February 2005 » by bdm94754

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									                                               National Park Service
                                               U.S. Department of the Interior




  HFC
    onMEDIA
February | 5                                                                                                     Issue 4
                                                               Greg Byrne, HFC objects          In This Issue
                                                               conservator, tests a variety
                                                               of solvents as he begins the




                                                                                                       2
                                                               process of removing the red
                                                               paint vandals had sprayed
                                                               on Jefferson Rock at Harpers                The Move to
                                                               Ferry National Historical Park   page       end all Moves
                                                               shortly before Christmas 2004.
                                                               Initial investigation ensured
                                                               that he would find a solvent



                                                                                                       6
                                                               that would remove the paint,
                                                               but not discolor the rock.                  Maps:
                                                                                                page       One Size Does
                                                                                                           Not Fit All

                                                                                                           Centennial
From the Manager                                                                                           of the Niagara
                                                                                                           Movement
Shortly before Christmas, vandals sprayed red paint on Jefferson Rock in Harpers Ferry
National Historical Park and painted graffiti on surrounding rock faces. Acts of vandal-
ism against monuments of our cultural patrimony disrupt our tenuous ties to our past;
they tangle the rare connections to those individuals who have gone before us.
Whatever anyone thinks of Thomas Jefferson’s assessment of the view from Jefferson
Rock and whether it truly is “worth a voyage across the Atlantic,” we do know that
                                                                                                page   7   Identity News


Jefferson came here, stood here, studied the scene, and was moved by what he saw.
We, too, can do this today when we stand on Jefferson Rock, and in some subtle way
we can know that we are looking at the scene Jefferson also saw—minus the power
lines and the highway bridge across the river. So it is with pride that I can report that
a Harpers Ferry Center conservator could immediately respond to this act of vandal-
ism and aid Harpers Ferry NHP in its efforts to undo the damage and restore this link
to our heritage. Yes, Harpers Ferry park is just a stone’s throw from the Center, but we
stand ready to assist every park area in the continuing effort “to conserve the scenery
and the natural and historic objects and the wild life therein and to provide for the
enjoyment of the same…for the enjoyment of future generations.”




                                                                — Gary Cummins

onMEDIA                                                                                         National Park Service    1
The Move to end all Moves                                                                            HFC onMEDIA is produced and
                                                                                                     published by Harpers Ferry Center.
                                                                                                     Statements of facts and views are
                                                                                                     the responsibility of the authors
                                                                                                     and do not necessarily reflect an
We all know that Yellowstone National Park is the world’s                                            opinion or an endorsement by
                                                                                                     the National Park Service.
oldest national park, created March 1, 1872. What few of us                                          Mention of trade names or
                                                                                                     commercial products does not
know is that the park has a vast collection of objects that                                          necessarily constitute recommen-
ranges from tiny geological specimens to large pieces of                                             dation for use by the National
                                                                                                     Park Service.
furniture and historic vehicles. Throughout its life this collec-
                                                                                                     Send questions and comments to
tion had been stored wherever there was room. More than 40                                           Gary Candelaria either by email
                                                                                                     at gary_candelaria@nps.gov or
years ago curators recognized that the collection was not ben-                                       call 304 535 6058. To contact the
efiting from state of the art treatment and began lobbying for                                        editorial staff email Bob Grogg
                                                                                                     at bob_grogg@nps.gov or call
a single professional facility. By the late 1990s that collection                                    304 535 6415.

had grown to 5.3 million objects stored in more than seven                                           Secretary of the Interior
                                                                                                     Gale A. Norton
different locations.
                                                                                                     Director,
                                                                                                     National Park Service
A New Place to Call Home                                                                             Fran P. Mainella
Construction of the Yellowstone Heritage
and Research Center began in 2002 on                                                                 Associate Director,
the park’s northern boundary in Gardiner,                                                            Park Planning, Facilities,
                                                                                                     and Lands
Montana. It was designed to have room to                                                             Sue Masica
store all the objects under one roof with
plans for two future wings (one for the his-                                                         Manager,
                                                                                                     Harpers Ferry Center
toric vehicle collection—including stage-
                                                                                                     Gary Cummins
coaches, road graders, and a 1950s Vespa
and one wing for science labs).                                                                      Editor
    The task was to move everything into                                                             Bob Grogg

the new facility. What is the first step? Col-
                                                                                                     Art Direction
leen Curry is chief curator at Yellowstone.                                                          Robert Clark,
She had come to the park from Arlington                                                              Office of NPS Identity
House, where she and Alice Newton, Reg-
                                                The awning-like structures of the Yellowstone        Contributors, February 2005
istrar, from Harpers Ferry Center (HFC),                                                             Greg Byrne
                                                Heritage and Research Center direct sunlight
had worked as part of a Collections Man-        into the building’s corridors where heat is stored   David Gilbert
agement team that considered some of the        in heat wells. Heating and cooling costs are cor-    Nancy Haack
                                                respondingly lower in this structure built with      Megan Kealy
basic planning that would be done to care
                                                sustainability in mind.                              Brianna MacDonald
for a collection. Curry and Newton had                                                               Jane Merritt
also worked on a collections move at Sitka                                                           Alice Newton
NHP. In 2003 Curry contacted Newton,            a few suggestions for changes. They drew             Zach Norman
                                                up estimates for the time, supplies, and             Tom Patterson
told her of the Yellowstone project, and
                                                                                                     Lori Simmons
asked for her assistance. In the summer of      the staffing needed to move everything.                Sam Vasquez
2003 Newton spent two weeks in Yel-             They discussed storage furniture needed
lowstone. The two inspected each current        for the building, and finally they collect-           The National Park Service cares
                                                                                                     for special places saved by the
storage location. They surveyed the collec-     ed all their thoughts and suggestions and
                                                                                                     American people so that all may
tion for numbers, types, and condition of       presented them in one report to Super-               experience our heritage.
the objects. They toured the new facility       intendent Suzanne Lewis and the park’s
                                                senior staff.                                         EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA™
while it was under construction and made

onMEDIA                            February 2005                                                      National Park Service            2
With Just a Little Help from                 names of park curators to Newton.
my Friends                                   As the applications began to flow in,
Curry and Newton realized that the           Newton gave priority to those facing an
10-person staff at Yellowstone could not      upcoming move.
manage the move alone, even with the             The move was planned to take
most careful advance planning. An obvi-      place over a ten-week period. The
ous source was the network of curators       Yellowstone staff, Alice Newton, and
at individual parks. Here was a chance,      Kelly Rushing, an intern from the
they both reasoned, to get the help they     George Washington University mu-
needed. But they would be remiss if they     seum studies program would be at the
did not take the opportunity to train        park the entire time. Five teams of eight
these curators in the professional stan-     curators would rotate through the park
dards necessary for moving archival and      every two weeks. Yellowstone agreed to
museum objects.                              pay travel, per diem, and provide hous-
    Over the next few months the two         ing. The individual parks would cover
developed plans for the move. But as         the salaries. Yellowstone would benefit
importantly, for the National Park System    by having its vast collections moved. The
as a whole, they developed a training        National Park Service would benefit by
program that would work hand in glove        having 40 curators trained by two of
with the move. Newton wrote a memo           the most accomplished curators in the
describing the need for people to help       Service. Everyone would benefit.
with the move and also stressing the             One of the helpers was Diana
training that would accompany the work.      Blank, a member of the Board of the
The regional curators supported the          National Parks Conservation Associa-          Moving an archival and museum col-
project enthusiastically and forwarded       tion. Though she did not have special-        lection is a complex process. Prepar-
                                                                                           ing materials for moving (top) means
                                             ized curatorial training, she brought to
                                                                                           packing them in such a fashion that
                                             the effort a willingness to pitch in and       they will not be damaged in transit.
                                             work hard and to learn. Besides Blank,        First the items are secured in either a
                                             a few other people from outside the Na-       drawer or a box and then wrapped so
                                                                                           that dust and dirt cannot penetrate.
                                             tional Park Service participated (See the
                                                                                           When transporting packed objects
                                             participants’ list for a complete listing.)   (bottom) they need to be packed as
                                                                                           tightly as possible to prevent move-
                                             Safety First                                  ment or jostling. A new facility (left)
                                                                                           requires the furniture be in place
                                             Over the winter any uncataloged items         to receive the collection. Unpacking
                                             were systematically added to the main         furniture, moving it into position and
                                             listing. Most items were inventoried. A       removing packing materials is a time-
                                                                                           consuming, dirty process.
                                             large number of natural history speci-
                                             mens was analyzed and tested for arse-        Staff members at work: (top) Alice
                                             nic and mercuric chloride, toxic chemi-       Newton, Michelle Ortwein, Theresa
                                             cals used in the early 20th century both      Potts; (bottom) Kelly Rushing; (left)
                                                                                           Bill Culkin, Tasha Felton.
                                             to preserve the specimens and prevent
                                             infestations of insects. So many speci-
                                             mens contained both chemicals that
                                             the curators decided to develop special
                                             handling techniques for all of them that
                                             required the use of protective clothing
                                             and air filters. The final pre-move task
                                             was amassing packing materials, which
                                             included archival materials as well. A

onMEDIA                          February 2005                                                 National Park Service           3
                                                                                                Yellowstone Move Participants

                                                                 Top: Objects in the new        David Amott, Yellowstone
                                                                 storage facility, every item
                                                                 tagged and identified, and      Roger Anderson, Yellowstone
                                                                 a smile on a curator’s face
                                                                                                Carol Ash, Southeast Region
                                                                 (Judy Hitzeman) mean the
                                                                 work is going as planned.      Wendy Ashton, Utah Museums

                                                                 Bottom: Likewise, careful      Lisbit Bailey, San Francisco Mari-
                                                                 unpacking (David Amott)        time
                                                                 and storage where it is
                                                                 meant to go ensures that       Bridget Beers, Southeast Archeo-
                                                                 all objects can be retrieved   logical Center
                                                                 in a short period of time.
                                                                                                Diana Blank, National Parks
                                                                                                Conservation Association

                                                                                                James Blankenship, Petersburg

                                                                                                Wendy Bustard, Chaco Culture

                                                                                                Marie Capozzi, Yellowstone
                                             introduction to the park and the area.
                                                Each two-week team was broken                   Rosemary Carlton, Sheldon Jack-
                                             into four work groups. The work groups             son Museum, Sitka, Alaska

                                             rotated to at least four locations through-        Bridgette Case, Yellowstone
                                             out the two-week period. Because of
                                                                                                Michele Clark, Frederick Law
                                             their knowledge of the collections,
                                                                                                Olmsted
                                             conditions, and procedure, the Yel-
                                             lowstone staff members stayed at their              Linda Clement, Intermountain
                                                                                                Region
                                             work locations while the inbound team
                                             members rotated. Late in the process,              Tara Cross, Yellowstone
                                             the Yellowstone team rotated, too, as the
                                                                                                Colleen Curry, Yellowstone
                                             intensity of the work began to take a toll
                                             even on these seasoned veterans. Every             Blair Davenport, Death Valley

                                             afternoon, the groups met together and             Doris Diaz, San Juan
                                             reviewed the day’s work, discussed and
                                                                                                Ramona East, Sitka
                                             solved problems as they arose, and went
                                             over the next day’s assignments.                   Tasha Felton, Yellowstone

                                                                                                Dabney Ford, Chaco Culture
                                             Divvying Up the Work
                                             One team cleaned in the new build-                 Dusty Fuqua, Cane River
great amount of recycled moving supplies
                                             ing and unpacked. A second prepared
came from the Western Archeological                                                             Gwenn Gallenstein, Flagstaff Area
                                             objects for transport from old to new              Office
Conservation Center (WACC).
                                             storage spaces. A third worked in the
    Newton arrived in the park in early                                                         John George, Chaco Culture
                                             vehicle storage area. Even though the
June. She and the park staff organized
                                             vehicles were staying put, that facility also      Jackie Gerdes, Yellowstone
materials, work areas, and updated floor
                                             housed furniture and other large items
plans reflecting the “as built” condition                                                        Peggy Gow, Grant Kohrs
                                             that were being moved. And the fourth
of the building. Curry and Newton made                                                          Alice Hart, University of Kansas
                                             worked in the library, the archives, and
assignments for the Yellowstone staff and
                                             moved archeological and other materials.           Maurine Hinckley-Cole,
began to train them so they would be
                                             Their final assignment was to move the              Yellowstone
ready when the first team of helpers
                                             herbarium collection, a large collection
arrived. Each team had an orientation                                                           Judy Hitzeman, San Francisco
                                             of mosses, mushrooms, ferns, and other             Maritime
session that covered expectations, assign-
                                             plant matter that had been collected,
ments, instruction in techniques and an                                                         continued on page 5


onMEDIA                          February 2005                                                   National Park Service               4
                                                                                                     Yellowstone Move Participants
                                                                                                     continued from page 4
dried and cataloged; the fragile items                minus the historic vehicles, in one place,
required careful handling.                            under one roof. Secondly, 40 curators          Harold Housley, Yellowstone

    Training took place on the spot:                  from across the System and the Yellow-         Scott Houting, Valley Forge
building boxes, making cavity supports to             stone staff had trained one another under
                                                                                                     Gay Hunter, Olympic
hold delicate objects, and redoing speci-             the direction of Colleen Curry and Alice
men mounts. All opportunities turned                  Newton. They had confronted problems           Jackie Jerla, Yellowstone
into training events. Something learned               and learned how to avoid pitfalls. They
                                                                                                     Ann Johnson, Yellowstone
one day became part of the training and               had leveraged the specialized knowledge
the work on the next. Logistics, plan-                of two people into a body of knowledge         Janet Levine, Statue of Liberty
ning, mount making, object handling and               that more than 50 people now shared
                                                                                                     Suzanne Lewis, Yellowstone
cleaning, packing and unpacking tech-                 and practiced. All had learned practices
niques, transport methods, and safety                 and techniques that would prove valu-          Anne Luwellen, Timucuan

were topics the participants covered.                 able even in cases when they were not          Dona McDermott, Valley Forge
One participant said, “I never suspected              part of a collection move. One person
                                                                                                     Kandance Muller, Andersonville
there was so much to think about.” In the             trains another and that person passes
new building they talked about how to                 on the knowledge as well. The entire           Alice Newton, Harpers Ferry
organize the space, allow for the possibil-           exercise was the proverbial “win-win”          Center

ity of an earthquake, develop archive and             situation, and Harpers Ferry Center            Michelle Ortwein, Valley Forge
photograph storage techniques, and deal               was an important player in getting the
                                                                                                     Theresa Quirk, Alaska Region
with any special treatments for working               work done.
with natural history specimens.                                                                      Ella Rayburn, Steamtown
    When the move was completed, sever-
                                                                                                     Karin Roberts, Midwest Archeo-
al monumental goals had been achieved.                                                               logical Center
First Yellowstone has its entire collection,
                                                                                                     Ella Ross, Shenandoah

                                                                                                     Kelly Rushing, George Washing-
                                                                                                     ton University

                                                                                                     Nancy Russell, Everglades

                                                                                                     Nancy Smith, Allegheny Portage

                                                                                                     Randi Sue Smith, Fish and Wildlife
                                                                                                     Service

                                                                                                     Melanie Spoo, Joshua Tree

                                                                                                     Rosemary Sucec, Yellowstone

                                                                                                     Sue Thorsen, Sitka

                                                                                                     Mary Troy, Arlington House

                                                                                                     Steve Tustanowski-Marsh,
                                                                                                     Yellowstone

                                                                                                     Marieke Van Dam, Salem Mari-
                                                                                                     time

                                                                                                     Jennifer Whipple, Yellowstone

                                                                                                     William Wolvington, University of
                                                                                                     Kansas

Team One takes a break to record their presence. Their work consisted of cleaning the facility and
putting together shelving and installing other storage furniture where it needed to be. As work
goes, it was a bit unglamorous, but it was a necessary first step.



onMEDIA                                February 2005                                                  National Park Service            5
Maps: One Size Does Not Fit All                                                               Centennial of the
                                                                                              NIagara Movement

                                                                                              In August 1906, a group of
                                                                                              black leaders met in Harpers
Have you ever been asked to make a map or have one made                                       Ferry, West Virginia, to pursue
and you did not know what the first step was?                                                  civil rights for black Ameri-
                                                                                              cans. W.E.B. DuBois chal-
                                                                                              lenged his fellow participants:
This article will not make you a cartog-       What is the focus?                             “We claim for ourselves every
rapher—that takes years of study. We           Focus is the art of sticking with one          single right that belongs to a
can, however, help you ask some good           idea and resisting all temptation of mix-      freeborn American, political,
questions and give you pointers that will                                                     civil and social; and until we
                                               ing in anything else. For instance, your
                                                                                              get these rights we will never
help you make the map you need. What           park commemorates a Civil War battle           cease to protest and assail the
follows are the basics for good map plan-      and the park’s dominant feature is a tour      ears of America. The battle
ning, some questions to ask yourself, and      road that follows the line of battle. The      we wage is not for ouselves
some issues to be aware of. These are          focus of this map is orientation—follow-       alone but for all true Ameri-
simple rules, however, exceptions will                                                        cans.” Their endeavors led in
                                               ing the tour road to get you from one
                                                                                              1909, to the establishment of
arise as you develop more facility with        stop to the next. The present-day features     the National Association for
mapping. As you become more familiar           will help a driver do this. For legibility’s   the Advancement of Colored-
with maps, as you watch people use the         sake, stick with orientation. If you need      People (NAACP).
maps you create or have created and listen     to show troop movements, make that a
to the questions that arise from using         separate map or develop a wayside plan
those maps, you will begin to look at          that supports the interpretation at each
maps in a new way.                             tour stop. Plan carefully before you pick
                                               up your pencil.
What kind of map do you need?
This question is the first one you need         Be accurate.
to ask. Maybe it will be a printed map—        Either you are or you aren’t; there is
as in a publication, site bulletin, or park    no gray area here. Maps must be geo-
newspaper—a wayside map, an exhibit            graphically accurate, which means use
map, or one that is interactive. Maybe it      published maps supplied by the U.S.
will be color or just black and white. At      Geological Survey as the starting point.
this point you also need to consider if a      Names, too, need to be the names
map is really what you need. Perhaps a         approved by the Board on Geographic
better road sign is the solution. Or written   Names. Since 1890 the Board has been
directions may be what you truly need.         responsible for the standardization and        Now 99 years later, Harp-
Do not assume that simply because you          uniformity of the names of physical            ers Ferry National Historical
want to move people from one location          features within the 50 states. One key         Park is planning a centennial
to another, a map is the only answer.          reason for uniformity of names is safety:      commemoration in August
                                                                                              2006. Harpers Ferry Center
                                               to ensure that all people are talking about
                                                                                              will be working with the park,
What is the purpose?                           the same feature when they use a name.         helping review an Educator’s
Once you have decided that a map is                                                           Guide and helping develop
absolutely what you need, you need to          Edit for focus and purpose.                    a website.The development
decide what it is you want this map to do.                                                    of an educator’s guide is
                                               This is the stage when you decide
                                                                                              significant since this particu-
Orientation and site navigation are major      what goes on the map and what does             lar historical event is seldom
reasons the National Park Service makes        not—the labels, natural and built fea-         covered in secondary school
maps. Some NPS maps are interpretive.          tures, roads, or trails. This is the most      texts. The park and curriculum
These maps tell the stories of battles, de-    important step after having answered           experts will develop the guide
scribe ecosystems, relate historic events,                                                    and in 2005 teachers and
                                               the previous questions. The true genius
                                                                                              Education Specialist Lakita Ed-
and illustrate conditions that are not so      at this stage is in what is left off the map.   wards will critique and refine
apparent just by looking over a landscape.     For example, you are making a park trail       the document.

onMEDIA                            February 2005                                               National Park Service       6
                                                                                                  Identity News
map. You do not need to include the                readable at the map’s new size. A grow-
                                                                                                  Two new entrance signs and an
employee housing area or the sewage                ing number of the maps have been field          electronic marquee at Wolf Trap
treatment plant. Focus on the trails.              checked by a cartographer. All have been       National Park for the Performing
                                                   proofed by parks and cartographers.            Arts reflect the new Uniguide sign
Just because you can, doesn’t                                                                     standards that were articulated
mean you should                                    Continue to improve.                           in Director’s Order 52C Septem-
                                                                                                  ber 2003. Since that time work
Today’s computer programs abound                   Once your map is printed or produced,
                                                                                                  has been underway to identify
with all kind of doodads, decorations,             your project is not completed. Con-            a Servicewide sign supplier. A
“cool” borders, and stylized type that you         tinue to watch how people use the map,         Request for Proposals was issued
can put on a map. Don’t do it. Don’t make          remembering the same techniques you            in November 2004. It has a closing
the kind of map that you find as a place-           used back at the proofing stage. Keep a         date of February 18, 2005. A se-
mat in a restaurant. Keep the map simple           sheet of paper in your desk drawer and         lection panel will meet at the Na-
                                                                                                  tional Conservation and Training
and clean, but don’t make it boring. You           write down comments as you hear them.
                                                                                                  Center in nearby Shepherdstown,
want it to be attractive enough that peo-          When you are ready to revise or reprint        West Virginia, to go through the
ple will look at it. This can be done by us-       your map, you will have those comments         responses that have been submit-
ing color and applying information in “vi-         at your finger tips and can now make an         ted. The panel will meet February
sual levels” the most important features           even better map. Look at the detail from       28 through March 5. An award is
are the most dominant. Less important              the Missouri National Recreational River       expected by the end of May 2005.
                                                                                                  Besides sign fabrication, the con-
information descends in a hierarchical             map for more tips on page 8.
                                                                                                  tract will provide sign planning
fashion in size and dominance. The goal                                                           and design to parks.
is to have the content be the focus, and
this aim is achieved through good design.          Cartographic Conventions
Anecdotal evidence tells us that many              • Roads are red, black, or gray solid lines;
Americans have map phobias, which sug-              thickness indicates importance or num
gests also that the design of a map needs           ber of lanes.
to be kept as user-friendly as possible.           • Trails are dashed.
Before you print several thousand copies           • Water is blue.
of your map, show a proof to a number
                                                   • Water feature names are blue italic type
of people. Lay it on the information desk
                                                   • Parks/forest/natural areas are green.
and see how people respond. Incorporate
                                                   • Urban areas are yellow/orange.
the changes as they come in. When they
                                                   • The length of the legend is generally an
cease, you know you are ready to print.
                                                    indication of the failure of the map. Use
Repurpose.                                          symbols sparingly. If you use a symbol
The cartographers at Harpers Ferry                  only once, consider using a label instead,
Center have made hundreds of maps                   so you will save a legend entry.
throughout the years. They are available           • Dots show location.
for your use and for others. They are all          • Coordinate labels and symbols on
in the public domain. The website for               park signs with labels and symbols on the
HFC-produced maps—www.nps.gov/                      maps. If a sign says “Walden Pond,” the
carto—contains more than 500 publica-               map should not say “Walden Lake.”
tion maps. They range from the entire              • Small differences in color do not create
national park system to small interpretive
                                                    contrast; they create confusion.
maps. Most likely you or your contractor
                                                   • Avoid condensed type. Such labels
can find something here that will aid you
                                                    are difficult to read even for those with
to create the map you need. But be care-
                                                    perfect vision.
ful. You cannot take a map one size and
either shrink it or blow it up. In all cases       • Letter space (spread out) area labels.
the labels must be redone so that they are

onMEDIA                            February 2005                                                   National Park Service         7
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1. River District Map                           5. Justifying                                 8. Call out boxes
The focus of this area map is to show the       Lining up labels and symbols makes the        A handy method of showing important
park districts. No roads, no towns are shown,   information one block of copy. This special   features is this box. Do not overuse. Position
only the park.                                  treatment distinguishes the label from the    the box carefully so that it does not obscure
                                                map base information.                         other important information.
2. Legend
The legend contains only information that       6. State names                                9. Emphasis
requires explanation. For example, do not       Note how subdued the state names are.         Since this park is essentially a river and
show a blue line to denote a stream. People     The reader needs to know which state is       some adjacent shoreline acreage, you can
already know that information.                  which, but it is not the most important       bring emphasis to the river by making the
                                                information for the reader.                   stretch that is the park a stronger blue.
3. Park name                                                                                  Note how the river is treated beyond the
The name of the park is the largest and most    7. Symbols                                    park boundary near Sioux City; it becomes
dominant label on this map. There can be no     The legend tells the reader what the          just another feature.
mistaking the map’s focus.                      symbols stand for, so you do not need to
                                                repeat what the symbol means. Do not say      10. City areas
4. State colors                                 “Mulberry Bend boat launch” and use the       Showing the city area gives the map yet
This map shows three different states, but      symbol, too. Simply say “Mulberry Bend”       another level of information.
showing this long, thin, linear park is the     and use the symbol.
point of this map. Keeping the states the
same rather than different colors helps make
the park stand out.


onMEDIA                                February 2005                                                      National Park Service            8

								
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