1 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT All Praise to Allah. First and foremost I thank Allah, the Generous, for having finally made this effort a reality. I praise Him because if it were not for His Graciousness, it would never materialize. I‟m extremely grateful to my course instructor‟s entire course instructor. who spent a lot of valuable time with me and gave all the related information and expertise very generously about related courses. I am very thanks to my group members 1)Syed Bakhtyar ali shah 2 )Imran khan 3 )Hizb ullah ahmad 4 )M.Arsahad 5 )Fayyaz Niyazi 6 )S.Wasim Jan 7 )S.Qamar Abbas 2 CRIME: A crime is an act that violates a political, religious, or moral command considered important in protecting the interests of the State or the welfare of its citizens or subjects. The word "crime" came from Latin crime from the Latin root Informal relationships and sanctions have been deemed insufficient to create and maintain a desired social order, resulting in formalized systems of social control by the government Various mechanisms are employed to regulate behavior, including rules codified into laws, policing people to ensure they comply with those laws, and other policies and practices designed to prevent crime. FOR EXAMPLE: The label of "crime" and the accompanying social stigma are normally reserved for those activities that are injurious to the general population or the State, including some that cause serious loss or damage to individuals. The term "crime" can also technically refer to the use of criminal law to regulate minor infractions, such as traffic violations. Usually, the perpetrator of the crime is a natural person, but in some jurisdictions and in some moral environments, legal persons are also considered to have the capability of committing crimes. The State can also technically commit crimes, although this is on in the justice system. prevention, control, and penal responses to crime are called criminology. For these purposes, the definition of crime depends on the theoretical stance taken. The nature of crime could be viewed from either a legal or normative perspective. This is an uncomplicated view: the law, and only the law. A normative definition views crime as deviant behavior that violates prevailing norms, specifically, cultural standards prescribing how humans ought to behave. This approach considers the complex realities surrounding the concept of crime and seeks to understand how changing social, political, psychological, and economic conditions may affect the current. For example, as cultures change and the political environment shifts, behavior may be criminalized or decriminalized, which will directly affect the statistical crime rates, determine the allocation of resources for the enforcement of such laws, and influence public opinion. Similarly, changes in the way that crime data are collected and/or calculated may affect the public Crime and society You need to know about the causes and impact of criminal behaviour. For example, people may commit crime for several reasons; Peer pressure 3 Criminals have not been taught the difference between „right and wrong.‟ This argument is closely associated with the New Right Mental illness. The majority of prisoners have mental health problems A failure to rehabilitate ex-offenders back into society The sociologist Zygmunt Bauman argues that criminals steal status items in order to appear „normal‟ within such a materialistic society The peak age of criminal activity is during the years 16-25. This may be due to the following factors; Boys often have to „prove‟ their masculinity which can, at times, result in criminal activity The likelihood of a young person belonging to a subculture is high, and some subcultures engage in criminal behaviour Young people may have few legitimate means available of acquiring material goods Less responsibilities Teenage rebellion can lead to people breaking the law There are several negative impacts of crime upon an area. They include; Depopulation, particularly in urban areas High levels of crime may damage community spirit and result in less neighborliness. People may simply want to „keep themselves to themselves‟ for fear of harassment High crime levels can contribute to environmental poverty Once a region with a high level of crime is labeling as a bad area, it might become a ghetto There are several causes of deviant behaviour that you also need to be aware of; People may feel alienated from society. This is a particular problem amongst the underclass and young people Deviant behaviour may simply be the product of teenage rebellion Some people seek acceptance from a particular group, and therefore act in a deviant manner in order to conform to the subculture of that group You also need to consider the impact of deviant behaviour. Some sociologists argue that there is little significance to a person adopting deviant behaviour for a short period of time. Indeed in many cases, it is little more than a phase in someone‟s life, usually during his/her teenage years. However, some people within a deviant group face a great deal of negative peer pressure which can result in criminal activity. This latter point is common amongst gangs. 4 The Nature of Deviance In all societies the behavior of some people at times goes beyond that permitted by the norms. Social life is characterized not only by conformity but by deviance, behavior that a considerable number of people view as reprehensible and beyond the limits of tolerance. Social Properties of Deviance. Deviance is not a property inherent in certain forms of behavior; it is a property conferred upon particular behaviors by social definitions. Definitions as to which acts are deviant vary greatly from time to time, place to place, and group to group. We typically find that norms are not so much a point or a line but a zone. Deviant acts also can be redefined, as has happened in recent years in the United States. Most societies can absorb a good deal of deviance without serious consequences, but persistent and widespread deviance can be dysfunctional. But deviance may also be functional by promoting social solidarity, clarifying norms, strengthening group allegiances, and providing a catalyst for change. Social Control and Deviance. Societies seek to ensure that their members conform to basic norms by means of social control. Three main types of social control processes operate within social life: (1) those that lead us to internalize our society's normative expectations (internalization), (2) those that structure our world of social experience, and (3) those that employ various formal and informal social sanctions. Theories of Deviance Other disciplines are concerned with deviance, particularly biology and psychology. Sociologists focus on five main theories. Anomie Theory. Émile Durkheim contributed to our understanding of deviance with his idea of anomie. Robert K. Merton built on Durkheim's ideas of anomie and social cohesion. According to his theory of structural strain, deviance derives from societal stresses. Cultural Transmission Theory. A number of sociologists have emphasized the similarities between the way deviant behavior is acquired and the way in which other behavior is acquired-the cultural transmission theory. Edwin H. Sutherland elaborated on this notion in his theory of differential association. He said that individuals become deviant to the extent to which they participate in settings where deviant ideas, motivations, and techniques are viewed favorably. Conflict Theory. Conflict theorists ask, "Which group will be able to translate its values into the rules of a society and make these rules stick?" and "Who reaps the lion's share of benefits from particular social arrangements?" Marxist sociologists see crime as a product of capitalist laws. Labeling Theory. Labeling theorists study the processes whereby some individuals come to be tagged as deviants, begin to think of themselves as deviants, and enter deviant careers. Labeling theorists differentiate between primary deviance and secondary deviance. 5 Control Theory. Control theory attempts to explain not why people deviate but why people do not deviate. Travis Hirschi argued that young people are more likely to conform if their bond to society is strong. This bond has four parts: attachment, involvement, commitment, and belief TYPES OF CRIME: Crime can be divided in to three main types. `CONVENTIONAL CRIME: convention includes crime of violence such as assault ,rape and murder , but mainly consists of property crime such theft and robbery. Most of these are committed by person of the lower and blue collar classes. Weltanschauung of Crime: Revisited Ugljesa Zvekic Conventional crime from an international perspective. This paper compares and attempts to integrate the results of the two largest international empirical sources of crime and criminal justice data (the United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems and the International Crime Victim Survey) with respect to world crime levels. These two sources provide different pictures of conventional crime from an international perspective. One of the main factors contributing to differences in crime levels based on these two international data sources relates to police reporting patterns. These are much higher in the industrialized world compared with other developmental regions. Differences are due to a number of factors related to the propensity to report to the police, including the degree of insurance coverage and the public confidence in police. Comparative analysis stimulates discussion on the relationships between development and crime, particularly in relation to the modernization theory. The results seriously challenge modernization theory, whose empirical base is composed exclusively of official criminal justice statistics. The International Crime Victim Survey empirical base, composed of citizens' direct experience with crime and reporting to the police, serously undermines the very foundations of the prevalent explanatory paradigm regarding development and crime relationships. - icj.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/9/1/56 Race, conventional crime, and criminal justice The declining importance of skin color Matt DeLisia and Bob Regolia, Department of Sociology University of Colorado Boulder, CO 80309-0327 USA Abstract: Blacks in the United States are arrested, prosecuted, convicted, and incarcerated in numbers disproportionate to their percentage of the population. One explanation is that racial discrimination against Blacks pervades the 6 American system of criminal justice. This study examined the nature and extent of racial discrimination in the criminal justice system by evaluating five propositions using data from extant literature. Little evidence was found to support the allegation that the criminal justice system systematically discriminates against Blacks. - sciencedirect.com Prisoner-on-prisoner violence: Victimization of young offenders in prison. Some German findings Helmut Kury, University of Freiburg, Germany Ursula Smartt, Thames Valley University, London This article will discuss new findings relating to prisoner-on-prisoner violence from Germany. The juxtaposition of victim and victimizer, deeply embedded in the prisonization culture, will be given careful consideration. It will be argued that victimology has largely concentrated on 'conventional crime', which, in turn, has created and generated certain limitations regarding the concepts of 'good' and 'evil' and 'acceptable' and 'non-acceptable' victims. While there are a number of studies concentrating on prison violence per se, research of this kind has been limited in Germany, particularly studies that focus on young offender institutions. Previously under-researched fear of victimization among prisoners will also be discussed, supported by results from a study at the North German Young Offender Institution Hamlin (Jugendanstalt Hameln). This article will focus, inter alia, on non-consensual sexual assaults, which remains a taboo subject in prison managerial cultures. - crj.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/2/4/411 Occupational crime, occupational deviance, and workplace crime: Sorting out the difference David O Friedrichs, University of Scranton, USA The concept of occupational crime - as one of the principal forms of white collar crime - has been quite familiar and widely invoked since the publication of Clinard and Quinney's influential Criminal Behavior Systems: A Typology. More recently, however, the term occupational crime has been applied to activities quite removed from the original meaning of white collar crime, and it has been used interchangeably with such terms as occupational deviance and workplace crime. In the interest of greater conceptual clarity within the field of white collar crime the argument is made here for restricting the term 'occupational crime' to illegal and unethical activities committed for individual financial gain - or to avoid financial loss - in the context of a legitimate occupation. The term 'occupational deviance' is better reserved for deviation from occupational norms (e.g. drinking on the job; sexual harassment), and the term 'workplace crime' is better reserved for conventional forms of crime committed in the workplace (e.g. rape; assault). The conceptual conflation of fundamentally dissimilar activities hinders theoretical, empirical, and policy-related progress in the field of white collar crime studies. - crj.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/2/3/243 Police Strikes and Conventional Crime A Look at the Data 7 ERDWIN H. PFUHL, JR. ABSTRACT: Employing FBI "Return A Record Card" data, this study examines the impact of municipal police strikes on reported rates of burglary, robbery, larceny, and auto theft in 11 U.S. cities. Relationships reflecting the view that police presence is essential for crime prevention and social order are examined for variation duration of police strike, city size, and offense category. Overall, analysis yields very limited support for the police presence argument, suggesting that strikes have neither a significant nor a systematic impact on rates of reported crime. Implications of findings for the formulation of police policy are discussed. - blackwell-synergy.com Conventional Crime (From Criminology: A Canadian Perspective, P 242- 269, 1987, Rick Linden, ed.) D J Koenig Hindelang and associates have developed a lifestyle/exposure theory to explain the correlates of crime against persons, and Cohen and Felson have extended the theory to property crimes. Abstract: According to this perspective, the probability of criminal victimization varies by time, space, and social setting and by the extent to which routine activities increase target suitability and reduce effective guardianship. The patterns and correlates of conventional crimes are consistent with this approach. Crimes against property tend to be committed disproportionately against those whose lifestyle leave their possessions least effectively guarded. Crimes against persons have some different correlates than do crimes against property, but most of these differences are consistent with the lifestyle/exposure theory. For typical crimes, victims (and offenders) are most likely to be young, male, and engage in evening activities away from home. Thus, their lifestyles place them in social settings with a higher risk of criminal victimization. Strategies for crime control consistent with this theory would include those to increase effective guardianship and reduce the availability of motivated offenders - THE VOICE OF VICTIMS OF CRIME: ESTIMATING THE TRUE LEVEL OF CONVENTIONAL CRIME by Anna Alvazzi del Frate Abstract Since its launch in 1989, the International Crime Victim Survey has attracted growing interest from the research community and policy makers. In addition to providing an alternative source of data on crime to complement official statistics, the Survey offers internationally standardized indicators for the perception and fear of crime. At the country level, the International Crime Victim Survey is used to monitor differences in crime and perceptions between countries and over time. By collecting social and demographic information on respondents, crime surveys also allow analysis of how both objective and subjective risks of crime vary for different groups within the population, in terms of age, gender, education, income levels and lifestyles. Data from recent sweeps of the Survey are presented in order to analyze global crime levels and trends. 8 Methodology The Survey targets samples of households in which only one respondent, aged 16 or above, is selected. National samples include at least 2,000 respondents, who are generally interviewed using the computer-assisted telephone interview technique. In the countries where that method could not be used because of insufficient distribution of telephones, face-to-face interviews were conducted in the main cities, generally with samples of 1,000-1,500 respondents. The questionnaire includes sections on 11 types of “conventional” crime, for which standard definitions are provided. Questions on consumer fraud and corruption are included; those are also accompanied by standard definitions. The questionnaire is also used to gather data on whether crimes were reported to the police, the reasons for not reporting crimes, attitudes towards the police, the fear of crime and crime prevention measures. Of the eleven “conventional” crimes, some are “household crimes”, that is, crimes that can be seen as affecting the household at large. Respondents report on all the incidents involving household crimes that are known to them. A first group of crimes deals with vehicles owned by the respondent or other members of his or her household: theft of car; theft from car; car vandalism; theft of bicycle; and theft of motorcycle. A second group refers to breaking and entering burglary; and attempted burglary. A third group of crimes refers to crimes experienced personally by the respondent: robbery; theft of personal property; assault or threat; and sexual incidents (women only). Finally, the questionnaire addresses two more types of crime that may have been experienced by the respondents: consumer fraud; and bribery or corruption. Regular meetings of survey coordinators from participating countries have helped to facilitate the translation of concepts and definitions into the various languages. The Voice of Victims of Crime: Estimating the True Level of Conventional Crime 131 Data analysis. Each sweep of the Survey provides an enormous amount of information. In-depth analysis of the database is one of the objectives of researchers across the world. The wealth of data produced can hardly be analyzed between two consecutive sweeps of the Survey. Analysis of the Survey has been carried out mostly within comparable groups of countries, for example, national surveys in the “industrialized countries” city surveys in Central and Eastern Europe and the developing countries . Analysis of the main comparative results concerning industrialized countries was published upon completion of the first, second, third and fourth international crime victim surveys [2-5]; results from developing countries and countries with economies in transition were made available in numerous publications [3-9]; and results from the International Crime Victim Survey 2000 were also widely published [10-13]. The present article will deal with some of the main findings of the Survey conducted in 2000. For international comparisons across groups, only respondents located in urban areas with populations of more than 100,000 are considered from national surveys. 9 The crime count The Survey provides an overall measure of victimization in the previous year through any of the 11 conventional crimes included in the questionnaire (which do not include consumer fraud and corruption). On average, approximately 28 per cent of respondents suffered at least one form of victimization over the twelve months preceding the interview. Overall victimization of around 27 per cent was observed in four out of six regions of the world (Western Europe, Central and Eastern Europe, North America and Australasia), while in Africa and Latin America much higher levels of victimization were observed (35 and 46 per cent respectively). Professional Crime Professional criminal activity is illegal activity of the person possessing corresponding experiences, skills, methods and instruments, person considering this activity as basic occupation, and main or additional source of money income According to A. Gurov, criminal professionalism is criminal occupation, source of means for the criminal; it demands necessary knowledge and skills for achieving the ultimate goal; it causes certain contacts with antisocial environment; it defines stable kind of criminal occupation (fulfillment of mainly similar occupations) Criminal professionalism gives an opportunity to prepare, commit crime and cover up traces and, as a rule, to avoid the criminal liability, to have constant income Criminals quickly adapt to new kinds, forms and methods of entrepreneurship. They use conditions of the developing market and new technologies on criminal purposes. The number of crimes committed in sphere of high technologies (carding, computer and cellular crimes), with use of special knowledge in sphere of financial and economic activities, during professional activity. As an example we may take large money thefts using counterfeit bank documents, fake securities, illegal use of electronic means designed for accessing bank accounts, office equipment (computers, fax-modems, copying devices). OCCUPATIONAL CRIME: Occupational crime occurs when crimes are committed to promote personal interests. Crimes that fall into this category include altering books by accountants and overcharging or cheating clients by lawyer‟s Occupational crime we find entirely different illegal behavior. Such are committed by person of the middle and upper social classes. Occupational crime involves the violation of law in the course of activity in a legitimate occupation. 10 Occupational Crime Occupational crimes are illegal acts made possible through one's lawful employment. It is the secretive violation of laws regulating working activities. Employee theft has been estimated to add up to dollar amounts exceeding those of all streets crimes combined. Other examples of employee crime are, illegal insider trading and fraudulent stock manipulation. Industrial Espionage The development of computer chips is an extremely expensive process. Enormous savings are possible through legal reverse engineering. Even greater savings are possible by illegally acquiring design information from competitors. Peter Gopal developed numerous contacts that enabled him to buy and sell competitors secrets. Gopal sold National Semiconductor‟s secrets to Intel Corp. He also stole from Intel to sell to National Semiconductor. Gopal found it easy to buy dozens of major trade secrets from former employees. Unfortunately, white-collar criminals suffer relatively modest penalties. Even though Gopal was convicted, it is estimated that he made millions of dollars from his crimes. Price fixing Price fixing consists of the establishment of artificially inflated prices for products by the collaboration of a group of organizations to restrict unwanted competition. The price for these products are much higher than would otherwise exist in the open free market. The practice of price fixing has been so widespread in the industry for so long that it has become accepted as proper. The Sherman Antitrust Act seeks to ferret out these companies and restrict their price fixing methods. . ORGANIZATIONAL CRIME: A much more costly type of white collar crime occurs when corporate executives commit criminal acts to benefit their company. There are a variety of corporate crimes that include o the creation of inferior products, o pollution, 11 o Price fixing. Organizational crime is committed by large corporations , an industry , labor unions and even a church . organizational crime such as corporations an industry labor unions and even a church hierarchy organizational crime such as corporate law breaking is carried out within a complex system . cyber crime The most advance crime today is cyber crime. What is this Cyber crime? We read about it in newspapers very often. Let's look at the dictionary definition of Cyber crime: "It is a criminal activity committed on the internet. This is a broad term that describes everything from electronic cracking to denial of service attacks that cause electronic commerce sites to lose money". Mr. Pagan Duggal, who is the President of www.cyberlaws.net and consultant, in a report has clearly defined the various categories and types of cyber crimes. Cyber crimes can be basically divided into 3 major categories: 1. Cyber crimes against persons. 2. Cyber crimes against property. 3. Cyber crimes against government. Cyber crimes against persons: Cyber crimes committed against persons include various crimes like transmission of child-pornography, harassment of any one with the use of a computer such as e-mail. The trafficking, distribution, posting, and dissemination of obscene material including pornography and indecent exposure, constitutes one of the most important Cyber crimes known today. The potential harm of such a crime to humanity can hardly be amplified. This is one Cyber crime which threatens to undermine the growth of the younger generation as also leave irreparable scars and injury on the younger generation, if not controlled. A minor girl in Ahmedabad was lured to a private place through cyber chat by a man, who, along with his friends, attempted to gang rape her. As some passersby heard her cry, she was rescued. Another example wherein the damage was not done to a person but to the masses is the case of the Melissa virus. The Melissa virus first appeared on the internet in March of 1999. It spread rapidly throughout computer systems in the United States and Europe. It is estimated that the virus caused 80 million dollars in damages to computers worldwide. In the United States alone, the virus made its way through 1.2 million computers in one-fifth of the country's largest businesses. David Smith pleaded guilty on Dec. 9, 1999 12 to state and federal charges associated with his creation of the Melissa virus. There are numerous examples of such computer viruses few of them being "Melissa" and "love bug". Cyber harassment is a distinct Cyber crime. Various kinds of harassment can and do occur in cyberspace, or through the use of cyberspace. Harassment can be sexual, racial, religious, or other. Persons perpetuating such harassment are also guilty of cyber crimes. Cyber harassment as a crime also brings us to another related area of violation of privacy of citizens. Violation of privacy of online citizens is a Cyber crime of a grave nature. No one likes any other person invading the invaluable and extremely touchy area of his or her own privacy which the medium of internet grants to the citizen. Cyber crimes against property: The second category of Cyber-crimes is that of Cyber crimes against all forms of property. These crimes include computer vandalism (destruction of others' property), transmission of harmful programmers. A Mumbai-based upstart engineering company lost a say and much money in the business when the rival company, an industry major, stole the technical database from their computers with the help of a corporate cyber spy. Cyber crimes against government: The third category of Cyber-crimes relate to Cyber crimes against Government. Cyber terrorism is one distinct kind of crime in this category. The growth of internet has shown that the medium of Cyberspace is being used by individuals and groups to threaten the international governments as also to terrorize the citizens of a country. This crime manifests itself into terrorism when an individual "cracks" into a government or military maintained website. In a report of expressindia.com, it was said that internet was becoming a boon for the terrorist organizations. According to Mr. A.K. Gupta, Deputy Director (Co-ordination), CBI, terrorist outfits are increasingly using internet to communicate and move funds. "Lashker-e-Toiba is collecting contributions online from its sympathizers all over the world. During the investigation of the Red Fort shootout in Dec. 2000, the accused Ashram Ahmed of this terrorist group revealed that the militants are making extensive use of the internet to communicate with the operatives and the sympathizers and also using the medium for intra-bank transfer of funds". Cracking is amongst the gravest Cyber-crimes known till date. It is a dreadful feeling to know that a stranger has broken into your computer systems without your knowledge and consent and has tampered with precious confidential data and information. Coupled with this the actuality is that no computer system in the world is cracking proof. It is unanimously agreed that any and every system in the world can be cracked. The recent denial of service attacks seen over the popular commercial sites like E-bay, Yahoo, Amazon and others are a new category of Cyber-crimes which are slowly 13 emerging as being extremely dangerous. "Any criminal activity that uses a computer either as an instrumentality, target or a means for perpetuating further crimes comes within the ambit of cyber crime." Organized Crime, Terrorism and Cyber crime The merger of transnational crime, terrorism and corruption is profound. The idea that these ideas can be discussed separately is problematic. Such compartmentalization limits our ability to analyze and address the diverse forms of transnational criminal activity. Highly corrupt societies give little opportunity for legitimate social mobility and their high level corruption is a deterrent to economic growth and investment. Under these circumstances, the employment opportunities of transnational crime groups provide a desirable economic alternative to youth without legitimate opportunities. Terrorist groups flourish in environments where youths have limited chance for advancement within their societies. The phenomena of transnational crime, terrorism and corruption are all too often viewed as separate phenomena. These phenomena have grown in tandem because the economic and political conditions that give rise to these phenomena are quite similar. The evolution of the transnational crime-ideologically based or economically based depends on specific environmental factors that have proliferated in many developing and transitional countries that have not successfully integrated into the global Economy. Terrorists and transnational criminals use many of the same strategies to promote their operations, chief among these being the use of information technology to plan and realize their activities. The rise of greater international mobility and the proliferation of information technology throughout the world have facilitated the growth of both transnational crime and terrorism. The ease of communications in the contemporary era makes the location of groups and actors less significant than it was previously. The ability to exploit security holes in the system makes crime groups and terrorists operate out of unexpected locales rather than their home territories. Most transnational crime and terrorist groups are based in transitional and developing countries. The illicit businesses are now the largest and most profitable to be located in the developing world. For example, the drug trade now represents about 7% of world trade according to late 1990s estimates of the United Nations. Their vast profits and enormous assets make them powerful actors in their home countries and in their regions. Because they are so large relative to the legitimate businesses based in their region or in the countries through which they operate, they have a large influence on politics and business. The vast profits of illegal businesses allow them to hire the best specialists domestically and internationally. Facilitating this trade, is an ever greater reliance on information technology to promote their activities secretly. For example, international (End Page 303) drug traffickers are among the most widespread users of encrypted messages, coded 14 messages by cell and satellite phones and use economizer features on computers. They also are able to hire technical specialists capable of using steganography and other means to make messages hard or impossible to decipher. This access to high level specialists allows illicit businesses and terrorist organizations to transcend borders and operate internationally without detection. Often the crime and terrorist groups do not need to go outside their region to hire such technical specialists. Some of the leading specialists in the technical area are located in regions that house major transnational crime groups and terrorist organizations. The presence of many highly trained technical specialists in the countries of the former Soviet Union and in the Indian subcontinent means that transnational crime groups means that a vast array of specialists are available for hire.6 While some specialists will not work for criminal or terrorist organizations willingly, some will do it unaware of their employers whereas others will agree to provide assistance because well-paid legitimate employment is scarce in their region. The widespread problem of corruption in many developing countries allows the proliferation of transnational organized crime and terrorism. The official corruption facilitating this activity may assume many different forms and is not just based on bribery. Top government officials provide falsified documents to smuggled criminals and terrorists, restrain law enforcement from acting against suspicious groups and provide them a safe space to operate. Because of this, criminals can use the high level technology available in the former Soviet Union and the Punjab region to facilitate not only their own crime and terrorist groups but those of other regions of the world which find save haven on their territory. In this way criminals exploit information technology to carry on their operations in a safe and secure manner. The connections between transnational crime and terrorism are not unique to developed and developing countries. As investigations in the advent of September, 11th have shown, terrorists in developed countries use criminal activity to survive. Arrests in Spain revealed that terrorists were selling counterfeit airline tickets to survive and such groups in the United States were surviving by means of money laundering and other criminal offenses How the law classifies crime: Crime is divided is in to felonies an and he is demeanors . the destination between the two in two base .,a felony is serious crime such as homicide shape for which punishment typically range from more than a year imprisonment to death. A misdemeanors is minor crime that punishment is less than in jail 15 Sociology category crime based on how they are committed and how society views the offenses but we will only focus on the corporate crime. Fraud Fraud against an individual or business can involve the government, too, if the government does business with them. If fact, fraudsters tend to prefer large, complex, inter-related business conglomerates where they think the anonymity of bureaucracy will keep them safe from suspicion. These types of fraudsters also tend to keep trouble stirred up elsewhere in the bureaucracy to distract attention away from them. There are many types of fraud, but one that has become prevalent in recent years (due to the size of the equities market) is securities (stocks and commodities) fraud. Let's examine the varieties of this type of fraud. Individuals (and businesses alike) may be simply taking advantage of an opportunity to "cash in" at a moment when all the right players are in the right place. This is often the way crimes like arson are detected, as investigators simply notice a suspicious pattern in the insurance claims Types of Securities-Related Fraud Churning The practice of trading a client's shares of stock frequently to generate large commissions Insider trading The use of non-public information to obtain an unfair advantage in trading Stock The making of false or misleading statements about a stock about manipulation to rise to create artificial demand Boiler rooms The running of an operation by stock manipulators who seduce the public by deceptive sales techniques into buying "penny" stocks in obscure and poorly financed corporations Bankruptcy Uses either the "old corporation" game or the "new corporation" game to bilk investors out of their money Churning The investigation of churning is likely to boil down to a client's word against a broker's word, since brokers are typically allowed some discretion on behalf of their clients. Churning is difficult to prove. Insider trading Insider trading is usually detected when the offender involves others in the deal, when the offender is not only lining their own pockets, but shad ring their insider information with other but sharing their insider information with others. In many cases, this involves co-workers and fellow executives, but in other cases involves family or friends. It depends on the offender's lifestyle, or how divorced they are from home or work. 16 .FOR EXAMPLE: They will advise their lower-level employees (or enemies) NOT to sell something when they, themselves, are selling off like crazy. Stock manipulation . Stock manipulation can take place in any locale, from the floor of Wall Street to corporate offices to word-of-mouth (websites, email, telephone calls) Bankruptcy Committed by individuals and corporations who conceal and misstate assets, who mislead creditors, and who illegally pressure bankruptcy petitioners. Bankruptcy fraud that uses the "old corporation" game involves ex- employees who form a "spin-off" corporation with usually a similar-sounding name (perhaps a dot-com spin-off), and building on the related credit established by the old corporation, quickly develop a war chest of investment capital, which they waste away or spend on themselves. Bankruptcy fraud that uses the "new corporation" game typically involves mergers or what is called "corporate raiding," and the new management. CORPORATE CRIME: The legal acts committees by corporate employer on behalf of the corporation and with its support called corporate crime Corporate crime often more costly in terms of money and livers lost than street crime thousand of jobs and billions of dollars lost. As a results of corporate crime. In the year 2002 alone. Deaths result from c.c such as polluting the air and water. Selling unsaved food and ding for exceed the numbers of deaths due to homicides each year. the concept of state-corporate crime refers to crimes that result from the relationship between the policies of the state and the policies and practices of commercialThese definitions were intended to include all "socially injurious acts" and not merely those that are defined by the local criminal jurisdiction as crime. This is not universally accepted as a valid definition so a less contentious version has been adopted here. As an academic classification, it is distinguished from:. corporate crime refers to crimes committed either by a corporation (i.e., a business entity having a separate legal personality from the natural persons that manage its activities), or by individuals that may be identified with a corporation or other business entity (see vicarious liability and corporate liability).corporate and business crime generally have not stimulated on the part 17 of academic criminologists the result from corporate pollution and the manufacture of hazardous consumer products The corporate crime was published conventional crime has continued to attract far more interest in part because of the complexity of corporation and typesof law violation .another reason is that corporate illegal violation are not reported in central sources like the uniform crime reported .To do research on corporate offenses there is a need for acquaintance with not only criminal law violation but those of administrative and civil laws as well .Finally there is difficulty in securing necessary research funds which are far larger than those needed for the study of conventional or occupational crime these issues are discussed later in corporate crime. The distinction is that white-collar crime is likely to be a crime against the corporation, whereas corporate crime is crime committed by the corporation, although the distinction blurs when the given crime promotes the interests of the corporation and its senior employees because a business entity can only act through the agency of the natural persons whom it employs . COST OF CORPORATE CRIME: The corporate crime far exceeds the total the theft put to gather. This amount is very great estimates for corporate crime has varied from several hundred billion dollars to accounting . Examples of the research the United States Federal government body with responsibility for the project, had only been subject to self-regulation of an entirely inadequate antinuclear weapons production complex in the United States and found that the Department of Energy and the private corporations that contracted with the Department had been allowed to work in extreme secrecy, unfettered by the regulations that had governed the civilian nuclear industryture. CORPORATE CRIME YESTERDAY AND TODAY A COMPARISON: Corporate crime is the first and still the corporative study of corporate law violation by our largest corporation‟s .the new introduction discusses the development of a criminology I trust in corporate crime . thins stared to happen beginning in the 1960 due largely to consumer group and other who strongly emphasized the need fir more corporate social responsibility. This concern resulted in the creation of the national. 18 ) Increasing Threat of Corporate Crime: Economic crime by a corporate entity, or its representatives acting on its behalf, is a critical issue for the international community. Large corporations wield tremendous power and influence due to their enormous resources, and thus have the ability to do considerable harm. Especially in recent We now live in a world of increasing economic interdependence where global markets provide attractive opportunities for firms to do business all over the world, 24 hours a day. This process of globalization has led to not only unprecedented opportunities for corporate activity, but also to an increase in the potential risk of economic crime. TYPES OF CORPORATE CRIME: FINANCIAL CRIME: Almost all companies do text planning that they try their to reduce their text burden as much as possible. They show there financial in such manner that they reduce the tax for example a company monthly profit is 40,00000 they instead of showing 40,0000 they show that their monthly profit is 20,0000 so from this. They able to reduce the income tax. ORGANIZED CRIME: Organized crime or 'criminal organizations are groups or operations run by criminals, most commonly for the purpose of generating a monetary profit. Some criminal organizations, such as terrorist organizations, are politically motivated. Mafias are criminal organizations whose primary motivation is profit. Gangs sometimes become "disciplined" enough to be considered "organized". An organized gang or criminal set can also be referred to as a mob. The act of engaging in criminal activity as a structured group is referred to in the United States as racketeering. This is a collection of definitions of organized crime and comments on the problem of defining organized crime from various types of sources. Not included are definitions of the term "organized crime group" that some implicitly treat as synonymous with the term "organized crime. Public order crime: 19 public order crime is defined by Siegel (2004) as "...crime which involves acts that interfere with the operations of society and the ability of people to function efficiently", i.e. it is behavior that has been labeled criminal because it is contrary to shared norms, social values, and customs. public order crime includes consensual crime, victimless vice, and victimless crime. It asserts the need to use the law to maintain order both in the legal and moral sense. Public order crime is now the preferred term as against the use of the word "victimless" based on the idea that there are secondary victims (family, friends, acquaintances, and society at large) that can be identified. For example: in cases where a criminal act subverts or undermines the commercial effectiveness of normative business practices, the negative consequences extend beyond those at whom the specific immediate harm was intended, e.g. computer hacking and insider trading in stock market transactions. White-collar crime: White-collar crime is typically defined to include twenty-five offenses. The most common, and with the highest public awareness are bank fraud, blackmail, bribery, counterfeiting, extortion, embezzlement, forgery, insider trading, money laundering, racketeering, and property crimes. Unfortunately, with such advances in modern technology, white-collar crimes are ever growing with the invention of new products. Cell phone, computer, and credit card white-collar crime has been defined by Edwin Sutherland "...as a crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation." criminal behavior were learned from interpersonal interaction with others. White-collar crime therefore overlaps with corporate crime .because the opportunity for fraud, bribery, insider trading, embezzlement, computer crime, and forgery is more available to white-collar employees Environmental crime: It is undesirable change in the physical chemical , or biological characteristics of air law and water. It harmfully affects human life. Pollution is causing losses to human society. The air water and soil are being spoiled. The human health is deteriorating due to sickness such as respiratory diseases and cancer 20 All these came under crime because this is all causing aloes to human life. Environmental law is a body of law, which is a system of complex and interlocking statutes, common law, treaties, conventions, regulations and policies which seek to protect the natural environment which may be affected, impacted or endangered by human activities. Some environmental laws regulate the quantity and nature of impacts of human activities for example, setting allowable levels of pollution. Occupational safety and health: the safety, health and welfare of people engaged in work or employment. As a secondary effect, OSH may also protect co-workers, family members, employers, customers, suppliers, nearby communities, and other members of the public who are impacted by the workplace environment. Occupational health should aim at: the promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical, mental and social well-being of workers in all occupations; the prevention amongst workers of departures from health caused by their working conditions; the protection of workers in their employment from risks resulting from factors adverse to health; 10 Causes Of Crime Weakness People are not bad by nature, but sometimes simply too timid to resist the vicious demons that play on their weaknesses and cut their bond with the source of their Power. Humans are good by default, but not everyone is made of steel so as to defend themselves against the demonic forces - destructive emotions and detrimental attitudes: fear, ignorance, hatred, worry, revenge, envy, attachment, greed, lust, selfishness, doubt, prejudice, pride, vanity, impatience, sloth, discrimination, arrogance, ambition, addiction, gluttony, criticism, blame, anxiety, frustration and so on. We all get attacked by those faulty ethereal goblins of our minds and hearts, but most of us succeed to resist them. It's easy to act on anger, greed, revenge or any of highlighted above, but it takes courage and strength to determine that there is something more important than that. There are two core reasons why weakness prevails with some: 21 1. lack of faith, not believing enough in the power of one's own internal weapons (against inner demons), such as: courage, tolerance, understanding, forgiveness, mercy, honesty, sincerity, integrity, honor, modesty, humbleness, generosity, love, compassion, kindness, detachment, patience, self-discipline, temperance, etc. As a result of not trusting inner resources, there is no enough motivation to develop them and use them. Art Solutions - get the freecrime cure (the link is below); watch inspirational films and read inspirational stories of good qualities conquering the bad ones. 2. imbalance most criminals are simply too strong physically, pumping up the body muscles, but not enough the mental and emotional muscles. The reason why their strength becomes weakness is because they are not balanced. Art Therapy Solutions - get the free artistic crime cure (the link is below); watch the movie trilogy 'Samurai' by legendary Japanese director Hiroshi Inagaki. It tells the story of the greatest Samurai warrior in Japan - Musashi Miyamoto, his journey from being just a tough warrior to a true hero, equally strong on all three accounts: physical skills, mental calmness and emotional state. Underneath all the weaknesses is a genuine human desire to do well. When we delink ourselves from our source (Higher Power), we find ourselves either in a wrong relationship or in a wrong job, or simply in a wrong place at wrong time, but also in a wrong state of mind - causing us to do the wrong things, on the wrong side of tracks. Poor judgment Lack of proper education and great role-models causes many to fail to distinguish right from wrong. In most cases offenders don't think they are doing something wrong, it seems right from their point of view. Poor judgment is also reflected in knowing it's wrong, but thinking they could get away with it, not getting caught. Art Therapy Solutions - get the free crime cure (the link is below) Lack of love Being raised in a dysfunctional family, or coming from a disadvantaged background, or feeling discriminated, none of it alone can cause crime. There are so many others in the world with such conditions, but nevertheless don't turn to 22 crime. However they cause the lack of love and respect for others. That, endorsed with some other factors, can be a major issue related to crime. Poverty Poverty is often blamed for leading to crime, however underneath is something more vital - society bombards us with commercial values, making us want more and more material things, to the point when some would do anything (including criminal acts) to get them. Unemployment is another factor in this category that contributes to crime through looking ways to earn money by any means possible. Art Therapy Solutions - get the free crime cure (link below); - find the best powerbroker (presented also on the right side) to help you out of poverty into wealth Deprived neighborhoods economically impoverished neighborhoods breed criminal minds. Solution: if moving out is out of the question, then keep away from the guys in the hood by making yourself busy with putting your new show on the road. Do you have the strength to distance yourself from the harmful influences of your neighbors? If not, find the strength from the power behind your new thing, which you can discover in the picture guide 'Jump' (the link is below). TV violence Being a victim in a chain of events Sometimes individuals don't mean to cause harm, but are drawn into it by a chain of events that are beyond their control or influence. Poor parenting skills erratic or harsh discipline, lack of parental control, supervision and monitoring, parental conflict, family dysfunction/breakdown, criminal, anti-social and/or alcoholic parent/s Fatherless ness is also one of underestimated cause of crime Ecological It has long been known by police officers that cold winter nights keep criminals off the streets and crime levels down. Crime scientists speculate that one of the hidden consequences of global warming will be an increase in street crime 23 during mild winters. Studies have suggested that warmer temperatures boost aggression hormones such as epinephrine and testosterone. Fraudulent Supreme Court rulings Defective court rulings are one cause of the extra crimes Solutions Prevention There are plenty of people out there contemplating illegal or immoral acts, who should be prevented to act on it. 1. Playing on their fear of punishment works for most, but is not enough for the others. - Social welfare is one of the greatest contra-measures to keep unemployed individuals from resorting to desperate means in order to keep a head above water. 2. Sports provide a good outlet for young men and perhaps keeps them out of trouble. 3. Art Therapy is another outlet that additionally provides a a sense of higher truth, a frame for the search for identity, a journey from the stressful reality to a transcendental world of pure penetration and splendor, means for helping us to cope with life's afflictions and paradoxes that could empower and inspire us to better our lives, find something powerful and special that easily deals with pessimism, distrust and lack of meaning...just to name a few. Converting To convert a criminal into a honorable citizen it takes more than implementing fear of punishment. Arts can do wonders in transforming any individual, including criminals. Talidari's triple action transition formula used in the crime cure 'Jump' uses the power of inspiration to stimulate criminals to make a jump to the right side. Reformation remodeling the system (educational, economic, jurisdiction...) that breeds criminals is a core necessity. There is a saying telling that if you want to change others, start by changing yourself. Everything is related and we all are in a way 24 responsible for the way our world is. By transforming the causes (one of which is the system) we can both prevent and reduce crime. Punishment - No doubt, every person who harms another should be punished, but also rehabilitated so that the crime is prevented from reoccurring. Punishment is good for two reasons: it shows the offender that one can not get away with doing the wrong things, and as a form of prevention - the fear of punishment is often (but not often enough) main reason for law-abiding citizens not to slip to the other side of the tracks. However, the question is how severe the punishment should be. A sentence that is longer than 2 years can have contra- effective results, apart from the cost for us taxpayers. Coming out after too many years being locked has proven to be more difficult to re-integrate and make it out there, and more easy to resort back to crime. Investing in improving the system instead of in accommodating prisoners seems more effective long- term.