17 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT All Praise to

Document Sample
17 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT All Praise to Powered By Docstoc
					1



ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

All Praise to Allah. First and foremost I thank Allah, the Generous, for having
finally made this effort a reality. I praise Him because if it were not for His
Graciousness, it would never materialize.


I‟m extremely grateful to my course instructor‟s entire course instructor. who
spent a lot of valuable time with me and gave all the related information and
expertise very generously about related courses.


I am very thanks to my group members

1)Syed Bakhtyar ali shah
2 )Imran khan

3 )Hizb ullah ahmad

4 )M.Arsahad

5 )Fayyaz Niyazi

6 )S.Wasim Jan

7 )S.Qamar Abbas
2


CRIME:

           A crime is an act that violates a political, religious, or moral command
considered important in protecting the interests of the State or the welfare of its
citizens or subjects. The word "crime" came from Latin crime from the Latin root
Informal relationships and sanctions have been deemed insufficient to create and
maintain a desired social order, resulting in formalized systems of social control
by the government Various mechanisms are employed to regulate behavior,
including rules codified into laws, policing people to ensure they comply with
those laws, and other policies and practices designed to prevent crime.

FOR EXAMPLE:

        The label of "crime" and the accompanying social stigma are normally
reserved for those activities that are injurious to the general population or the
State, including some that cause serious loss or damage to individuals.

       The term "crime" can also technically refer to the use of criminal law to
regulate minor infractions, such as traffic violations. Usually, the perpetrator of
the crime is a natural person, but in some jurisdictions and in some moral
environments, legal persons are also considered to have the capability of
committing crimes. The State can also technically commit crimes, although this is
on in the justice system. prevention, control, and penal responses to crime are
called criminology. For these purposes, the definition of crime depends on the
theoretical stance taken. The nature of crime could be viewed from either a legal
or normative perspective. This is an uncomplicated view: the law, and only the
law.

 A normative definition views crime as deviant behavior that violates prevailing
norms, specifically, cultural standards prescribing how humans ought to behave.
This approach considers the complex realities surrounding the concept of crime
and seeks to understand how changing social, political, psychological, and
economic conditions may affect the current. For example, as cultures change
and the political environment shifts, behavior may be criminalized or
decriminalized, which will directly affect the statistical crime rates, determine the
allocation of resources for the enforcement of such laws, and influence public
opinion. Similarly, changes in the way that crime data are collected and/or
calculated may affect the public


Crime and society
You need to know about the causes and impact of criminal behaviour. For
example, people may commit crime for several reasons;

       Peer pressure
3


       Criminals have not been taught the difference between „right and wrong.‟
        This argument is closely associated with the New Right
       Mental illness. The majority of prisoners have mental health problems
       A failure to rehabilitate ex-offenders back into society
       The sociologist Zygmunt Bauman argues that criminals steal status items
        in order to appear „normal‟ within such a materialistic society

The peak age of criminal activity is during the years 16-25. This may be due to
the following factors;

       Boys often have to „prove‟ their masculinity which can, at times, result in
        criminal activity
       The likelihood of a young person belonging to a subculture is high, and
        some subcultures engage in criminal behaviour
       Young people may have few legitimate means available of acquiring
        material goods
       Less responsibilities
       Teenage rebellion can lead to people breaking the law

There are several negative impacts of crime upon an area. They include;

       Depopulation, particularly in urban areas
       High levels of crime may damage community spirit and result in less
        neighborliness. People may simply want to „keep themselves to
        themselves‟ for fear of harassment
       High crime levels can contribute to environmental poverty
       Once a region with a high level of crime is labeling as a bad area, it might
        become a ghetto

There are several causes of deviant behaviour that you also need to be aware of;

       People may feel alienated from society. This is a particular problem
        amongst the underclass and young people
       Deviant behaviour may simply be the product of teenage rebellion
       Some people seek acceptance from a particular group, and therefore act
        in a deviant manner in order to conform to the subculture of that group

You also need to consider the impact of deviant behaviour. Some sociologists
argue that there is little significance to a person adopting deviant behaviour for a
short period of time. Indeed in many cases, it is little more than a phase in
someone‟s life, usually during his/her teenage years. However, some people
within a deviant group face a great deal of negative peer pressure which can
result in criminal activity. This latter point is common amongst gangs.
4

The Nature of Deviance

In all societies the behavior of some people at times goes beyond that permitted by the
norms. Social life is characterized not only by conformity but by deviance, behavior that
a considerable number of people view as reprehensible and beyond the limits of
tolerance.

       Social Properties of Deviance.
        Deviance is not a property inherent in certain forms of behavior; it is a property
        conferred upon particular behaviors by social definitions. Definitions as to which
        acts are deviant vary greatly from time to time, place to place, and group to
        group. We typically find that norms are not so much a point or a line but a zone.
        Deviant acts also can be redefined, as has happened in recent years in the
        United States. Most societies can absorb a good deal of deviance without serious
        consequences, but persistent and widespread deviance can be dysfunctional.
        But deviance may also be functional by promoting social solidarity, clarifying
        norms, strengthening group allegiances, and providing a catalyst for change.
       Social Control and Deviance.
        Societies seek to ensure that their members conform to basic norms by means of
        social control. Three main types of social control processes operate within
        social life: (1) those that lead us to internalize our society's normative
        expectations (internalization), (2) those that structure our world of social
        experience, and (3) those that employ various formal and informal social
        sanctions.

Theories of Deviance

Other disciplines are concerned with deviance, particularly biology and psychology.
Sociologists focus on five main theories.

       Anomie Theory. Émile Durkheim contributed to our understanding of deviance
        with his idea of anomie. Robert K. Merton built on Durkheim's ideas of anomie
        and social cohesion. According to his theory of structural strain, deviance derives
        from societal stresses.
       Cultural Transmission Theory.
        A number of sociologists have emphasized the similarities between the way
        deviant behavior is acquired and the way in which other behavior is acquired-the
        cultural transmission theory. Edwin H. Sutherland elaborated on this notion in his
        theory of differential association. He said that individuals become deviant to
        the extent to which they participate in settings where deviant ideas, motivations,
        and techniques are viewed favorably.
       Conflict Theory. Conflict theorists ask, "Which group will be able to translate its
        values into the rules of a society and make these rules stick?" and "Who reaps
        the lion's share of benefits from particular social arrangements?" Marxist
        sociologists see crime as a product of capitalist laws.
       Labeling Theory. Labeling theorists study the processes whereby some
        individuals come to be tagged as deviants, begin to think of themselves as
        deviants, and enter deviant careers. Labeling theorists differentiate between
        primary deviance and secondary deviance.
5

       Control Theory. Control theory attempts to explain not why people deviate but
        why people do not deviate. Travis Hirschi argued that young people are more
        likely to conform if their bond to society is strong. This bond has four parts:
        attachment, involvement, commitment, and belief




TYPES OF CRIME:

                     Crime can be divided in to three main types.

        `CONVENTIONAL CRIME:

                                           convention includes crime of violence
        such as assault ,rape and murder , but mainly consists of property crime
        such theft and robbery. Most of these are committed by person of the
        lower and blue collar classes.

Weltanschauung of Crime: Revisited
Ugljesa Zvekic
Conventional crime from an international perspective. This paper compares and
attempts to integrate the results of the two largest international empirical sources
of crime and criminal justice data (the United Nations Survey of Crime Trends
and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems and the International Crime Victim
Survey) with respect to world crime levels. These two sources provide different
pictures of conventional crime from an international perspective. One of the main
factors contributing to differences in crime levels based on these two
international data sources relates to police reporting patterns. These are much
higher in the industrialized world compared with other developmental regions.
Differences are due to a number of factors related to the propensity to report to
the police, including the degree of insurance coverage and the public confidence
in police. Comparative analysis stimulates discussion on the relationships
between development and crime, particularly in relation to the modernization
theory. The results seriously challenge modernization theory, whose empirical
base is composed exclusively of official criminal justice statistics. The
International Crime Victim Survey empirical base, composed of citizens' direct
experience with crime and reporting to the police, serously undermines the very
foundations of the prevalent explanatory paradigm regarding development and
crime relationships. - icj.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/9/1/56

Race, conventional crime, and criminal justice
The declining importance of skin color
Matt DeLisia and Bob Regolia, Department of Sociology University of Colorado
Boulder, CO 80309-0327 USA
Abstract: Blacks in the United States are arrested, prosecuted, convicted, and
incarcerated in numbers disproportionate to their percentage of the population.
One explanation is that racial discrimination against Blacks pervades the
6


American system of criminal justice. This study examined the nature and extent
of racial discrimination in the criminal justice system by evaluating five
propositions using data from extant literature. Little evidence was found to
support the allegation that the criminal justice system systematically
discriminates against Blacks. - sciencedirect.com

Prisoner-on-prisoner violence: Victimization of young offenders in prison.
Some German findings
Helmut Kury, University of Freiburg, Germany
Ursula Smartt, Thames Valley University, London
This article will discuss new findings relating to prisoner-on-prisoner violence
from Germany. The juxtaposition of victim and victimizer, deeply embedded in
the prisonization culture, will be given careful consideration. It will be argued that
victimology has largely concentrated on 'conventional crime', which, in turn, has
created and generated certain limitations regarding the concepts of 'good' and
'evil' and 'acceptable' and 'non-acceptable' victims. While there are a number of
studies concentrating on prison violence per se, research of this kind has been
limited in Germany, particularly studies that focus on young offender institutions.
Previously under-researched fear of victimization among prisoners will also be
discussed, supported by results from a study at the North German Young
Offender Institution Hamlin (Jugendanstalt Hameln). This article will focus, inter
alia, on non-consensual sexual assaults, which remains a taboo subject in
prison managerial cultures. - crj.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/2/4/411

Occupational crime, occupational deviance, and workplace crime: Sorting
out the difference
David O Friedrichs, University of Scranton, USA
The concept of occupational crime - as one of the principal forms of white collar
crime - has been quite familiar and widely invoked since the publication of
Clinard and Quinney's influential Criminal Behavior Systems: A Typology. More
recently, however, the term occupational crime has been applied to activities
quite removed from the original meaning of white collar crime, and it has been
used interchangeably with such terms as occupational deviance and workplace
crime. In the interest of greater conceptual clarity within the field of white collar
crime the argument is made here for restricting the term 'occupational crime' to
illegal and unethical activities committed for individual financial gain - or to avoid
financial loss - in the context of a legitimate occupation. The term 'occupational
deviance' is better reserved for deviation from occupational norms (e.g. drinking
on the job; sexual harassment), and the term 'workplace crime' is better
reserved for conventional forms of crime committed in the workplace (e.g. rape;
assault). The conceptual conflation of fundamentally dissimilar activities hinders
theoretical, empirical, and policy-related progress in the field of white collar
crime studies. - crj.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/2/3/243

Police Strikes and Conventional Crime
A Look at the Data
7


ERDWIN H. PFUHL, JR.
ABSTRACT: Employing FBI "Return A Record Card" data, this study examines
the impact of municipal police strikes on reported rates of burglary, robbery,
larceny, and auto theft in 11 U.S. cities. Relationships reflecting the view that
police presence is essential for crime prevention and social order are examined
for variation duration of police strike, city size, and offense category. Overall,
analysis yields very limited support for the police presence argument, suggesting
that strikes have neither a significant nor a systematic impact on rates of
reported crime. Implications of findings for the formulation of police policy are
discussed. - blackwell-synergy.com

Conventional Crime (From Criminology: A Canadian Perspective, P 242-
269, 1987, Rick Linden, ed.)
D J Koenig
Hindelang and associates have developed a lifestyle/exposure theory to explain
the correlates of crime against persons, and Cohen and Felson have extended
the theory to property crimes.
Abstract: According to this perspective, the probability of criminal victimization
varies by time, space, and social setting and by the extent to which routine
activities increase target suitability and reduce effective guardianship. The
patterns and correlates of conventional crimes are consistent with this approach.
Crimes against property tend to be committed disproportionately against those
whose lifestyle leave their possessions least effectively guarded. Crimes against
persons have some different correlates than do crimes against property, but
most of these differences are consistent with the lifestyle/exposure theory. For
typical crimes, victims (and offenders) are most likely to be young, male, and
engage in evening activities away from home. Thus, their lifestyles place them in
social settings with a higher risk of criminal victimization. Strategies for crime
control consistent with this theory would include those to increase effective
guardianship and reduce the availability of motivated offenders -

THE VOICE OF VICTIMS OF CRIME: ESTIMATING THE
TRUE LEVEL OF CONVENTIONAL CRIME
by Anna Alvazzi del Frate
Abstract
Since its launch in 1989, the International Crime Victim Survey has attracted
growing interest from the research community and policy makers. In addition to
providing an alternative source of data on crime to complement official statistics,
the Survey offers internationally standardized indicators for the perception and
fear of crime. At the country level, the International Crime Victim Survey is used
to monitor differences in crime and perceptions between countries and over time.
By collecting social and demographic information on respondents, crime surveys
also allow analysis of how both objective and subjective risks of crime vary for
different groups within the population, in terms of age, gender, education, income
levels and lifestyles. Data from recent sweeps of the Survey are presented in
order to analyze global crime levels and trends.
8


Methodology
The Survey targets samples of households in which only one respondent, aged
16 or above, is selected. National samples include at least 2,000 respondents,
who are generally interviewed using the computer-assisted telephone interview
technique. In the countries where that method could not be used because of
insufficient distribution of telephones, face-to-face interviews were conducted in
the main cities, generally with samples of 1,000-1,500 respondents.
The questionnaire includes sections on 11 types of “conventional” crime, for
which standard definitions are provided.
Questions on consumer fraud and corruption are included; those are also
accompanied by standard definitions. The questionnaire is also used to gather
data on whether crimes were reported to the police, the reasons for not reporting
crimes, attitudes towards the police, the fear of crime and crime prevention
measures.
Of the eleven “conventional” crimes, some are “household crimes”, that is, crimes
that can be seen as affecting the household at large.
Respondents report on all the incidents involving household crimes that are
known to them.
A first group of crimes deals with vehicles owned by the respondent or other
members of his or her household: theft of car; theft from car; car vandalism; theft
of bicycle; and theft of motorcycle.
A second group refers to breaking and entering burglary; and attempted burglary.
A third group of crimes refers to crimes experienced personally by the
respondent: robbery; theft of personal property; assault or threat; and sexual
incidents (women only). Finally, the questionnaire addresses two more types of
crime that may have been experienced by the respondents: consumer fraud; and
bribery or corruption. Regular meetings of survey coordinators from participating
countries have helped to facilitate the translation of concepts and definitions into
the various languages. The Voice of Victims of Crime: Estimating the True Level
of Conventional Crime 131 Data analysis.
Each sweep of the Survey provides an enormous amount of information.
In-depth analysis of the database is one of the objectives of researchers across
the world. The wealth of data produced can hardly be analyzed between two
consecutive sweeps of the Survey. Analysis of the Survey has been carried out
mostly within comparable groups of countries, for example, national surveys in
the “industrialized countries” city surveys in Central and Eastern Europe and the
developing countries . Analysis of the main comparative results concerning
industrialized countries was published upon completion of the first, second, third
and fourth international crime victim surveys [2-5]; results from developing
countries and countries with economies in transition were made available in
numerous publications [3-9]; and results from the International Crime Victim
Survey 2000 were also widely published [10-13]. The present article will deal with
some of the main findings of the Survey conducted in 2000.
For international comparisons across groups, only respondents located in urban
areas with populations of more than 100,000 are considered from national
surveys.
9


The crime count The Survey provides an overall measure of victimization in the
previous year through any of the 11 conventional crimes included in the
questionnaire (which do not include consumer fraud and corruption). On average,
approximately 28 per cent of respondents suffered at least one form of
victimization over the twelve months preceding the interview. Overall
victimization of around 27 per cent was observed in four out of six regions of the
world (Western Europe, Central and Eastern Europe, North America and
Australasia), while in Africa and Latin America much higher levels of victimization
were observed (35 and 46 per cent respectively).

Professional Crime

Professional criminal activity is illegal activity of the person possessing
corresponding experiences, skills, methods and instruments, person considering
this activity as basic occupation, and main or additional source of money income

According to A. Gurov, criminal professionalism is criminal occupation, source of
means for the criminal; it demands necessary knowledge and skills for achieving
the ultimate goal; it causes certain contacts with antisocial environment; it defines
stable kind of criminal occupation (fulfillment of mainly similar occupations)
Criminal professionalism gives an opportunity to prepare, commit crime and
cover up traces and, as a rule, to avoid the criminal liability, to have constant
income

Criminals quickly adapt to new kinds, forms and methods of entrepreneurship.
They use conditions of the developing market and new technologies on criminal
purposes. The number of crimes committed in sphere of high technologies
(carding, computer and cellular crimes), with use of special knowledge in sphere
of financial and economic activities, during professional activity.

As an example we may take large money thefts using counterfeit bank
documents, fake securities, illegal use of electronic means designed for
accessing bank accounts, office equipment (computers, fax-modems, copying
devices).



OCCUPATIONAL CRIME:

                                Occupational crime occurs when crimes are
       committed to promote personal interests. Crimes that fall into this
       category include altering books by accountants and overcharging or
       cheating clients by lawyer‟s Occupational crime we find entirely different
       illegal behavior. Such are committed by person of the middle and upper
       social classes. Occupational crime involves the violation of law in the
       course of activity in a legitimate occupation.
10


Occupational Crime
Occupational crimes are illegal acts made possible through one's lawful
employment. It is the
secretive violation of laws regulating working activities.
Employee theft has been estimated to add up to dollar amounts exceeding those
of all streets
crimes combined. Other examples of employee crime are, illegal insider trading
and fraudulent
stock manipulation.
Industrial Espionage
The development of computer chips is an extremely expensive process.
Enormous savings are
possible through legal reverse engineering. Even greater savings are possible by
illegally
acquiring design information from competitors.
Peter Gopal developed numerous contacts that enabled him to buy and sell
competitors secrets.
Gopal sold National Semiconductor‟s secrets to Intel Corp. He also stole from
Intel to sell to
National Semiconductor. Gopal found it easy to buy dozens of major trade
secrets from former
employees. Unfortunately, white-collar criminals suffer relatively modest
penalties. Even
though Gopal was convicted, it is estimated that he made millions of dollars from
his crimes.
Price fixing
Price fixing consists of the establishment of artificially inflated prices for products
by the
collaboration of a group of organizations to restrict unwanted competition. The
price for these
products are much higher than would otherwise exist in the open free market.
The practice of price fixing has been so widespread in the industry for so long
that it has become
accepted as proper. The Sherman Antitrust Act seeks to ferret out these
companies and restrict
their price fixing methods.
.

       ORGANIZATIONAL CRIME:

                             A much more costly type of white collar crime occurs
when corporate executives commit criminal acts to benefit their company. There
are a variety of corporate crimes that include

          o   the creation of inferior products,
          o   pollution,
    11


              o   Price fixing.

             Organizational crime is committed by large corporations , an industry ,
           labor unions and even a church . organizational crime such as
           corporations an industry labor unions and even a church hierarchy
           organizational crime such as corporate law breaking is carried out within
           a complex system .

           cyber crime
           The most advance crime today is cyber crime.

        What is this Cyber crime? We read about it in newspapers very
often. Let's look at the dictionary definition of Cyber crime: "It is a
criminal activity committed on the internet. This is a broad term that
describes everything from electronic cracking to denial of service
attacks that cause electronic commerce sites to lose money". Mr. Pagan
Duggal, who is the President of www.cyberlaws.net and consultant, in a
report has clearly defined the various categories and types of cyber crimes. Cyber crimes
can be basically divided into 3 major categories:

1. Cyber crimes against persons.
2. Cyber crimes against property.
3. Cyber crimes against government.

 Cyber crimes against persons: Cyber crimes committed against persons include various
crimes like transmission of child-pornography, harassment of any one with the use of a
computer such as e-mail. The trafficking, distribution, posting, and dissemination of
obscene material including pornography and indecent exposure, constitutes one of the
most important Cyber crimes known today. The potential harm of such a crime to
humanity can hardly be amplified. This is one Cyber crime which threatens to undermine
the growth of the younger generation as also leave irreparable scars and injury on the
younger generation, if not controlled.

      A minor girl in Ahmedabad was lured to a private place through cyber chat by a
man, who, along with his friends, attempted to gang rape her. As some passersby heard
her cry, she was rescued.

        Another example wherein the damage was not done to a person but to the masses
is the case of the Melissa virus. The Melissa virus first appeared on the internet in March
of 1999. It spread rapidly throughout computer systems in the United States and Europe.
It is estimated that the virus caused 80 million dollars in damages to computers
worldwide.

       In the United States alone, the virus made its way through 1.2 million computers in
one-fifth of the country's largest businesses. David Smith pleaded guilty on Dec. 9, 1999
    12


to state and federal charges associated with his creation of the Melissa virus. There are
numerous examples of such computer viruses few of them being "Melissa" and "love
bug".

        Cyber harassment is a distinct Cyber crime. Various kinds of
harassment can and do occur in cyberspace, or through the use of
cyberspace. Harassment can be sexual, racial, religious, or other. Persons
perpetuating such harassment are also guilty of cyber crimes. Cyber
harassment as a crime also brings us to another related area of violation
of privacy of citizens. Violation of privacy of online citizens is a Cyber crime of a grave
nature. No one likes any other person invading the invaluable and extremely touchy area
of his or her own privacy which the medium of internet grants to the citizen.

 Cyber crimes against property: The second category of Cyber-crimes is that of Cyber
crimes against all forms of property. These crimes include computer vandalism
(destruction of others' property), transmission of harmful programmers.

       A Mumbai-based upstart engineering company lost a say and much money in the
business when the rival company, an industry major, stole the technical database from
their computers with the help of a corporate cyber spy.

 Cyber crimes against government: The third category of Cyber-crimes relate to Cyber
crimes against Government. Cyber terrorism is one distinct kind of crime in this category.
The growth of internet has shown that the medium of Cyberspace is being used by
individuals and groups to threaten the international governments as also to terrorize the
citizens of a country. This crime manifests itself into terrorism when an individual "cracks"
into a government or military maintained website.

      In a report of expressindia.com, it was said that internet was becoming
a boon for the terrorist organizations. According to Mr. A.K. Gupta, Deputy
Director (Co-ordination), CBI, terrorist outfits are increasingly using internet
to communicate and move funds. "Lashker-e-Toiba is collecting contributions
online from its sympathizers all over the world. During the investigation of the
Red Fort shootout in Dec. 2000, the accused Ashram Ahmed of this terrorist group
revealed that the militants are making extensive use of the internet to communicate with
the operatives and the sympathizers and also using the medium for intra-bank transfer of
funds".

      Cracking is amongst the gravest Cyber-crimes known till date. It is a dreadful feeling
to know that a stranger has broken into your computer systems without your knowledge
and consent and has tampered with precious confidential data and information.

      Coupled with this the actuality is that no computer system in the world is cracking
proof. It is unanimously agreed that any and every system in the world can be cracked.
The recent denial of service attacks seen over the popular commercial sites like E-bay,
Yahoo, Amazon and others are a new category of Cyber-crimes which are slowly
    13


emerging as being extremely dangerous.

"Any criminal activity that uses a computer either as an instrumentality, target or a means
for perpetuating further crimes comes within the ambit of cyber crime."

Organized Crime, Terrorism and Cyber crime
The merger of transnational crime, terrorism and corruption is profound. The idea that
these ideas can be discussed separately is problematic. Such compartmentalization limits
our ability to analyze and address the diverse forms of transnational criminal activity.
Highly corrupt societies give little opportunity for legitimate social mobility and their high
level corruption is a deterrent to economic growth and investment. Under these
circumstances, the employment opportunities of transnational crime groups provide a
desirable economic alternative to youth without legitimate opportunities. Terrorist groups
flourish in environments where youths have limited chance for advancement within their
societies.

The phenomena of transnational crime, terrorism and corruption are all too often viewed
as separate phenomena. These phenomena have grown in tandem because the
economic and political conditions that give rise to these phenomena are quite similar. The
evolution of the transnational crime-ideologically based or economically based depends
on specific environmental factors that have proliferated in many developing and
transitional countries that have not successfully integrated into the global Economy.

Terrorists and transnational criminals use many of the same strategies to promote their
operations, chief among these being the use of information technology to plan and realize
their activities. The rise of greater international mobility and the proliferation of information
technology throughout the world have facilitated the growth of both transnational crime
and
terrorism. The ease of communications in the contemporary era makes the location of
groups and actors less significant than it was previously. The ability to exploit security
holes in the system makes crime groups and terrorists operate out of unexpected locales
rather than their home territories.

Most transnational crime and terrorist groups are based in transitional and developing
countries. The illicit businesses are now the largest and most profitable to be located in
the developing world. For example, the drug trade now represents about 7% of world
trade according to late 1990s estimates of the United Nations. Their vast profits and
enormous assets make them powerful actors in their home countries and in their regions.
Because they are so large relative to the legitimate businesses based in their region or in
the countries through which they operate, they have a large influence on politics and
business.

The vast profits of illegal businesses allow them to hire the best specialists domestically
and internationally. Facilitating this trade, is an ever greater reliance on information
technology to promote their activities secretly. For example, international (End Page 303)
drug traffickers are among the most widespread users of encrypted messages, coded
    14


messages by cell and satellite phones and use economizer features on computers. They
also are able to hire technical specialists capable of using steganography and other
means to make messages hard or impossible to decipher. This access to high level
specialists allows illicit businesses and terrorist organizations to transcend borders and
operate internationally without detection. Often the crime and terrorist groups do not need
to go outside their region to hire such technical specialists. Some
of the leading specialists in the technical area are located in regions that house major
transnational crime groups and terrorist organizations.

The presence of many highly trained technical specialists in the countries of the former
Soviet Union and in the Indian subcontinent means that transnational crime groups
means that a vast array of specialists are available for hire.6 While some specialists will
not work for criminal or terrorist organizations willingly, some will do it unaware of their
employers whereas others
will agree to provide assistance because well-paid legitimate employment is scarce in
their region.

The widespread problem of corruption in many developing countries allows the
proliferation of transnational organized crime and terrorism. The official corruption
facilitating this activity may assume many different forms and is not just based on bribery.
Top government officials provide falsified documents to smuggled criminals and terrorists,
restrain law enforcement from acting against suspicious groups and provide them a safe
space to operate.

Because of this, criminals can use the high level technology available in the former Soviet
Union and the Punjab region to facilitate not only their own crime and terrorist groups but
those of other regions of the world which find save haven on their territory. In this way
criminals exploit information technology to carry on their operations in a safe and secure
manner.

The connections between transnational crime and terrorism are not unique to developed
and developing countries. As investigations in the advent of September, 11th have
shown, terrorists in developed countries use criminal activity to survive. Arrests in Spain
revealed that terrorists were selling counterfeit airline tickets to survive and such groups
in the United States
were surviving by means of money laundering and other criminal offenses

    How the law classifies crime:

                                    Crime is divided is in to felonies an and he is
    demeanors . the destination between the two in two base .,a felony is serious
    crime such as homicide shape for which punishment typically range from more
    than a year imprisonment to death. A misdemeanors is minor crime that
    punishment is less than in jail
15


Sociology category crime based on how they are committed and how society
views the offenses but we will only focus on the corporate crime.

Fraud

         Fraud against an individual or business can involve the government, too,
if the government does business with them. If fact, fraudsters tend to prefer
large, complex, inter-related business conglomerates where they think the
anonymity of bureaucracy will keep them safe from suspicion. These types of
fraudsters also tend to keep trouble stirred up elsewhere in the bureaucracy to
distract attention away from them. There are many types of fraud, but one that
has become prevalent in recent years (due to the size of the equities market) is
securities (stocks and commodities) fraud. Let's examine the varieties of this
type of fraud. Individuals (and businesses alike) may be simply taking advantage
of an opportunity to "cash in" at a moment when all the right players are in the
right place. This is often the way crimes like arson are detected, as investigators
simply notice a suspicious pattern in the insurance claims

Types of Securities-Related Fraud
Churning        The practice of trading a client's shares of stock frequently to
                generate large commissions
Insider trading The use of non-public information to obtain an unfair advantage in
                trading
Stock           The making of false or misleading statements about a stock about
manipulation to rise to create artificial demand
Boiler rooms The running of an operation by stock manipulators who seduce
                the public by deceptive sales techniques into buying "penny"
                stocks in obscure and poorly financed corporations
Bankruptcy      Uses either the "old corporation" game or the "new corporation"
                game to bilk investors out of their money
Churning

           The investigation of churning is likely to boil down to a client's word
against a broker's word, since brokers are typically allowed some discretion on
behalf of their clients. Churning is difficult to prove.



Insider trading

                    Insider trading is usually detected when the offender involves
others in the deal, when the offender is not only lining their own pockets, but
shad ring their insider information with other but sharing their insider information
with others. In many cases, this involves co-workers and fellow executives, but
in other cases involves family or friends. It depends on the offender's lifestyle, or
how divorced they are from home or work.
16


.FOR EXAMPLE:

             They will advise their lower-level employees (or enemies) NOT to
sell something when they, themselves, are selling off like crazy.

Stock manipulation

                       . Stock manipulation can take place in any locale, from the
floor of Wall Street to corporate offices to word-of-mouth (websites, email,
telephone calls)

Bankruptcy

               Committed by individuals and corporations who conceal and
misstate assets, who mislead creditors, and who illegally pressure bankruptcy
petitioners. Bankruptcy fraud that uses the "old corporation" game involves ex-
employees who form a "spin-off" corporation with usually a similar-sounding
name (perhaps a dot-com spin-off), and building on the related credit established
by the old corporation, quickly develop a war chest of investment capital, which
they waste away or spend on themselves. Bankruptcy fraud that uses the "new
corporation" game typically involves mergers or what is called "corporate
raiding," and the new management.


CORPORATE CRIME:

                         The legal acts committees by corporate employer on
behalf of the corporation and with its support called corporate crime

                  Corporate crime often more costly in terms of money and livers
lost than street crime thousand of jobs and billions of dollars lost. As a results of
corporate crime. In the year 2002 alone. Deaths result from c.c such as polluting
the air and water. Selling unsaved food and ding for exceed the numbers of
deaths due to homicides each year. the concept of state-corporate crime refers
to crimes that result from the relationship between the policies of the state and
the policies and practices of commercialThese definitions were intended to
include all "socially injurious acts" and not merely those that are defined by the
local criminal jurisdiction as crime.

                This is not universally accepted as a valid definition so a less
contentious version has been adopted here. As an academic classification, it is
distinguished from:. corporate crime refers to crimes committed either by a
corporation (i.e., a business entity having a separate legal personality from the
natural persons that manage its activities), or by individuals that may be identified
with a corporation or other business entity (see vicarious liability and corporate
liability).corporate and business crime generally have not stimulated on the part
17


of academic criminologists the result from corporate pollution and the
manufacture of hazardous consumer products

               The corporate crime was published conventional crime has
continued to attract far more interest in part because of the complexity of
corporation and typesof law violation .another reason is that corporate illegal
violation are not reported in central sources like the uniform crime reported .To
do research on corporate offenses there is a need for acquaintance with not only
criminal law violation but those of administrative and civil laws as well .Finally
there is difficulty in securing necessary research funds which are far larger than
those needed for the study of conventional or occupational crime these issues
are discussed later in corporate crime.

               The distinction is that white-collar crime is likely to be a crime
against the corporation, whereas corporate crime is crime committed by the
corporation, although the distinction blurs when the given crime promotes the
interests of the corporation and its senior employees because a business entity
can only act through the agency of the natural persons whom it employs

.

COST OF CORPORATE CRIME:

                               The corporate crime far exceeds the total the theft
put to gather. This amount is very great estimates for corporate crime has varied
from several hundred billion dollars to accounting .

Examples of the research

               the United States Federal government body with responsibility for
the project, had only been subject to self-regulation of an entirely inadequate
antinuclear weapons production complex in the United States and found that the
Department of Energy and the private corporations that contracted with the
Department had been allowed to work in extreme secrecy, unfettered by the
regulations that had governed the civilian nuclear industryture.

     CORPORATE CRIME

YESTERDAY AND TODAY A COMPARISON:

                                                 Corporate crime is the first and still
the corporative study of corporate law violation by our largest corporation‟s .the
new introduction discusses the development of a criminology I trust in corporate
crime . thins stared to happen beginning in the 1960 due largely to consumer
group and other who strongly emphasized the need fir more corporate social
responsibility. This concern resulted in the creation of the national.
18


) Increasing Threat of Corporate Crime:



                                                       Economic crime by a
corporate entity, or its representatives acting on its behalf, is a critical issue for
the international community. Large corporations wield tremendous power and
influence due to their enormous resources, and thus have the ability to do
considerable harm. Especially in recent

                  We now live in a world of increasing economic interdependence
where global markets provide attractive opportunities for firms to do business all
over the world, 24 hours a day. This process of globalization has led to not only
unprecedented opportunities for corporate activity, but also to an increase in the
potential risk of economic crime.

                 TYPES OF CORPORATE CRIME:

FINANCIAL CRIME:

                      Almost all companies do text planning that they try their to
reduce their text burden as much as possible. They show there financial in such
manner that they reduce the tax for example a company monthly profit is
40,00000 they instead of showing 40,0000 they show that their monthly profit is
20,0000 so from this. They able to reduce the income tax.



ORGANIZED CRIME:

                             Organized crime or 'criminal organizations are groups
or operations run by criminals, most commonly for the purpose of generating a
monetary profit. Some criminal organizations, such as terrorist organizations, are
politically motivated. Mafias are criminal organizations whose primary motivation
is profit. Gangs sometimes become "disciplined" enough to be considered
"organized". An organized gang or criminal set can also be referred to as a mob.
The act of engaging in criminal activity as a structured group is referred to in the
United States as racketeering.

             This is a collection of definitions of organized crime and comments
on the problem of defining organized crime from various types of sources. Not
included are definitions of the term "organized crime group" that some implicitly
treat as synonymous with the term "organized crime.

Public order crime:
19


                             public order crime is defined by Siegel (2004) as
"...crime which involves acts that interfere with the operations of society and the
ability of people to function efficiently", i.e. it is behavior that has been labeled
criminal because it is contrary to shared norms, social values, and customs.
public order crime includes consensual crime, victimless vice, and victimless
crime. It asserts the need to use the law to maintain order both in the legal and
moral sense. Public order crime is now the preferred term as against the use of
the word "victimless" based on the idea that there are secondary victims (family,
friends, acquaintances, and society at large) that can be identified.

 For example:


                             in cases where a criminal act subverts or
undermines the commercial effectiveness of normative business practices, the
negative consequences extend beyond those at whom the specific immediate
harm was intended, e.g. computer hacking and insider trading in stock market
transactions.

White-collar crime:

                      White-collar crime is typically defined to include twenty-five
offenses. The most common, and with the highest public awareness are bank
fraud, blackmail, bribery, counterfeiting, extortion, embezzlement, forgery, insider
trading, money laundering, racketeering, and property crimes. Unfortunately, with
such advances in modern technology, white-collar crimes are ever growing with
the invention of new products.

                Cell phone, computer, and credit card white-collar crime has
been defined by Edwin Sutherland "...as a crime committed by a person of
respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation." criminal
behavior were learned from interpersonal interaction with others. White-collar
crime therefore overlaps with corporate crime .because the opportunity for fraud,
bribery, insider trading, embezzlement, computer crime, and forgery is more
available to white-collar employees

Environmental crime:

                      It is undesirable change in the physical chemical , or
biological characteristics of air law and water. It harmfully affects human life.
Pollution is causing losses to human society. The air water and soil are being
spoiled. The human health is deteriorating due to sickness such as respiratory
diseases and cancer
20


            All these came under crime because this is all causing aloes to
human life. Environmental law is a body of law, which is a system of complex and
interlocking statutes, common law, treaties, conventions, regulations and policies
which seek to protect the natural environment which may be affected, impacted
or endangered by human activities. Some environmental laws regulate the
quantity and nature of impacts of human activities for example, setting allowable
levels of pollution.

Occupational safety and health:

                                    the safety, health and welfare of people
engaged in work or employment. As a secondary effect, OSH may also protect
co-workers, family members, employers, customers, suppliers, nearby
communities, and other members of the public who are impacted by the
workplace environment. Occupational health should aim at: the promotion and
maintenance of the highest degree of physical, mental and social well-being of
workers in all occupations; the prevention amongst workers of departures from
health caused by their working conditions; the protection of workers in their
employment from risks resulting from factors adverse to health;




10 Causes Of Crime



     Weakness

  People are not bad by nature, but sometimes simply too timid to resist the
 vicious demons that play on their weaknesses and cut their bond with the
 source of their Power. Humans are good by default, but not everyone is made of
 steel so as to defend themselves against the demonic forces - destructive
 emotions and detrimental attitudes: fear, ignorance, hatred, worry, revenge,
 envy, attachment, greed, lust, selfishness, doubt, prejudice, pride, vanity,
 impatience, sloth, discrimination, arrogance, ambition, addiction, gluttony,
 criticism, blame, anxiety, frustration and so on. We all get attacked by those
 faulty ethereal goblins of our minds and hearts, but most of us succeed to resist
 them. It's easy to act on anger, greed, revenge or any of highlighted above, but
 it takes courage and strength to determine that there is something more
 important than that.

There are two core reasons why weakness prevails with some:
21


 1.   lack of faith,

  not believing enough in the power of one's own internal weapons (against inner
 demons), such as: courage, tolerance, understanding, forgiveness, mercy,
 honesty, sincerity, integrity, honor, modesty, humbleness, generosity, love,
 compassion, kindness, detachment, patience, self-discipline, temperance, etc.
 As a result of not trusting inner resources, there is no enough motivation to
 develop them and use them. Art Solutions - get the freecrime cure (the link is
 below); watch inspirational films and read inspirational stories of good qualities
 conquering the bad ones.

 2.   imbalance

  most criminals are simply too strong physically, pumping up the body muscles,
 but not enough the mental and emotional muscles. The reason why their
 strength becomes weakness is because they are not balanced. Art Therapy
 Solutions - get the free artistic crime cure (the link is below); watch the movie
 trilogy 'Samurai' by legendary Japanese director Hiroshi Inagaki. It tells the story
 of the greatest Samurai warrior in Japan - Musashi Miyamoto, his journey from
 being just a tough warrior to a true hero, equally strong on all three accounts:
 physical skills, mental calmness and emotional state.

Underneath all the weaknesses is a genuine human desire to do well. When we
delink ourselves from our source (Higher Power), we find ourselves either in a
wrong relationship or in a wrong job, or simply in a wrong place at wrong time,
but also in a wrong state of mind - causing us to do the wrong things, on the
wrong side of tracks.

     Poor judgment

  Lack of proper education and great role-models causes many to fail to
 distinguish right from wrong. In most cases offenders don't think they are doing
 something wrong, it seems right from their point of view. Poor judgment is also
 reflected in knowing it's wrong, but thinking they could get away with it, not
 getting caught. Art Therapy Solutions - get the free crime cure (the link is below)

     Lack of love

 Being raised in a dysfunctional family, or coming from a disadvantaged
background, or feeling discriminated, none of it alone can cause crime. There are
so many others in the world with such conditions, but nevertheless don't turn to
22


crime. However they cause the lack of love and respect for others. That,
endorsed with some other factors, can be a major issue related to crime.

     Poverty

  Poverty is often blamed for leading to crime, however underneath is something
 more vital - society bombards us with commercial values, making us want more
 and more material things, to the point when some would do anything (including
 criminal acts) to get them. Unemployment is another factor in this category that
 contributes to crime through looking ways to earn money by any means
 possible. Art Therapy Solutions - get the free crime cure (link below); - find the
 best powerbroker (presented also on the right side) to help you out of poverty
 into wealth

     Deprived neighborhoods

  economically impoverished neighborhoods breed criminal minds. Solution: if
 moving out is out of the question, then keep away from the guys in the hood by
 making yourself busy with putting your new show on the road. Do you have the
 strength to distance yourself from the harmful influences of your neighbors? If
 not, find the strength from the power behind your new thing, which you can
 discover in the picture guide 'Jump' (the link is below).

     TV violence

     Being a victim in a chain of events

  Sometimes individuals don't mean to cause harm, but are drawn into it by a
 chain of events that are beyond their control or influence.

     Poor parenting skills

 erratic or harsh discipline, lack of parental control, supervision and monitoring,
 parental conflict, family dysfunction/breakdown, criminal, anti-social and/or
 alcoholic parent/s Fatherless ness is also one of underestimated cause of crime
 Ecological

  It has long been known by police officers that cold winter nights keep criminals
 off the streets and crime levels down. Crime scientists speculate that one of the
 hidden consequences of global warming will be an increase in street crime
23


 during mild winters. Studies have suggested that warmer temperatures boost
 aggression hormones such as epinephrine and testosterone.

      Fraudulent Supreme Court rulings

 Defective court rulings are one cause of the extra crimes

Solutions

      Prevention

  There are plenty of people out there contemplating illegal or immoral acts, who
 should be prevented to act on it.

 1.    Playing on their fear of punishment works for most, but is not enough for
    the others. - Social welfare is one of the greatest contra-measures to keep
    unemployed individuals from resorting to desperate means in order to keep
    a head above water.
 2.    Sports provide a good outlet for young men and perhaps keeps them out
    of trouble.
 3.    Art Therapy is another outlet that additionally provides a a sense of higher
    truth, a frame for the search for identity, a journey from the stressful reality to
    a transcendental world of pure penetration and splendor, means for helping
    us to cope with life's afflictions and paradoxes that could empower and
    inspire us to better our lives, find something powerful and special that easily
    deals with pessimism, distrust and lack of meaning...just to name a few.

      Converting

  To convert a criminal into a honorable citizen it takes more than implementing
 fear of punishment. Arts can do wonders in transforming any individual,
 including criminals. Talidari's triple action transition formula used in the crime
 cure 'Jump' uses the power of inspiration to stimulate criminals to make a jump
 to the right side.

      Reformation

  remodeling the system (educational, economic, jurisdiction...) that breeds
 criminals is a core necessity. There is a saying telling that if you want to change
 others, start by changing yourself. Everything is related and we all are in a way
24


 responsible for the way our world is. By transforming the causes (one of which
 is the system) we can both prevent and reduce crime.

     Punishment

 - No doubt, every person who harms another should be punished, but also
 rehabilitated so that the crime is prevented from reoccurring. Punishment is
 good for two reasons: it shows the offender that one can not get away with
 doing the wrong things, and as a form of prevention - the fear of punishment is
 often (but not often enough) main reason for law-abiding citizens not to slip to
 the other side of the tracks. However, the question is how severe the
 punishment should be. A sentence that is longer than 2 years can have contra-
 effective results, apart from the cost for us taxpayers. Coming out after too
 many years being locked has proven to be more difficult to re-integrate and
 make it out there, and more easy to resort back to crime. Investing in improving
 the system instead of in accommodating prisoners seems more effective long-
 term.

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Stats:
views:3
posted:10/3/2010
language:English
pages:24