD demand. Final construction requirements will be determined by BUMED. The soon to be constructed Guam High School (FY08) will be located at Naval Hospital. The GIMDP recommends construction of a Northern Guam High School at Finegayan to mitigate anticipated minor impacts to student loading at the Naval Hospital Complex school by absorbing all new and existing north Guam high school student loading from Finegayan and Andersen AFB.

!

Environmental concerns have been considered during the siting of the range to ensure there would be no impacts on the Fena Reservoir and its drinking water supply due to erosion and explosive residue material. Analysis found that the potential for contamination would be from explosive filler found in dud ordnance. Due to a short half-life of the likely explosive filler in the environment, low concentrations that would be found exposed to the environment (outside the projectile casing) in a managed impact area present a low risk for potential contamination of drinking water supplies. This risk would be further mitigated by appropriate design of the impact 4-14

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4.9 INFRASTRUCTURE
Estimated electrical, roadways, water, wastewater, and solid waste disposal infrastructure development requirements were evaluated. Improvements are required to support the GIMDP initiatives. They do not include costs from the GOVGUAM Five Year CIP. The following sections provide an overview of major improvements. 4.9.1 Traffic / Roadways

increased GIMDP demand. Potential electrical infrastructure improvements include:* ! North / South Finegayan obsolete electrical infrastructure & deteriorated distribution systems. Recommendations include constructing new substations, underground distribution systems, and new 34.5KV underground feeders from Harmon Substation. Andersen Air Force Base Substation has inadequate capacity - primary feeders would not be able to support planned Air Force and GIMDP bed-down projects. Recommendations include funding the Andersen AFB electrical improvement project AJJY336509, and AJJY336436 and USMC fund additional electrical improvements (i.e., new switching station, additional transformer), which would address this issue. Andersen South area infrastructure has been abandoned and is dilapidated / inoperable. Recommendations include installing new infrastructure and a new incoming line from the MARBO Substation. The Naval Hospital Switching Station is out-of-service, and the hospital area is serviced by an obsolete distribution system. Recommendations include replacing the entire electrical infrastructure with new hospital and high school projects in order to support the increased GIMDP loading. The Piti Substation switchgear is obsolete. Recommendations include replacing the switchgear in

!

Considerations for both DOD and GOVGUAM planning must include whether to use funds to improve existing major roadways, construct new roadways / highways, or a combination of both. The increase in traffic volumes on Guam resulting from the notional GIMDP actions would add to the already busy traffic demands on the public roadways between bases and housing areas. Potential roadway improvements include: ! ! ! Wider lanes/shoulder improvements on Route 9 (NCTS to Andersen AFB); Widen Route 3 (Finegayan to Route 1/Marine Drive); and Various gate/intersection widening, etc.). Electrical improvements (signalization,

!

!

4.9.2

Various electrical infrastructure upgrades needed to support the GIMDP notional loading were identified. In summary, the island-wide generating capacity is sufficient to power the

!

*

Does not include notional CVN berthing electrical upgrades.

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order to provide more reliable power to DOD assets in the Apra Harbor and Piti areas. ! The Nimitz Hill Switching Station switchgear is obsolete. Recommendations include replacing the switchgear in order to provide more reliable power to DOD assets at Nimitz Hill. The Orote Substation has inadequate transformer capacity & primary feeders to service the GIMDP loading. Recommendations include funding MILCON Navy Project P-494 as soon as possible. Potable Water

include reactivating the wells, replacing equipment & transmission lines, and routing water for treatment at previously recommended NCTS Finegayan central treatment facility. ! Harmon Booster Pump Station system interconnection is broken. Recommendations include repairing the interconnection to southern Guam system. Apra Harbor distribution system is inadequate. Recommendations include replacing deteriorated equipment and installing an additional loop to accommodate CVN. NCTS Barrigada / Naval Hospital / Ordnance Annex: No problems noted. Recommendations include maintaining status quo and implementing recommendations of the 2005 Utility Technical Study of the Potable Water Systems. Wastewater

!

!

4.9.3

GIMDP recommendations support existing Air Force planned water utility projects, and rely on their implementation to address additional demands resulting from GIMDP initiatives. Potential potable water infrastructure improvements include: ! North / South Finegayan has inadequate supply and storage, and a deteriorated distribution system. Recommendations include replacing the existing distribution system, developing additional water supply and storage, and constructing a central water treatment facility. Andersen AFB and NWF have insufficient water supply to support added USMC presence. Recommendations include fully developing available water resources to meet projected maximum day demands required by DOD criteria, and interconnecting with the Navy system to provide backup. Tumon Maui Well and Harmon Well No. 2 are contaminated and not operational. Recommendations

!

4.9.4

!

GIMDP recommendations support existing Air Force planned wastewater utility projects, and actually on their implementation to address additional demands resulting from GIMDP initiatives. Potential wastewater infrastructure improvements include: ! North / South Finegayan has inadequate capacity. Andersen AFB and NWF have insufficient capacity and inefficient layout. Recommendations include upgrading systems on both bases. Northern District Wastewater Treatment Plant has insufficient capacity. Recommendations include exploring the construction of a DOD Wastewater treatment plant in

!

!

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the north or upgrading the facilities at the Northern District WWTP.* ! Apra Harbor structures and equipment are deteriorating. Recommendations include repairing and upgrading the Navy Wastewater Treatment Plant. Andersen South / Barrigada / Naval Hospital / Ordnance Annex had no problems identified. Recommendations include maintaining status quo and implementing recommendations of separate wastewater study currently being conducted Solid Waste

landfill construction is completed. Currently planned expansion of Andersen AFB landfill capacity, either through expansion of the existing landfill or constructing a new landfill, will not be able to support GIMDP loads. ! New GOVGUAM landfill is reportedly planning to open in Sep 2007, but the outlook for an on-schedule opening is not optimistic. Recommendations include monitoring the status and progress of the new public landfill. Apra Harbor has inadequate waste diversion and recycling facilities, and inefficient landfill operations. Recommendations include implementing recycling and waste diversion programs, and improving landfill operations to maximize capacity and life of the landfill. Andersen South / Barrigada / Naval Hospital / Ordnance Annex had no problems identified. Recommendations would be to maintain the status quo.

!

!

4.9.5

General recommendations regarding solid waste would be to explore alternate DOD waste diversion systems such as an incinerator and private refuse collection for family housing areas. Potential solid waste infrastructure improvements include: ! North / South Finegayan have inadequate solid waste collection and disposal. Recommendations include providing appropriate waste collection and disposal, including recycling and waste diversion. Andersen AFB has insufficient landfill capacity. Recommendations include expanding the recycling center and programs for recycling and waste diversion, and coordinating use of the Navy landfill until the new Guam

!

!

With the current state of solid waste collection on Guam and the rapid build-up expected in the near-term, a unique opportunity to reassess solid waste solutions is available to civilian and DOD communities. Recycling, waste to energy, and other potential solutions need to be explored in order to capitalize on this situation.

*

The estimated cost of a new plant, include in the wastewater infrastructure improvements estimates, is $100 M. The DOD portion of the cost to increase the capacity of the Northern District WWTP to meet GIMDP demand is estimated at $5 M.

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4.10 ISLAND WIDE CONSTRAINTS AND BREAK POINTS
Four general areas have potential to become critical in Guam’s capacity as an island and community to support an expanded military presence. The criticality of these factors is driven by the sheer growth in population that is anticipated to result from the GIMDP force relocation, which would total nearly 30,000 uniformed personnel and dependents. This is comparable to a 17% growth in island population from present levels. Assuming this growth begins in 2010, when the island population is projected to reach 184,000, on top of the projected 21,000 in civilian growth anticipated between 2010 and 2020, the result is a ten-year growth rate of nearly 28%, or roughly 2.5% annually over the period. This is nearly twice the modern historical high of 16%, which occurred in the decade of 1990s, when the base population was only 133,000 people. This figure does not include the construction induced population growth previously discussed, which is assumed to be temporary. The physical infrastructure of concern includes potable water, wastewater disposal, electrical generation, and traffic. Tipping points would be the levels at which a natural capacity to sustain the population is exceeded, or where large investments would be required to overcome an unsustainable condition. The quality of life and social implications of this level of growth are not evaluated herein, but would require study in an EIS.

4.10.1 Water Potable water on Guam largely derives from two sources: The Fena Reservoir/Almagosa Springs system which serves the south and central parts of the island, including the Naval Base, and the Northern Guam Lens (aquifer), which is used by both GWA and the Air Force to meet potable water needs in the north. The water system is interconnected, but transmission capacity between north and south is limited. The capacity of Fena Reservoir, a surface water body, is subject to real time changes in weather, which in dry years causes water rationing to be imposed when reservoir levels decline. The Northern Lens also has a sustainable capacity, which is affected more slowly by re-charge and withdrawal, and is susceptible to contamination. The capacity of the aquifer can be permanently reduced over time by the intrusion of higher salinity water, which occurs from loss in head of the freshwater lens that lies over top of denser sea-water, caused by over withdrawal. The effect of the proposed developments, primarily in the north, would be to increase the withdrawal rate, decrease the recharge rate by adding to impermeable surfaces and runoff (rather than infiltration), and add to the potential for contamination. The principal natural determinant of recharge rate in the short tem is weather (precipitation). Current management of Guam water resources is guided by the 1982 study Final Report, Northern Guam Lens Study, Groundwater Management Program, Aquifer Yield Report prepared for the GOVGUAM, Guam EPA, by Camp Dresser & McKee in association with Barrett, Harris & Associates, Inc. The results of this study indicated the Northern Guam Lens has a sustainable yield of 59 mgd. Present withdrawal from the

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aquifer is estimated to be about 40 mgd, which provides for the needs of approximately 80% of Guam’s population (U.S. Geological Survey [USGS]). Some evidence of contamination by salt water intrusion and by sewage has been detected in the Yigo – Tumon area. The additional population growth projected for the year 2020 is likely to add over 3 mgd each from the military and civilian components of growth. Growth in demand of 6 mgd would fall within the sustainable yield. A joint study by the USGS and Guam EPA is under way to evaluate the Northern Lens. The GIMDP EIS would need to carefully evaluate the capacity of this resource, and how it should be protected. Water is one of the factors limiting the extent of economically feasible development on Guam. 4.10.2 Wastewater Wastewater is normally dealt with by treatment and discharge or re-use of treated effluent. On Guam, discharge of treated effluent is accomplished with ocean outfalls, in which the treated effluent is released through a pipeline extending seaward to a depth at which the effluent is dispersed through a diffuser. At this point, the nutrients and remaining microbial loadings in the effluent are further diluted in the ocean, and absorbed into the environment by uptake in marine organisms. The most cost effective means of accomplishing waste water treatment for the loadings of the GIMDP would be to expand the Northern Guam Wastewater Treatment Plant. This study has included the expense estimated to add additional clarifiers to increase the WWTP capacity by 6 mgd. However, no estimate has been made of the potential need to replace the ocean outfall for this plant, should the existing outfall be

insufficient for the discharge volume. Ocean outfalls are expensive and difficult to permit. On Guam, they must be constructed in a coral reef environment, the bathymetric profile of which typically finds deep waters and steep reef slopes immediately off-shore. The outfall structure would be exposed to a high-energy wave environment from typhoons and ocean swells. This limitation is one that can be overcome by investment funding and engineering, however the cost will be a significant one. Should the capacity of the existing Northern Guam WWTP ocean outfall be inadequate for the requirement, there are alternatives that could be more cost effective, and environmentally and economically prudent to consider. With an improved level of treatment and disinfecting, irrigation re-use and/or re-injection could be cost competitive with a new outfall. This alternative would also reduce the probability that the sustainable yield of the aquifer would be exceeded. Such a system is now in practice on Oahu, on the Ewa plain, for irrigation use. 4.10.3 Roadways The traffic evaluation of this report has focused on the immediate vicinities of the military facilities affected by the recommended basing plan. Targeted improvements have been identified and included in cost estimates. However, this evaluation did not look at the entire surface transportation system on Guam, to evaluate the potential impact of the projected population growth. Traffic on Guam today is a significant concern, as some roadways are at or approaching grid-lock during peak hours,

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particularly Marine Drive, Route 16 near Tamuning and Barrigada, and Route 8 from Tiyan through Maite to Agana. Guam has approximately 559 miles of paved public roadways (arterial, collector and other local). On these roads, Guam’s population of 171,000 persons traveled an estimated 2.4 million vehicle miles per day (Federal Highway Administration), or about 14 vehicle miles per person in the population (it is not known what proportion of these trips is made by visitors who are not in the population). This rate of use is equivalent to 4,300 vehicles per day per mile of road. Considering just the married with dependent population increase attributed to the military growth of the GIMDP during normal peak hours (as bachelor housing will be on the base nearby places of work) the military contribution to daily roadway use will be approximately 15,000 persons, or an estimated growth of 9%. With this growth, the projected roadway usage would climb to 4,700 vehicles per mile of roadway per day. When added to the approximately 36,000 persons anticipated to join Guam’s civilian population by the year 2020, 5,550 vehicles might be expected to use each mile of Guam’s roadway system daily. This is a very gross measure of increased demand on the roadway system. As we know that traffic demand is not uniformly distributed, it is the areas of concentration that are of greatest concern. The urban arterials and collector roadways on Guam comprise only 43 miles of the 559-mile roadway system, or less than 8%, and are likely to experience the bulk of the growth in traffic demand. It is these roadways that are already at saturation, and which are most likely to reach a tipping point condition requiring major new rights of way and roadway construction.

A second primary north-south route has been proposed between Apra Harbor and Andersen Air Force Base. This roadway may be essential to relieve traffic pressure in central Guam. Obtaining rights of way and funding construction will be major endeavors. Traffic impacts will be a significant issue for consideration in the GIMDP EIS. 4.10.4 Electrical Generation Capacity Guam’s electrical generation capacity is relatively old and there are concerns with its reliability. On its face, there is adequate generation capacity to meet the planned growth by the year 2020. Based on consumer information from December 2005, the system has an effective 364 MW of operating steam generated, base-load capacity, and an additional 81 MW of diesel generation. The navy system has an additional 33 MW, including primarily diesel backup power plants. The total system has a reported operating capacity of 457 MW; peak demand in the reporting period was 249 MW, reflecting a reserve of 208 MW at the time, with no base-load units off line. By the year 2020, with population growth expected of approximately 28%, electrical demand would be expected to increase by a similar proportion, equivalent to about 319 MW, leaving a reserve capacity of 138 MW. If one of the two larger base-load units were out for scheduled maintenance (68 MW) and the next larger unit went off line for unscheduled maintenance difficulties (55 MW) there would still be sufficient capacity to meet estimated peak demand, with 15 MW reserve.

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Whether all of the base-load generating units are adequate to remain in service until 2020 and for an undefined period thereafter is doubtful. The issue warrants additional study to determine whether new generation is warranted now, and to define a suitable generation capacity replacement program to meet both military and civilian reliability needs.

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References

References: Commander, U.S. Pacific Command, Joint Petroleum Office. Guam Fuel Capabilities Site Survey Report. January 2004. U.S. Department of Defense. Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC) 4-721-10 Design: Navy and Marine Corps Bachelor Housing. July 2002. U.S. Department of Defense. Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC) 3-460-1 Design: Petroleum Fuel Facilities. January 2004. U.S. Department of the Defense. Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC) 3-701-03 DoD Facilities Pricing Guide. February 2005. U.S. Department of the Air Force, Pacific Air Forces, Hickam Air Force Base, Hawaii. Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, Establishment of a Global Strike Task Force, Andersen Air Force Base, Guam (Back Check Preliminary Draft). October 2005. U.S. Department of the Navy, Commander in Chief, U.S. Pacific Fleet and Pacific Division Naval Facilities Engineering Command. CINCPACFLT AOR Ordnance Infrastructure Plan. Helber Hastert & Fee, Planners Inc. May 2002. U.S. Department of the Navy. Activity Personnel Summary for Program Year 2004. May 2002. U.S. Department of the Navy, Pacific Division Naval Facilities Engineering Command. Cost Data Book. January 2002. U.S. Department of the Navy. Facility Planning Criteria for Navy and Marine Corps Shore Installations. NAVFAC P-80, at:www.lantdiv.navfac.navy.mil/docs/Lantops_20/p-80/ p80.htm.


								
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