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Do not sell this Book, this Book is complimentary  from Hotel Team Managers 
  Drs. Agustinus Agus Purwanto, MM  Chief Executive Officer 

April ‐  2009 Book Two



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Alsace Wines Burgundy wine Champagne Loire Valley Wines Sparkling Wine Storage of Wine Wine VINE YARD MANAGEMENT or    

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Introduction The vine grows most successfully between the latitude 30-50° north and 30-50° south of the equator. Some of the greatest wine, like champagne come from the extremities of these wine belts where because of the extreme cold or extreme heat, the wine has a permanent struggle to service. The vine usually produces good quality grapes when it is five year old and will continue to yield healthy grapes up to the age of 35 years. History Wine is probably the earlier of the alcoholic beverages, simple because it could be made without the maker has to understand the chemical change that turned the sugar in grapes, other fruits and other product into alcohol. Some of these earlier, wines were made from Honey and were known as mead. Indeed wine may have been brewed in Mesopotamia. It has been made as long as ten thousand years ago.

Wine is mentioned in documents three thousand year old as well as in the Bible and in the literature of the Greeks and Roman Bees has been Kurun as long as wine. Wine making goes as for back into history as the act of cooking food goes. Ever since the time man started enjoying his food, he has known the art of making wine to go with it. The metamorphosis wine underwent from the stages where the juice of fruit simply left for a long time and allowed to ferment to the refined wine as we know it, today it took a very long time. The efforts put in by the various vineyard and the wine makers in perfecting the act of making good wine and in keeping the formula and the process a secret have contributed to giving as the wine as we know it today. In countries like France, the formula and the process, individually to every grower is a very jealously guarded secret that is passed down the generation only through members of the family.

The top ten wine producing countries are: 1. Italy 2. France 3. Spain 4. U.S.A. 5. C.I.S. 6. Argentina 7. Germany 8. Portugal 9. South Africa 10. Romania or     Page 2 

The top ten wine consuming countries are : France 67.5 lit per capital Portugal 66.5 lit per capital Italy 62.0 lit per capital Luxemburg 60.3 lit per capital Argentina 45.8 lit per capital Spain 45.8 lit per capital Switzerland 45.5 lit per capital Chile 41.0 lit per capital Austria 39.2 lit per capital Greece 31.8 lit per capital As a contrast, the United Kingdom consumes 12.5 lit per capital. Although Britain is traditionally regarded as a nation of beer drinks the consumption of wine has now dramatically increased. One of the effects of the secret recessions is that more and more people are having their diner at home rather than going out for a meal. For massy that means having a couple of glasses of wine when they eat. It is now estimated that home consumption of wine makes up 75% of the market. A greater interest in television and the obvious deterrent of the drink driving laws have also influenced this trend. You can now get the quality wine at a reasonable price in super market and other outlet. Wine has become socially acceptable and is perceived to be more clearly healthy than other alcohol drinks Principle Grape varieties used in wine : White grapes Aligole Bacchus WHITE RED Chardonnay Cabernet Chenin Blasic Gamy Gewurtztraminer Merlot Muller-Thurgace Plebbiolo Muscat Pinot-Noir Rinot Blanc Syrah Riesling Zinfaudel Saicnignon Blassic Trebbiasco or    

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Making of Wine The various processes involved in the process of making wine – 1. Harvesting 2. Grading 3. Weighing 4. Removal of stalks 5. Crushing 6. Sulphuring 7. Fermentation 8. Cellaring & second processing 9. Racking 10. Fining & Filtering 11. Refrigeration 12. Blending 13. Maturing of wine 14. Bottling of wines 15. Pasteurization 16. Ageing of wine Factors Affecting wine quality A number of factors effect wine quality, the most important being the type of grape used. The best grapevine is the vitis vinifera, which has many different varieties. The grape yield per acre is also a factor. The higher the yield is the lower the wine quality will generally be conversely, the lower the yield is the more concentrated the grape flavours and the better the wine quality will be normally, a ton of gushed grapes yield an average of 170 gallon of Table wine. Soil is also a factor the best being one that offers good drainage, which is why gravel and sand are better than clay. Good drainage forces the wines root to seek deep moisture which cause their root to become longer. These longer roots are able to reach deep mineral deposits and these mineral, in turn, add flavour to gapes and this to wine. Another factor is climate Grape vines like Cool nights and Sunny, warm days, as these help them maintain the right balance between acid and sugar in the grapes. However, too hot weather when the grapes are maturing, near harvest times, will decrease the acid and increase the sugar and will produce a wine that may not age well. On the other hand too little sunshine will reduces the amount of grape sugar and produce a wine low in alcohol and as a result, sugar may have to be added before fermentation to raise that alcohol level. Also rain at harvest time can diluted the grapes sugar and encourages rolling thereby lowering the quality of the wine. Mechanical grapes-picking equipment can give grapes growers more control over the grapes quality than hand picking can as all the grape can be picked quickly when they all at their peak of ripeness. But if rain or     Page 4 

has spoiled some of the grape bunches, hand picking will allow those to be by passed. Finally, the skills of the winemaker are extremely important as it can affect the personality and quality of the wine produced. The vintner’s skill can also very, because of local tradition and will dictate the type of wine made. The market for whom the wine is to be manufactured also calls upon different wine making skills. For example, if the wine to be made in a smaller quantity with a high quality or in a larger quantity with a lesser quality for a broader market. Vitis Vinifera The best wines are made from a type of vine as known Vitis Vinifera. Some of which are known to be three hundred years only. This wine grows best in his broad belts one north and the other south of the equator. Grapes can be grown outside these belts and be turned into wine, but its quality is not considered as high as that from vines grown within these belts. The northern belt includes as knowledge wine making countries such as France, Italy, Germany and the United States. The Southern belt embraces Chile, Argentina, Australia and South Africa vines will yield more grapes when planted in fertile soil on flat land but the wine made from such grapes will seldom be comparable in quality to wine made from grapes grown on sunny slopes in soil that may not be fertile but is rich in the mineral that create a special, characteristic, known as bouquet, that is present in all quality wines. As the grapes mature, their sugar content increases and their acid content decreased. Grape growers thus must know when the balance between sugar and acid is just right to produce the best wine. Types of wine There are three basic types of wine: still, sparkling and fortified. All three will be given below in detail – Still wine or table wine Most wine is still wine which is known as dinner or table wine. It can be provided in various shades of red, rose and white and has an alcohol content generally ranging from 9 to 14 percent by volume. 1. Red wine is often more full than rose or white and is often heartier, taster and dries. Red wine is best served at room temperature and some red wine can be served chilled which are young red wine. 2. Rose wine may be slightly sweet & often has a fruity flavour. Rose wines are best served chilled. Rose wine colour is mainly from pals pink to red. or     Page 5 

3. White wine vary from a pale strain colour to a deep gold. Whites are lighter bodied and more delicate than red wine and has less pronounced flavour. White wines are served chilled. Much still wine is referred to by the French Le Vin ordinoire which means as inexpensive wine of agreeable quality produced in great quality for every any consumption by the inhabitants of France and other. European countries very little of this wine is exported to North America. Sparkling Wine Sparkling wine contains carbon dioxide bubbles which provide their effervescence. The carbon dioxide is produced either through a natural process of fermentation that does not allow the carbondioxide to escape during the conversion of the grape sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide or it is added to still wine after the fermentation is complete. Red rose and white wines all can be made into sparkling wines. Whatever the colour sparkling wine is best served chilled like still wines, spackling wines range from 9 to 14 percent alcohol by volume. The best known naturally produced sparkling wine is champagne. Although only the sparkling wine produced in the champagne region of France is true champagne (with a capital C) the champagne method can be applied to any wine to make it sparkling. In Germany, sparkling wine is given the name “Schaumwein” and in Italy it is ‘Spumante’. Fortified wines Fortified wines are still wines to which has been added a distilled grape spent such as brandy. This fortification considerably increases the wines alcohol content which ranges from 15% to as high as 24 percent by volume. Fortified wines vary from very dry to very sweet and are usually served before or at the conclusion of a meal. The best known fortified wines are poet, sherry, vermouth, Madeira and Macola. Sweetness in sparkling wine Extra trut Brut Extra Sec Sec Demi Sec : : : : : Very dry (upto 6 g) Very dry (less than 15 g) Dry (12 to 20 g) Slightly sweet (17 to 35 g) Sweetish (35 to 50 g)
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Factor affecting quality of wine 1. Soil of the area 2. Weather condition present in the region during the year 3. The types of grapes used and if different variety are used, the proportion on which they are mixed 4. Artificial or natural ingredient added if any. 5. Period of maturity 6. The number of growths during the year

Storage of wines Temperature: A steady moderate temperature is essential for maintaining the quality of a wine. It can vary from 0°C to 24°C. However these changes in the temperature must be gradual. This is the reason why cellar are preferred for storage of wine. White wines are more sensitive to temperature variation than red wines. Light: Exposure to light encourages oxidation and hence accelerates aging. Therefore wine must never be exposed to sunlight. Stability: Violent and frequent motion also accelerates the process of aging in a wine. Hence wine must be stored such that it is not subjected to movement Bed wine in the process of manufacture must not be distributed as the sediment to blend in the wine and thus get a perfectly good wine. Position: A wine must always be stored in a lifted or lying down position. The entry affair through a day cock increase oxidation and hence a cock must be maintained moist. A dry cock crumbs when being opened thus spoiling the taste and appearance of the wine. This is the reason why wines are always stored lying down. Glass required for wine service 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. White wine or hock capacity A.P. wine or red wine Champagne saucer Champagne tulip Sherry : : : : : 5½ oz 7 oz 6 oz 9 oz 3 oz or    

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Equipment required jar service of wine 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Wine basket or wine stand with ice Wine opener Waiters cloth Quarter plate Proper glassware

Service of Wine 1. Presentation of Bottle – Draw the wine from the cellar and take it to the table properly wrapped in a waiter cloth. Present the wine bottle to the host from the right with the bottle resting on the forearm while announcing the name of wine and clearly stating the year of manufacture this is to make clear and sure that the host being given the bottle has ordered for this is also the good chance for him to check that the wine is being served at the right temperature. 2. Opening the bottle – Cut the foil well below the tip of the bottle and tear it off wipe the mouth to remove any mould that may have formed near the cock. Insert the corkscrew into the cork not more than 3/4th of the way into the cock to avoid contact with the wine. Draw the cock out gently & present it to the host for approval on a plate the inspection of the cock gives the host as ideal of the aroma to expect from the wine. It also tells the host that the bottle has been stored in the proper manner and that the cock has not crumbled on being drawn. 3. Pouring – Pour wine into the host's glass and wait for him or her to taste it and approve. Once the host approves the wine pour it to the guest, starting from the host left hand and pureed in a clockwise direction. Make sure you serve the ladies first. The host must or served last. 4. Placed the rest of Wines – Put the bottle back in the basket or wine basket with an appropriate wrapped napkin. If or     Page 8 

the bottle is empty it must be placed neck back down in the wine stand after showing to the host. 5. A few general rules to note while pouring wine – Never from wine from a height Never touch the rim of the glass Pour it quality gently avoiding bubbling Pour only 2/3rd of the glass or up to the logo While pouring champagne always remembers that champagne is always "poured twice" which means you pour a little. Wait for the froth to dry down and then pour again to fill the glass. After pouring twist the bottle slightly to avoid the last drops dripping down the side. When pouring the wine pour steadily on the slope of the glass on the opposite side ensure the flow is smooth. When changing the wine or when serving a fresh bottle always serve in fresh glasses. Before discarding an empty bottle show it to the host to avoid confusion later on.

Opening a Champagne Bottle Remove the foil and the wine holding the cork in its place. Hold the bottle resting in the forearm or place it in the wine bucket (but never on the table). Holding the bottle with one hand, the cork in the other. Gently but firmly twist the cork and allow the pressure of the carbon dioxide inside to push out the cork. A properly opened champagne cork should not let out much of a sound only a slightly pop or a hiss. Do not let cork fly out of your hand as this may damage properly or hurt somebody. Wine Facts A proper wine glass should be large enough to contain a full serving without approaching being halfway filled. A glass of from ten to fourteen ounce capacity works well. This provides adequate space for both swirling without spilling and to gain the "chimney effect" that concentrates and directs the vapors that carry the wine's smells. A glass of this size is also not so large as to be awkward or unwieldy. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has recognized a particular shape that is the accepted benchmark at all wine judging and competitions. It is also suitable for the average wine drinker as an all around, every day glass. It should be made of transparent, colorless glass with a lead content of up to 9%. Its dimensions are or     Page 9 

just under 6 inches (155 mm) tall, with a two inch (5 cm) tall stem and a four-inch (100 mm) tall bowl, about two and a half inches (65 mm) at its widest diameter and two inches (46 mm) across the rim.

One Acre of Land Averages: Five tons of grapes 13.51 barrels of wine 797 gallons of wine 3,958 bottles of wine 15,940 glasses of wine ine 7 gallons of One Case of Wine Contains: 30 pounds of grapes 307.2 ounces of wine 12 bottles of wine 48 glasses of wine

One Barrel of Wine Contains: 740 pounds of grapes 59 gallons of wine 24.6 cases of wine 295 bottles of wine 1,180 glasses of wine

One Bottle of Wine Contains: 2.4 pounds of grapes 25.6ozs of wine 4 glasses of wine or    

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One Glass of Wine Contains: 9.7ozs of grapes 6.4ozs of wine International Toasts Czech: Na Zdravi (Na zdrah vi) French: A Votre Sante! (Ah Vot-ruh Sahn-tay) German: Prosit! (Proh-sit) ! Greek: Stin Eyiassou! (Stin Eye-eeyass-ooh) Hebrew: L'Chaim! (Le Hy-em) Hungarian: Le! Le! Le! Egeszsegere (Lay Lay Lay Egg-eshAy-ged-reh) Italian: Cin! Cin! (Chin Chin) Japanese: Kampai! (Kam-pie) Mandarin: Gan bei! (Gan Bay) Polish: Na zdrowie! (Naz-droh-veeay) Portuguese: Saude (Sow-ooh-jee) Russian: Zdorovie (Zdo-ro-vee) Serbo-Croat: Ziveli! (Zhi-vol-ee) Spanish: Salud! (Sah-lud) Swedish: Skal! (Skoll) To Your Health To Your Health! Cheers To Your Health! To Life! Down! Down! Down! To your health! Cheers! To an empty glass! To an empty glass! To your health! Cheers! To your health! To Life! To your health! Cheers!

Yiddish: Zei Gazunt! (Zye Gah-zoont) To your health or    

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Q: What is an ice wine? Ice wine is a specialty wine made from grapes, which have remained on the vines until after the first frost. These grapes have a more intense flavor and sweetness. Because of its intensity, ice wine is drunk as a dessert or after dinner wine in a much smaller quantity. It normally is sold in smaller bottles and tends to have a higher cost -- as the harvest is generally smaller as well. Q: What does “late harvest” mean? Late harvest refers to when the grapes are removed from the vines. Late harvest grapes have had more time on the vine and have therefore grown sweeter with time, due to a higher concentration of sugar. A wine made from late harvest grapes, such as late harvest Riesling will be sweeter. Q: What are French Hybrid grapes? Pennsylvania has great terrain for French Hybrid grapes, such as Chambourcin, Seyval Blanc, Baco Noir, Vignoles, and Marechal Foch. Vinifera (vin-if-fur-ah) grapes come from the old world, primarily Europe, and produce the drier wines many connoisseurs appreciate, such as Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Pinot Noir. All of these different types of grapes grow throughout the state. Q: How long can I store wine? Wine ages in the bottle. Whether it should age for a month or years is dependant on the type of wine. Light, crisp, white or sweet wines generally should be consumed while young – within a year or so. Big, bold reds and some Chardonnays benefit from age. You may want to allow them to age for years. Q: How long will wine retain its flavor after opening? Once a bottle of wine is opened, the air immediately starts to affect the taste and smell. If you do not drink an entire bottle, try using a “vacu-pump” device to pull out all the air. Then tightly re-cork the bottle. White wine will usually keep for two to three days after the initial opening; red will keep about three to five days. Remember, you also can use your remaining wine in many recipes! White wine is great over chicken or to stir fry vegetables, etc. Red wine adds great flavor to red sauces, chili and beef fondue. or    

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Q: How should I store my wine? Wine with a cork closure should be stored on its side to prevent the cork from drying out. Wine with a synthetic closure does not have to be stored on its side, but wine racks are just so handy. Wine likes dark, consistently cool storage areas. Exposure to intense light and heat can ruin a wine. As a rule of thumb most red wines will benefit from breathing. White wines that have had 12 or more months aging may also benefit from decanting. If you don't have a proper decanter, use any large mouth glass container. The idea is to expose the maximum surface to the air, to help open up the fruit flavors and develop the wine's true character. If a wine has spent up to 12 months in oak barrels allow 1 hour; 24 months allow 2 hours; 36 months, allow 3 hours. If there is sediment use a filter to decant (a coffee filter works just fine). Did you know? • 20 million acres are planted for grapes worldwide. • Among the world's fruit crops, wine grapes rank#1 in number of acres planted? • 164 countries import California wines. • 30 million gallons of wine were lost in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. • Phylloxera was first discovered in California on 14 august 1873 • It takes 5 years to harvest a commercial crop from newly replanted grape vines. • 10,000 varieties of wine grapes exist worldwide. • It cost 80 cents per bottle to age wine in a French oak barrel. • It cost 2.25$ per bottle to age wine in only new French oak barrels. • The first known reference to a specific wine vintage is mentioned in roman history rated 121 B.C. as a vintage “of the highest excellence. • A bottle of opened wine stored in the refrigerator lasts 6-16 times longer than it would if stored at room temp? • There are 400 oak species available • Only 20 are used in making oak barrels. • 5% of an oak tree is suitable for making high grade wine barrels. • 54.6% of restaurant wine sales, red wines represent • 2.64$ is the average cost of the grapes used to produce a $20 bottle of wine.
• To prevent a sparkling wine from foaming out of the glass, pour an ounce,

which will settle quickly. Pouring the remainder of the serving into this starter will not foam as much. • Old wine almost never turns to vinegar. It spoils by oxidation. • In 1999 Merlot was the "hot" varietal, but 50 years earlier in 1949, the "darling of the California wine industry" was Muscatel. or     Page 13 

• A 1889 newspaper that described the Napa Valley crop as the finest of its kind • • • • • • • • • •



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grown in the U.S., was referring to hops. Wine has so many organic chemical compounds it is considered more complex than blood serum. 170 years - the average age of a French oak tree harvested for use in wine barrels. Portugal has 1/3 of the world's cork forests and supplies about 90% of the cork used in the U.S. Beaujolais Nouveau cannot be legally released until the third Thursday of every November. In 2003 the date is Nov. 20th. 20 million acres are planted to grapes worldwide? Worldwide wine grapes as a crop rank #1 in number of acres planted. 30 million gallons of wine were lost in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. There are 10,000 varieties of wine grapes worldwide. The 19th century American poet, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, mentions wine more than 300 times in his works. The soil of the Clos de Vougeot (A vineyard in the Burgundy) is considered so precious that workers are required to scrape it from their shoes before they leave each night. The largest cork tree in the world is known as ‘The Whistler Tree’. This tree is located in the Alentejo region of Portugal and averages over 1 ton of raw cork per harvest. Enough to cork 100,000 bottles. The dye used to stamp the grade on meat is edible. It's made from grape skins During prohibition, a product called the 'Grape Brick' was sold across America. Attached to the 'brick' of dried and pressed winegrape concentrate was a packet of yeast, and the warning, "Do not add yeast or fermentation will result." McDonald's restaurants in some European countries serve alcohol, so parents would be more willing to take their children to them. The Puritans loaded more beer than water onto the Mayflower. The word "toast," meaning a wish of good health, started in ancient Rome, where a piece of toasted bread was dropped into wine. Before thermometers were invented, brewers would dip a thumb or finger into the liquid to determine the ideal temperature for adding yeast, giving us the phrase "rule of thumb." In old England, a whistle was baked into the handle of ceramic mugs. When they wanted a refill, patrons used the whistle to get service. So when people went drinking, they would "wet their whistle." The pressure in a bottle of champagne is about 90 pounds per square inch, about three times the pressure in automobile tires.
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• Junipero Serra is considered to be the "Father" of the California Wine industry,

and was responsible for planting grapevines at every one of the 9 missions he established throughout the state. • The first fine wine grapes in California were planted in Downtown Los Angeles at the current site of the Union Train Station. Jean-Louis Vignes, a native of Bordeaux planted the vines in 1833 • The oldest known grapevine in the world is more than 400 years old and located in Yarra, Slovenia. It is carefully pruned every year and shoots are presented as gifts to communities around the world. Other Facts • Jefferson and wine: From Undaunted Courage: Meriwether Lewis, Thomas Jefferson, and the Opening of the American West, by Stephen E Ambrose, comes the following historical note. Jefferson took up residence in the President’s House in 1801, after his inauguration as the 3rd President of the United States. • “Jefferson ran the place with only eleven servants (Abigail Adams had needed 30!), brought up from Monticello. There were no more powdered wigs, much less ceremony. Washington and Adams, according to Republican critics, had kept up almost a royal court. Jefferson substituted Republican simplicity - to a point. He had a French chef, and French wines he personally selected. His salary was $25,000 per year - a princely sum, but the expenses were also great. In 1801 Jefferson spent $6500 for provisions and groceries, $2700 for servants (some of whom were liveried), $500 for Lewis’s salary, and $3,000 for wine.” • Dom Perignon (1638-1715), the Benedictine Abbey (at Hautvillers) cellar master who is generally credited with “inventing” the Champagne making process, was blind. • Thomas Jefferson helped stock the wine cellars of the first five U.S. presidents and was very partial to fine Bordeaux and Madeira. • To prevent a sparkling wine from foaming out of the glass, pour an ounce, which will settle quickly. Pouring the remainder of the serving into this starter will not foam as much. • Old wine almost never turns to vinegar. It spoils by oxidation. • U.S. 1998 sales of white and blush wines were 67% of total table wine sales. Red wines were 33% of sales. At Beekman’s, the best we can calculate (since we don’t track the color of wine sales from Chile, Australia or Spain or of jug wines) is that our sales of white and blush comprised only 45% of total wine sales. Reds accounted for 55%. That’s in dollars, not unit sales. American wines accounted for 47% of our wine sales vs. 53% for imported wines. • In King Tut’s Egypt (around 1300 BC), the commoners drank beer and the upper class drank wine. • According to local legend, the great French white Burgundy, or     Page 15 


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Charlemagne, owes its existence, not to the emperor Charlemagne, but to his wife. The red wines of Corton stained his white beard so messily that she persuaded him to plant vines that would produce white wines. Charlemagne ordered white grapes to be planted. Thus: Corton-Charlemagne! When Leif Ericsson landed in North America in A.D. 1001, he was so impressed by the proliferation of grapevines that he named it Vinland. Cork was developed as a bottle closure in the late 17th century. It was only after this that bottles were lain down for aging, and the bottle shapes slowly changed from short and bulbous to tall and slender. The Napa Valley crop described in 1889 newspapers as the finest of its kind grown in the U.S. was hops. When Mount Vesuvius buried Pompeii in volcanic lava in A.D. 79, it also buried more than 200 wine bars. The “top five” chateau of Bordeaux, according to the 1855 Classification, were actually only four: Lafite-Rothschild, Latour, Margaux and Haut-Brion. In the only change to that historic classification, Mouton-Rothschild was added in 1973. Grapevines cannot reproduce reliably from seed. To cultivate a particular grape variety, grafting (a plant version of cloning) is used. Wine has so many organic chemical compounds it is considered more complex than blood serum. Wine grapes are subject to mold when there’s too much moisture. Tight clustered Sauvignon Blanc, Zinfandel and Pinot Noir are most susceptible to mold. The looser clusters of Cabernet Sauvignon allow for faster drying of moist grapes and thus make it less susceptible. In 1945, Chateau Mouton-Rothschild began a series of artists’ labels, hiring a different artist each year to design a unique label for that vintage. The artists have included such notables as Chagall, Picasso, Miro and Warhol. The 1993 label was sufficiently controversial in this country (the stylized juvenile nude on the label offended the Political Correctness Police) that the Chateau withdrew the label and substituted a blank label instead. It is the VERY slow interaction of oxygen and wine that produces the changes noticed in aging wine. It is believed that wine ages more slowly in larger bottles, since there is less oxygen per volume of wine in larger bottles. Rapid oxidation, as with a leaky cork, spoils wine. Before harvest, the canopy of leaves at the top of the vine is often cut away to increase exposure to the sun and speed ripening. The average age of a French oak tree harvested for use in wine barrels is 170 years! The lip of a red wine glass is sloped inward to capture the aromas of the wine and deliver them to your nose. “Cold maceration” means putting the grapes in a refrigerated environment for
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several days before starting fermentation to encourage color extraction. This is being done more and more frequently with Pinot Noir since the skins of this varietal don’t have as much pigmentation as other red varietals. Frenchman Georges de Latour came to America in the late 1800’s to prospect for gold. He didn’t find much gold, but he founded a truly golden winery: Beaulieu Vineyard. Mycoderma bacteria convert ethyl alcohol into acetic acid, thus turning wine into vinegar. However, most incidents of spoiled wine are due to air induced oxidation of the fruit, not bacterial conversion of alcohol to vinegar. The world’s most planted grape varietal is Airén. It occupies over 1 million acres in central Spain where it is made into mediocre white wine, but some quite good brandy. Bettino Ricasoli, founder of Brolio, is credited with having created the original recipe for Chianti, combining two red grapes (Sangiovese and Canaiolo) with two white grapes (Malvasia and Trebbiano). Today the better Chiantis have little or no white grapes in them and may contain some Cabernet. They are thus deeper in color and flavor and more age worthy. From 1970 until the late 1980s, sales and consumption of wine in the United States held a ratio of about 75% white to 25% red. At the turn of the Millennium, the ratio is closer to 50-50. In the year 2000, Americans spent $20 billion on wine. 72% of that was spent on California wines. In ancient Rome bits of toast were floated in goblets of wine. There is a story that a wealthy man threw a lavish party in which the public bath was filled with wine. Beautiful young women were invited to swim in it. When asked his opinion of the wine, one guest responded: “I like it very much, but I prefer the toast.” (referring, presumably, to the women) “Cuvée” means “vat” or “tank.” It is used to refer to a particular batch or blend. Beaujolais Nouveau cannot be legally released until the third Thursday of every November. The due date this year (2001) is November 15th. We’re seeing more and more synthetic corks these days, but the latest technology to prevent contaminated corks is the use of microwaves. Labels were first put on wine bottles in the early 1700s, but it wasn’t until the 1860s that suitable glues were developed to hold them on the bottles. Top Napa Valley vineyard land sells for over $100,000/acre! In the year 2000, there were 847 wineries in California. Wine is often called the nectar of the gods, but Sangiovese is the only grape named after a god. Sangiovese means “blood of Jove.” Ninety-two percent of California wineries produce fewer than 100,000 cases per year. Sixty percent produce fewer than 25,000 cases. Egg whites, bull’s blood, and gelatin have all been used as fining agents to remove suspended particles from wine before bottling. Egg whites are still
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commonly used. “Brix” is the term used to designate the percentage of sugar in the grapes before fermentation. For example, 23° brix will be converted by yeast to 12.5% alcohol, more or less, depending on the conversion efficiency of the strain of yeast used. In describing wine, the term “hot” refers to a high level of alcohol, leaving an hot, sometimes burning sensation. In the production of port, the crushed grapes are fermented for about two days. Then the fermentation is halted by the addition of a neutral distilled spirit or brandy. This raises the alcohol level and retains some of the grapes’ natural sugar. American wine drinkers consume more wine on Thanksgiving than any other day of the year. As of 2000, 554,000 acres in California were planted to grapevines. “Still wine” does not come from a still. The phrase refers to wine without bubbles, which includes what is also referred to as table wine. Fiasco [fee-YAHS-koh]; pl. fiaschi [fee-YAHS-kee] - Italian for “flask.” The word is most often connected with the squat, round-bottomed, straw-covered bottle containing cheaper wine from the Chianti region. The straw covering not only helps the bottle sit upright, but protects the thin, fragile glass. Fiaschi are seldom seen today as the cost of hand-wrapping each flask for cheaper wines has become prohibitive, and the more expensive wines with aging potential need bottles that can be lain on their sides. As early as 4000 BC, the Egyptians were the first people to use corks as stoppers. The wine industry generates 145,000 jobs in California. California has 847 wineries. Napa County is the home of 232 of them. Market research shows that most people buy a particular wine either because they recognize the brand name or they are attracted by the packaging. Not Beekman’s customers! Portugal has 1/3 of the world's cork forests and supplies 85-90% of the cork used in the U.S. There are only three legal categories of wine in the U.S.: table, dessert, and sparkling. In the early 1950s, 82% of the wine Americans drank was classified as dessert wines. These included Sherry, Port, and Madeira. I don’t have current national figures, but Beekman’s sales of wine today are 90% table wine, 7% sparkling wine, and only 3% dessert wine! Until 1970, Bordeaux produced more white wine than red. Today red wine represents about 84% of the total crop. California produces approximately 77% of the U.S. wine grape crop. There is at least one commercial winery in every state of the United States, including Hawaii and Alaska! Putting ice and kosher salt in a bucket will chill white wine or Champagne faster. The most popular corkscrew, the wing-type, is cheap and easy to use, but it frequently mangles corks and leaves small pieces of cork in your wine. It also tends to pull out just the middle of an old, dry cork. Far superior are the
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• • •


Screwpull, which is also easy to use, and the waiter’s corkscrew, which requires just a little know-how to use effectively. No matter what type you use, you should also have a two-pronged (Ah-So) device to remove problem corks. Zinfandel first appeared in the United States in the 1820s when Long Island nursery owner George Gibbs imported several grape vines from the Imperial collection in Vienna. One of the vines was Zinfandel. (The current thinking is that Zinfandel originated in Croatia where it is called Plavac Mali.) In the 1850s, Zinfandel made its way to California. An Italian white wine called Est! Est! Est! got its name from a medieval story. A bishop was planning to travel the Italian countryside and asked his scout to find inns that had good wines, marking the door “Est” (“It is” or “This is it”) when he found one. The scout was so excited about the local wine found in the area that he marked one inn’s door “Est! Est! Est!” Another version of this story is that a priest was on his way to minister to a congregation in the boondocks. Upon discovering the wonderful local wine, he sent the message “Est! Est! Est!” back to Rome, renounced the priesthood, and spent the rest of his life enjoying the wine. The auger or curly metal part of a corkscrew is sometimes called a worm. Graves is thought to be the oldest wine region in Bordeaux. The Puritans loaded more beer than water onto the Mayflower. In terms of acreage, wine grapes rank #1 among all crops planted worldwide. Although “château” means castle, it may also be a mansion or a little house next to a vineyard that meets the requirements for winemaking with storage facilities on its property. Château Petrus is the most expensive of the Bordeaux wines. Its price is as much due to its tiny production as to its quality. Petrus is made from at least 95% Merlot grapes. The Egyptians were the first to make glass containers around 1500 B.C.

ALSACE WINES Contrary to other French wine regions, the wines of Alsace are not named after the villages or vineyards from which they come, but after the grape variety. Alsace wines are made from seven varieties : Sylvaner, Pinot Blanc, Riesling, Muscat d'Alsace, Tokay Pinot Gris, Gewurztraminer and Pinot Noir. All must by law be bottled in the region of production, in the traditional slender Alsace bottle. Muscat d'Alsace is dry and very different from the sweet Muscats of the South of France. It is very aromatic and reveals the true flavour of the fresh grape. Sylvaner is a remarkably fresh and light wine with a delicate flavour, Refreshing and or     Page 19 

easy to enjoy, it is lively and sometimes vivacious. Pinot Blanc, well-rounded yet delicate, combines freshness and softness, representing the happy medium in the range of Alsace wines. Tokay Pinot Gris develops a characteristic roundness and opulence. Rich, full-bodied and with a long finish, its complex aroma is reminiscent of woodland and is sometimes slightly smoky. Pinot Noir is the only Alsace variety to produce red or rosé wines, characteristically fruity with hints of cherry. Vinified as a red wine. it can be aged in oak casks, which adds greater structure and complexity to its aromas. Riesling is dry, refined and delicately fruity, with an elegant bouquet of mineral or floral notes. Acknowledged as one of the finest white varietals in the world, it is a gastronomic wine par excellence. Gewurztraminer, full-bodied and well-structured, is probably the best-known Alsace wine. Its intense bouquet displays rich aromas of fruit, flowers and spices (gewurz = spicy). Powerful and seductive, sometimes slightly sweet, it can often age well. Klevener de Heiligenstein is a less aromatic variety derived from the old Traminer or Savagnin rose, also greatly appreciated with food. It is produced exclusively in and around Heiligenstein. Alsace Wine Information Alsace produces excellent dry and sweet white wines. They are so typical that the grape varieties used only grow in Alsace and nowhere else. The most basic information on the wine in Alsace are: Location: North East of France, between the Vosges and the Rhine river Alsace region information 190km long and 50km wide (120 x 30 miles) smallest region in France 15,000 hectares (37,000 acres)
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Size: Size of the vineyards: or    

Grapes in Alsace:

Riesling (23% of Alsace wines) Pinot Blanc (20%) Gewurztraminer (18%) Tokay Pinot Gris (13%) Sylvaner (12%) 165 million bottles +90% of Alsace wines are white Alsace wine making Refreshing dry and sweet white wine


Type of Wine:

Alsace Wine and Food: Sauerkraut Alsace wine and food or    

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Wines from Alsace More than 90% of the wines in Alsace are white. Riesling and Gewurzt are among the best white wines in France. Wine makers raise them in a style you can't find no where else but in a wine from Alsace. The most important wines in Alsace are: Riesling (23% of Alsace wines) Gewurztraminer (18%) Pinot Blanc (20%) Tokay Pinot Gris (13%) Sylvaner (12%) Crémant d'Alsace (a sparkling wine) Other wines from Alsace are: Vendanges Tardives (late harvest), Edelzwicker, Muscat, Pinot Noir, etc. Alsace wine and food: White wines from Alsace such as Riesling, Sylvaner and Pinot Blanc go very well with fish and seafood meals. Gewurztraminer is better with foie gras, spiced dishes, strong cheeses or as a dessert wine. Food in Alsace: People in Alsace loves good food. Here are just a few examples of what Alsace is famous for when it comes to food: - The classic choucroute (means sauerkraut in French): various parts of pork and cabbage - Tarte flambée (or Flammekueche): pastry with cream, bacon, and onions - Coq-au-Riesling: cooked with Riesling wine Alsace food and wine: The table below help you match a typical food from Alsace with a wine of the same region: Food from Alsace Choucroute: Flammekueche: best match with Alsace's wine: Riesling, Sylvaner Sylvaner, Pinot Blanc, Riesling or    

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Coq-au-Riesling: Onion tart : Munster:

Riesling Sylvaner, Pinot Blanc Gewurztraminer

Cheeses from Alsace: The following cheese is made in Alsace: - Munster Serving of Wines Alsace wines should be served chilled, but not too cold (6 to 10°C) in longstemmed glasses. Crémant d'Alsace is served between 5 and 7°C in flute or tulipe glasses. Alsace wines are normally enjoyed when they are youngs, that mean from 1 to 5 years after their harvest. However, "Grands Crus", "Vendanges tardives" and "Sélections de grains nobles" will benefit from longer bottle-ageing. Making of Alsace Wines Wine making in France It is difficult to speak of winemaking. The saying goes in France there are as many wines as vineyards. Every winemaker brings his one touch before, during, and after the wine making process. Each choice in the successive steps of the elaboration of wine has repercussions on the taste and the quality of the wine :
• The choice of the terroir • The climate (and the date of harvest) • The choice of the grape-variety, it is determinant • The type of container in which the fermentation will take

place or     Page 23 

• The temperature at which the juice of grape is maintained

during the fermentation • The fermentation period • The type of container in which the maturation will take place Nobody can pretend there is only one unique method of making wine. That is the beauty of wine as winemakers are also responsible for the incredible diversity of wines we can choose from. Needless to say that winemaking requires "savoir-faire" and experience. A winemaker is not only an artisan but also an artist. Red wine making The steps in the red wine making process are: Crushing and de-stemming the grapes The grapes just arriving in the cellar are crushed and de-stemmed to release their juice and pulp. The must obtained that way is put in a tank to go trough the process of fermentation. Alcoholic fermentation Fermentation is a natural process. Yeasts living in the grapes - the addition of selected yeasts is generalizing - change the sugar contained in the must in alcohol and carbonic gas (see also the composition of wine). The winemaker assists the action of the yeasts by maintaining the temperature around 25 to 30°C and by ventilating the must regularly. Under 25°C the wine will not have enough body, above 30°C, the wine will be to tannic. The fermentation process goes on for 4 to 10 days until the maceration and then the malolactic fermentation. Maceration It is the period when the tannic elements and the color of the skin diffuse in the fermented juice. The contact between the liquid (must) or     Page 24 

and the solids elements (skin, pips and sometimes stem) will give body and color to the wine. At this stage, complex operation will prove the talent of the winemaker: dissolution, extraction, excretion, diffusion, decoction, infusion. For "Vins primeurs" or "Vins nouveaux" (new wines) the maceration is very short. The vines are supple and contain little tannin. Wines destined to be kept long need a lot of tannin, so the maceration needs to be long. The wine will macerate for several days, maybe several weeks. Raking The wine is separated from the solids, the pomace. The wine obtained by raking is called "free run wine" (vin de goutte). Sometimes, the pomace is pressed in order to extract the juice it still contains. This wine is called "press wine" (vin de presse). It is richer in tannin. Depending on the winemaker taste or the local habit, free run wine and press wine are blended or treated separately. Malolactic fermentation It is the process during which the malic acid of wine changes into lactic acid and carbonic gas under the action of bacteria living in the wine. Malic acid is harsh, it is changed into lactic acid supple and stable. This fermentation is obtained in a tank during a few weeks at a temperature between 18° and 20°C.

Stabilization The wine making process is finished but the wine is not. To be able to age and to improve the wine must be clarified again. After that the beverage will be put in oak casks where it will stabilize. The diversity of red wine is such that it can match any type of food. But you must or     Page 25 

absolutely not conclude from this that all red wines taste the same. White wine making White wine is not really white but, in fact yellow. But the expression being universal one says of a yellow wine that it is white. Vinification of white wine is more delicate than vinification of red wine. Two methods coexist to make white wine: 1. The first one is to use white grape ( which is in fact green, greenish yellow, golden yellow or pinkish yellow!). That way the white wine is the result of the fermentation of the juice of white grapes juice only. 2. The second method is more complex. One uses the juice of red grape-variety cleared of it skin and pips, with which it must absolutely not get in contact as they contain the coloring substances. It is possible to get white wine that way but it is seldom done (see also 11 steps to make wine). Time is counted: Immediately after their arrival in the cellar, the grapes are crushed but not de-stemmed. The juice (free run must) is sent to settle in containers. The rest of the grapes is pressed as quickly as possible. Air is the enemy of white wine. At its contact the wine oxidizes or becomes colored. The must from pressing is added to the free run must. Preparation of the must: After six to twelve hours the particles and impurity of the grape separate from the must and float on the surface. They are removed by the raking of must. The must is ready to be clarified. The clarified juice is poured in a tank, ready to ferment.

Alcoholic fermentation: White wine results of the fermentation of must only. No solid (stem, skin, pips...) intervenes. The control of the temperature is essential. It has to be maintained around 18° C. The winemaker regularly cools the must to allow the yeast to work correctly. or     Page 26 

The fermentation goes on for two to three weeks. The winemaker daily checks the evolution of the process. When fermentation is over, the wine is put in cask and raked, just like a red wine then it is bottled. Winemakers often choose oak casks which gives the wine the tannin it needs. But it will not be sufficient, tannin is the essential element for aging. It is why white wine does not keep as long as red wine. On the other hand white wines present a larger variety of tastes: very dry, dry, semidry, mellow, syrupy, petillant, sparkling, madeirized... White wine can be drunk on any occasion: before, with or after a meal, and even between meals. White wines are often considered as aperitif wines, sometimes as desert wines. Many people like to drink white wine in hot weather. Its refreshing qualities are very well known. White wine is served fresh but not chilled. Rosé wine making First of all Rosé wine is not a blending of red and white wines (abstraction made of the exceptional case of the Rosé de Champagne). Rosé wine is made from red grape-varieties. And, nowadays, many winemakers mix a certain amount of white grapes with the red. The elaboration of rosé wine is delicate. It is probably why the amateur is sometimes disappointed by the quality of a rosé. Particularity, European rosé is "dry". On the contrary, American rosé is sweet and similar to white wine. There are at least three methods of making rosé wine: Gray or pale rosé wine The grapes are pressed as soon as they arrive in the cellar. It allows a quicker diffusion of the color in the must. The juice is left a very short time in contact with the skin. No more than a few hours! That way the must is delicately colored. or     Page 27 

Rosé wine is then made in the same way as a white wine, fermentation of the must cleared of solid elements with out any more maceration. The winemaker obtains a gray or pale rosé wine (for Gris de Bourgogne or Rosé de Loire). Colored pink wine To obtain a colored pink wine the grapes are put in the fermentation tank after having been crushed. The juice quickly enriches itself in alcohol with the temperature going up (in the tank). At the contact of the solid element the color quickly diffuses. The winemaker chooses the intensity of the color by controlling a sample every hour. When he is satisfied he devattes. The wine is evacuated in another tank to finish fermenting. The must left in the original tank is evacuated and not used for rosé any more.

The bleeding To obtain an even more intense color, once an hour, during the initial fermentation the winemaker takes out of the tank a certain amount of juice. When the color is satisfying, the wine making process goes on as for a white wine. Rosé de Provence are obtain by that method. Why wine does not turn into vinegar ? Sulphur dioxide, in spite of its barbaric name, is an element indispensable for the quality of the wine (see composition of wine). It is composed of sulphur and oxygen. Fermentation naturally produces small amount of it. Winemakers add more to the wine. Sulphur dioxide is to wine what aspirin is to human beings: the miraculous remedy which cures all sort of diseases and avoids others. Sulphur dioxide is a bactericide which prevents wine from changing into vinegar. It inhibates the action of yeasts; it is why sweet wines do not go on fermenting after bottling. On top of that it is an antioxidizer. It allows wine to keep all its freshness and avoids its alteration by its enemy: the oxygen. or     Page 28 

Vineyards Sylvaner, light, fresh and fruity.


Pinot Blanc, well-balanced, supple and racy.

Riesling, triumph of the Alsace vineyars, delicate fruitiness and fine bouquet.


Muscat d'Alsace, dry, an inimitable fresh grape taste.

Tokay Pinot Gris, opulent and robust, at its best with the finest cuisine.


Gewurztraminer, robust, full-bodied, marvalous flavour and bouquet.

Pinot Noir, dry red or rosé wine, its typical fruitiness calls to mind cherry. The 3 Appellations d'Origine Contrôlées AOC Alsace : Alsace wines usually bear the name of the grape variety from which they are made (Sylvaner, Pinot Blanc, Riesling, aso.) AOC Alsace Grand Cru : they are obliged to show the name of the grape variety, and also the name of the vineyard where they were grown. AOC Crémant d'Alsace : a sparkling wine produced by the Champagne method, using mainly the Pinot varieties. Alsace wines should be served chilled, but not too cold (6 to 10°C) in longstemmed glasses. Crémant d'Alsace is served between 5 and 7°C in flute or tulipe glasses. Alsace wines are normally enjoyed when they are youngs, that mean from 1 to 5 years after their harvest. However, "Grands Crus", "Vendanges tardives" and "Sélections de grains nobles" will benefit from longer bottle-ageing. or    

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Winegrowing villages along the Route du Vin

At first sight, the Route du Vin seems just like a postcard : the serried ranks of an army of vines advancing up towards the forests of the Vosges; the ruins of proud castles of the Middle Ages; villages surrounded by venerable ramparts which today serve only to preserve the joyful harmony inside : flower-deced streets, hospitable inns, joyful wine cellars, baroque wrought-iron signs, as well as historic houses, Roman churches and fountains generously bequeathed by the Renaissance.   For all such unforgettable reasons, the Route du Vin merits your visit. However, only a really inquisitive visitor venturing off the beaten tracks unearth all its secrets. Between one gateway at Thann and the other at Marlenheim, take the time to discover the Route du Vin's true nature : meet the winegrowers, taste their wines, lose yourself in Medieval cities then, far from the crowds, walk the vineyard trails to high up in the vines to admire a panoramic view which, the time for a pause, belongs only to you.  Finally, allow yourself to be astonished, wherever you stop, by the culinary genius which, with the collusion of its wines, has made Alsace one of the most gastronomic regions of France.  Each kilometre of the 170 which make up the Route du Vin invites you to cross an imaginary frontier into a wonderful land where life is considered to be a form of art. or     Page 30 

• ALSACE WINES and CREMANT • GEWURZTRAMINER " Vendanges Tardives" Late harvest • SYLVANER • PINOT BLANC • RIESLING • RIESLING "Cuvée Passion" Passion Vintage • MUSCAT • TOKAY PINOT GRIS • TOKAY PINOT GRIS "Cuvée Passion" Passion Vintage • GEWURZTRAMINER • GEWURZTRAMINER "Cuvée Passion" Passion Vintage • PINOT NOIR • ROUGE D'ALSACE Alsace Red Wine • CREMANT D'ALSACE • TOKAY PINOT GRIS Grand Cru " Sonnenglanz "  


History The Burgundians were one of the Germanic peoples who filled the power vacuum left by the collapse of the western half of the Roman empire. In 411, they crossed the Rhine and established a kingdom at Worms. Amidst repeated clashes between the Romans and Huns, the Burgundian kingdom eventually occupied what is today the borderlands between Switzerland, France, and Italy. In 534, the Franks defeated Godomar, the last Burgundian king, and absorbed the territory into their growing empire. Its modern existence is rooted in the dissolution of the Frankish empire. When the dynastic dust had settled in 880s, there were three Burgundies: the kingdom of Upper Burgundy around Lake Geneva, the kingdom of Lower Burgundy in Provence, and the duchy of Burgundy in France. The two kingdoms of Burgundy were reunited in 937 and absorbed into the Holy Roman Empire under Conrad II in 1032, while the duchy of Burgundy was annexed by the French throne in 1004. During the Middle Ages, Burgundy was the seat of some of the most important Western churches and monasteries, among them Cluny, Citeaux, and Vézelay. During the Hundred Years' War, King Jean II of France gave the duchy to his younger son, rather than leaving it to his successor on the throne. The duchy soon became a major rival to the French throne, because the Dukes of Burgundy succeeded in assembling an empire stretching from Switzerland to the North Sea, mostly by or     Page 31 

marriage. The Burgundian Empire consisted of a number of fiefdoms on both sides of the (then largely symbolical) border between the French kingdom and the German Empire. Its economic heartland was in the Low Countries, particularly Flanders and Brabant. The court in Dijon outshone the French court by far both economically and culturally. In the late 15th and early 16th centuries, Burgundy provided a power base for the rise of the Habsburgs, after Maximilian of Austria had married into the ducal family. In 1477 the last duke Charles the Bold was killed in battle and Burgundy itself taken back by France. His daughter Mary and her husband Maximillian moved the court to Brussels and ruled the remnants of the empire (the Low Countries and Franche-Comté, then still a German fief) from there. Wine Burgundy produces famous wines of the same name. The best-known wines come from the Côte d'Or, although also viticulturally part of Burgundy are Beaujolais, Chablis, and Mâcon. Geography Highest point: Haut-Folin (901m) in the Morvan. The Canal of Burgundy joins the Rivers Yonne and Saône, allowing barges to navigate from the north to south of France. Construction began in 1765 and was completed in 1832. At the summit there is a tunnel 3.333 kilometers long in a straight line. The canal is 242 kilometers long, with a total 209 locks and crosses two counties of Burgundy, the Yonne and Cote d'Or. The canal is now mostly used for riverboat tourism; Dijon, the most important city along the canal, has a harbor for leisure boats. Culture Famous Burgundian dishes include coq au vin and beef bourguignon. Burgundy wine Chardonnay vineyards in the south of the Côte de Beaune surrounding the town of Meursault. Burgundy (Bourgogne in French) is the name given to certain wines made in the Burgundy region of France. Red Burgundy wines are usually made with the Pinot Noir grape, and white Burgundy wines are usually made with Chardonnay grapes, as dictated by the AOC. Geographically, the wine region starts just south of Dijon and runs southward to just short of the city of Lyon. The area of Chablis stands on its own to the west of Dijon, or     Page 32 

about as close to Paris as it is to the heart of Burgundy. The main wine regions in Burgundy proper (those that are entitled to the AOC Bourgogne designation) are the Côte de Nuits, Côte de Beaune - which collectively are known as the Côte d'Or - and further south the Côte Chalonnaise. Also viticulturally part of Burgundy are Beaujolais, Chablis, and Mâcon, and they show some similarity. However, a wine from one of these regions would rarely be referred to as a "Burgundy." Burgundy is home to some of the most sought-after wines in the world, and the most expensive, including those of Domaine de la Romanée Conti. Burgundy is in some ways the most terroir-oriented region on the planet; immense attention is paid to the area of origin, and in which of the region's 400 types of soil a wine's grapes are grown. It has a carefully demarcated quality hierarchy: the grand crus are at the top, followed by premier crus, then village, and finally generic Bourgogne. Bourgogne is where grapes other than Chardonnay and Pinot Noir begin to be introduced, allowing pinot blanc and Pinot Gris, two Pinot Noir mutations that were traditionally grown and now are in decline in the area. Other Burgundy AOCs that are not as often seen are Bourgogne Passetoutgrains (which can contain up to two thirds Gamay (the grape of Beaujolais) in addition to Pinot Noir), Bourgogne Aligoté (which is primarily made with the Aligoté grape), and Bourgogne Grand Ordinaire. The latter is the lowest AOC, and Grand definitely refers to the size of the area eligible to produce it, not its quality. There are certain regions that are allowed to put other grapes in miscellaneous AOCs, but for the most part these rules hold. From about the year 900 up to the French Revolution, the vineyards of Burgundy were owned by the Church. After the revolution, the vineyards were broken up and sold to the workers who had tended them. The Napoleonic inheritance laws resulted in the continued subdivision of the most precious vineyard holdings, so that some growers hold only a row or two of vines. This led to the emergence of négociants who aggregate the produce of many growers to produce a single wine. It has also led to a profusion of increasingly small family-owned wineries, exemplified by the dozen plus "Gros" family domaines. Côte-d'Or Information Number 21 Region Bourgogne Prefecture Dijon Subprefectures Beaune Montbard Population -1999 –Density Ranked 49th 506,755 58/km² Area 8763 km² Arrondissements 3 Cantons 43 Communes 707 President of the General Council Louis de Broissia Location Côte-d'Or is a département in the eastern part of France. * or     Page 33 

History the French Revolution on March 4, 1790. It was formed from part of Côte-d'Or was one of the original 83 départements created during the former province of Burgundy. Geography The département is part of the current région of Bourgogne. It is surrounded by the départements of Yonne, Nièvre, Saône-et-Loire, Jura, Aube, and Haute-Marne. A chain of hills called the Plateau de Langres runs from north-east to south-west through the département to the north of Dijon and continues south-westwards as the Côte d'Or escarpment, after which the département is named. It is the south-east facing slope of the escarpment which is the site of the celebrated Burgundy vineyards. To the west of the Plateau de Langres, towards Champagne, lies the densely wooded district of Châtillonais. To the south-east of the plateau and escarpment, the département lies in the broad, flat-bottomed valley of the middle course of the Saône. Rivers include: * The Saône * The Seine rises in he southern end of the Plateau de Langres. * The Ouche rises on the dip slope of the escarpment and flows to the Saône via Dijon. * The Armançon rises on the dip slope of the escarpment and flows north-westward. * The Arroux rises on the dip slope of the escarpment at the southern end of the département. Climate The climate of the département is temperate, with abundant rain on the west side of the central range. Beaujolais Beaujolais is a historical province and a wine-producing region in France. It is now part of the Burgundy région for administrative purposes. The region is known internationally for its long tradition of winemaking, and more recently for the enormously popular Beaujolais nouveau. Beaujolais wines The Beaujolais is a French AOC wine, almost all Beaujolais wines are reds of the Gamay grape but like most AOC wines are not labelled varietally. Whites from the region, which make up only 1% of its production, are made with Chardonnay grapes. Beaujolais tends to be a very light bodied red wine, with relatively high amounts of acidity which makes it less a casual sipping wine and one more suited to food. or     Page 34 

Most Beaujolais should be drunk within the first three years of its life. Only the best examples of the ten "crus" listed below - and produced by the best vintners - improve with age for up to ten years. Wines labeled simply "Beaujolais" account for 50% of the production. Beaujolais Villages makes up 25% of the region's production, and comes from better vineyard sites in and around the ten "crus" in the north part of Beaujolais. Wine from these individual crus, which make up the balance, can be more full-bodied, darker in color, and significantly longer lived. Unfortunately for the unknowing wine drinker, these wines do not usually use the word "Beaujolais" on the label, leaving one with little recourse but to memorize the list. The ten crus are: Morgon, Moulin-à-Vent, Brouilly, Côte de Brouilly, Saint-Amour, Chiroubles, Chénas, Fleurie, Juliénas, and most recently, Régnié. By far, the largest production comes from the négoçiant Georges Duboeuf, who makes the well-known "flower labels". Economy This is a premier wine-growing region of France. Other crops include cereal grains and potatoes. Sheep and cattle are also raised in the département. The region is famous for its Dijon mustard. There are coal mines and heavy industry, including steel, machinery, and earthenware. The industries most developed in Côte-d'Or are * agriculture and food (14% of employees) * metallurgy and metal manufacture (12% of employees) * chemicals, rubber and plastics (12% of employees) * pharmacy * electrical and electronic components and equipment * wood and paper industries. The big works are generally in the conurbation of Dijon although biggest (CEA Valduc) is at Salives in the Plateau de Langres. There is also the SEB metal works at Selongey below the plateau on the margin of the Saône plain and the Valourec metalworking group at Montbard in the west of the départment on the River Brenne near its junction with the Armançon. The Pharmaceutical industry has shown the greatest growth in recent years. However, since the Dijon employment statistics zone includes the urban and administrative centre of the Burgundy region, the service sector is proportionately bigger there in relation to the industrial, than in the other three zones of Côte-d'Or. or    

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Demographics The inhabitants of the département are called Côte-d'Oriens. Tourism Some of the major tourist attractions are the Gothic abbey church of Saint-Seinel'Abbaye and the Romanesque abbey church at Saulieu, as well the Château de Bussy Rabutin at Bussy-le-Grand. The Abbey of Cîteaux, headquarters of the Cistercian Order, lies to the east of Nuits-Saint-Georges in the south of the département. Mâcon Country Région Bourgogne Département Saône-et-Loire (préfecture) Arrondissement Mâcon Canton Chief town of 3 cantons Intercommunality Communauté d'Agglomération du Mâconnais Val de Saône (CAMVAL) Mayor Term of office Jean-Patrick Courtois 2001-2007 Land area¹ 27.04 km² Population² (1999) 34,469 Population density () 1,275 pers./km² or     Page 36 

Longitude 04° 49' 57" E Latitude 46° 18' 26" N Altitude average: 175 m minimum: 167 m maximum: 347 m INSEE Code 71270 Postal code 71000 1 French Land Register data, which exclude lakes, ponds, and glaciers larger than 1 km² (0.386 sq. mi. or 247 acres) as well as the estuaries of rivers. 2 Population sans doubles comptes, i.e. not counting those people already counted in another commune (such as students and military personnel). Mâcon is a commune of France, préfecture (capital) of the Saône-et-Loire département, in the Bourgogne région. Population: 36,068. History Mâcon was acquired by the French Crown in 1238, passed to Burgundy by the Treaty of Arras in 1435 and was recovered by France in 1477. Mâcon was a Huguenot stronghold in the 16th century. Geography Mâcon is located on the Saône river, north of Lyon. It has an area of 27.04 km². Altitude: 175 m. Economy This place is famous for its quality wines, including but not limited to Pouilly-Fuissé. The town also has foundries and plants that manufacture motorcycles, electrical equipment and clothing. Miscellaneous Mâcon was the birthplace of Alphonse de Lamartine (1790-1869), writer, poet and politician. The Baby of Mâcon is a 1993 film directed by Peter Greenaway. or    

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Twinned towns * Neustadt an der Weinstrasse, Germany - since June 26, 1956 * Crewe and Nantwich, United Kingdom - since 1957 * Overijse, Belgium - since August 28, 1960 * Macon, Georgia, United States - since 1972 * Lecco, Italy - since May 12, 1973 * Alcazar de San Juan, Spain - since March 15, 1980 * Eger, Hungary - since May 11, 1985 * Pori, Finland - since May 11, 1990 * Santo Tirso, Portugal - since June 20, 1992 Coq au vin The coq au vin ("cock with wine") is a French stew of chicken (theoretically, rooster) cooked with wine. Many French regions claim coq au vin as their own, but legend has it that the recipe originated with Caesar's chef. Different variants exist throughout the country. Nearly all recipes other than those altered for low-fat diets start with lardons, or their more available substitutes, unsmoked bacon or pancetta. The lardons are cooked, and the rendered fat used for browning the other ingredients, and (with the addition of the flour) to form the roux which thickens the sauce. Generally, a full bottle of red wine is used, and brandy may be added. More traditional versions of coq au vin have the sauce thickened with rooster blood at the end of cooking. Beef Bourguignon Beef Bourguignon (Bœuf Bourguignon in French) is very well-known, traditional French recipe. It is essentially a type of beef stew prepared with cubed pieces of beef stewed in red wine and generally flavoured with garlic, onions, salt pork, and a bouquet garni, and garnished with pearl onions and mushrooms. Côte de Nuits The Côte d'Or is divided into two main viticultural regions, the Côte de Nuits being the more northerly of the two. The northernmost tip lies just south of Dijon, and the region extends down to the Côte de Beaune, onto which it abuts. Named after the town of Nuits-St-Georges, it is most widely reknowned for it's red wines, although there are a or     Page 38 

few worthy white wines made here also. Geologically, the region sits on a combination of Bajocian, Bathonian, Callovian and Argovian limestones, with some Liassic marlstone. The climate is continental, with a wide annual temperature difference. Spring rains and frost can be a problem, as can Autumn rain, which may interfere with the harvest. This is true for the whole Côte d'Or. The vineyards lie on the slope between the plain to the east, and the hills to the west. Soils on the plain, to the east of the N74 (not illustrated), are too fertile for quality wine, and on the hills it is too sparse. The easterly aspect also aids exposure to the sun. The most northerly village of note is Marsannay, an up and coming wine region for the production of value Burgundy. Next is Fixin, a village which can produce some good value wines, although they never achieve greatness. Further south come the villages of the Côte de Nuits that produce some of the great wines of Burgundy. Firstly, Gevrey-Chambertin, which impresses with the combination of its muscular, weighty attitude and paradoxical perfumed edge. Morey-St-Denis is a meaty, intense wine which can be superb, but like many of these famous names overcropping and poor vinification techniques can result in some very weak wines. Chambolle-Musigny may be marked by a wonderful, floral, fragrant bouquet, whereas at Vougeot we have an unusual situation. Much of the wine is classified as Grand Cru as it lies within the walled vineyard of the Clos de Vougeot, but only a small part of this wine is truly of Grand Cru quality. At best it can be a tasty, full-bodied, richly fruited wine, although it is not one of the great Grands Crus. Flagey-Echézeaux is unusual as it lies to the east of all the other vineyards. The wines can be quite fine. Next is Vosne-Romaneé, a fine set of vineyards which can produce some superb wines. Vosne-Romaneé can have a rich, creamy, sensuous texture, even in the village wines from a good producer. Other than Nuits-St-Georges, there are no other villages of huge significance. The appellations of the Côte de Nuits are as follows: Grands Crus: Such wines are not required to bear the village name. Thus wines produced, for example, from the Grand Cru Chambertin Clos de Bèze would not include the village name of Gevrey-Chambertin, where it is situated. These are as follows: Gevrey-Chambertin: Chambertin, Chambertin Clos de Bèze, Charmes-Chambertin, Chapelle-Chambertin, Griotte- Chambertin, Latricières-Chambertin, Mazis-Chambertin, Ruchottes-Chambertin. or    

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Morey-St-Denis: Bonnes Mares, Clos Saint-Denis, Clos de Tart, Clos de la Roche, Clos des Lambrays. Chambolle-Musigny: Musigny, Bonnes Mares. Vougeot: Clos de Vougeot. Vosne-Romanée: La Romanée, La Tâche, Richebourg, Romanée-Conti, Romanée-StVivant, La Grande Rue. Flagey-Echézeaux: Grands-Echézeaux, Echézeaux. The Grand Cru Bonnes Mares straddles the villages of Morey-St-Denis and ChamboleMusigny. Nuits-St-Georges has no Grands Crus. Premiers Crus: These are too numerous to name here. As with Chablis, a wine blended from several such sites will be labelled as Premier Cru, whereas a wine from an individual vineyard will bear the vineyard name, eg. Gevrey-Chambertin Premier Cru Clos Saint-Jacques. Village Wines: The villages of the Côte de Nuits are Marsannay (La-Côte), Fixin, Gevrey-Chambertin, Morey-St-Denis, Chambolle Musigny, Vougeot (although anything other than Grand Cru Clos de Vougeot is rare), Vosne-Romanée and Nuits-StGeorges. Village wines from Flagey-Echézeaux are sold under the Vosne-Romanée appellation. Sub-Village Appellations: These include Côte de Nuits Villages (may be applied to wine from Corgoloin, Comblanchien, Prémeaux, Brochon, and declassified wine from Fixin), Bourgogne Hautes Côtes de Nuits (applies to a large number of communes to the west of the Côte d'Or), and basic Bourgogne. Côte de Beaune The Côte de Beaune is the more southerly part of the Côte d'Or. The northernmost tip abuts onto the Côte de Nuits, and the region extends south to the Côte Chalonnaise. The geology is more variable than that of the Côte de Nuits. The region sits on a combination of Callovian, Argovian and Rauracian limestones, with much intervening marlstone. Obviously, the climate is the same as for the Côte de Nuits - continental, with a wide annual temperature difference. Spring rains and frost, and Autumn rains, which may interfere with the harvest, can also be a problem here. The vineyards face south-east on the slope between the plain to the south-east, and the hills to the northwest, the easterly aspect aiding exposure to the sun. Pernand-Vergelesses can be a source of some good value Burgundy, but no great wines. Nearby, however, we start to see some of the more serious wines of the Côte de Beaune or     Page 40 

at Aloxe-Corton. The wines of this village, as well as a number of other villages nearby, are red as well as white. Red Corton should be a muscular, savoury wine, whereas the white is a rich, intense, buttery drink. Beaune, Savigny-les-Beaune and Chorey-lesBeaune are all best known for their red wines. The wines produced here are well fruited, tasty, sometimes quite elegant affairs, although they are somewhat lighter (and less expensive) when from the latter two villages. Pommard can make wonderful red Burgundy, well structured and meaty, whereas Volnay is better known for it's heady, perfumed and delicately textured wines. Towards the southern end of the Côte de Beaune, however, are the Côte d'Or's most famous white wine villages. Meursault produces rich, complex, intense yet elegant wines, but it is Puligny-Montrachet and Chassagne-Montrachet that lead the pack. The former bears a wonderful combination of richness with mineral complexities, the latter are sometimes broader and more open, although both are lovely, and words cannot really do them justice. Nearby are the villages of St-Romain, St-Aubin, Santenay and Auxey-Duresses. All are responsible for some value Burgundy. The appellations of the Côte de Beaune are as follows: Grands Crus: As with the Côte de Nuits, such wines are not required to bear the village name. The Grands Crus are as follows: Aloxe-Corton: Corton (the largest Grand Cru in Burgundy, with a number of subdivisions, eg Corton-Bressandes), Corton-Charlemagne. Puligny-Montrachet: Montrachet, Bienvenues-Bâtard-Montrachet. Bâtard-Montrachet, Chevalier-Montrachet,

Chassagne-Montrachet: Montrachet, Bâtard-Montrachet, Criots-Bâtard-Montrachet. As with the Côtes de Nuits, some vineyards lie in more than one village. Here, the Grands Crus Montrachet and Bâtard-Montrachet lie in both Puligny and ChassagneMontrachet. Most villages of the Côte de Beaune have no Grands Crus. Premiers Crus: As with the Côtes de Nuits, these are too numerous to name. As with Chablis and the Côtes de Nuits, a wine blended from several such sites will be labelled as Premier Cru, whereas a wine from an individual vineyard will bear the vineyard name, eg Pommard Premier Cru Les Petits Epenots. or    

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Village Wines: The villages of the Côte de Beaune are Ladoix, Pernand-Vergelesses, Aloxe-Corton, Savigny-lès-Beaune, Chorey-lès-Beaune, Beaune, Pommard, Volnay, Monthelie, St-Romain, Auxey-Duresses, Meursault, Blagny, Puligny-Montrachet, Chassagne-Montrachet, St-Aubin and Santenay. Blagny is a small hamlet close to the Premier Cru vineyards of Meursault. Sub-Village Appellations: These include Côte de Beaune Villages (may be applied to declassified wine from fourteen villages of the Côte de Beaune not including AloxeCorton, Beaune, Volnay or Pommard), Bourgogne Hautes Côtes de Nuits (applies to a large number of communes to the west of the Côte d'Or), and basic Bourgogne. There is also the confusing appellation Côte de Beaune, which refers to wines from the commune of Beaune not deemed worthy of the appellation Beaune. The Côte d'Or - My top wines. As many producers have vineyards in so many different sites, I have grouped together the good names in Burgundy here. This is a personal list (in alphabetical order), so it doesn't include great but hardly affordable domaines such as Romanée-Conti. My list of top estates and producers includes Domaine d'Arlot, Simon Bize, Robert Chevillon, Bruno Clair, Michel Colin-Deléger, Drouhin, René Engel, Faiveley, Jacques Gagnard-Delagrange, Jean-Marc Blain-Gagnard, Richard Fontaine-Gagnard, Jean Grivot, Hudelot-Noëllat, Jadot, Jaffelin, Henri Jayer, Leroy, Méo-Camuzet, Albert Morot, Daniel Rion, Domaine des Perdrix, and Etienne Sauzet. There are, obviously, many, many more producers of interest, but there are simply too many to include here. Wine: Beaujolais Agnès et Marcel Durand Red Wine strong rubyred color, fruity, light menthol smell, fine tannins, full body Agnès et Marcel Durand Beaujolais-Villages Aimée-Claude Bonnetain Red Wine blue red color, scent of red fruit and spices, well structured, balanced, fruity, long, typical, ... Aimée-Claude Bonnetain Côte de Brouilly Alain Chatoux Vieilles vignes Red Wine clar, dark orange red color, notable scent of red fruit with alcoholic notes, aromas of currant j... Alain Chatoux or     Page 42 

Alain Michaud Red Wine delicious, deep orange-red color with bright red reflexes, smells of faded roases, spices, coffee... Alain Michaud Brouilly André Depardon La Madone Red Wine dark red color, intense raspberry scent, full, fine, balanced, long flavor, rounded André Depardon Fleurie André Méziat Red Wine clear, intense red color, strong scent of vineyard peaches and cherries, full-bodied, rich, soft,... André et Monique Méziat Chiroubles Belvedere des pierres dorées White Wine shining yellow color, complex scent of rhubarb, and strawberries, lively, open, good composition Cave coop. Beaujolaise Bernard Broyer Red Wine deep ruby red color with purple reflexes, expressive scent with citrusfruit, red fruit, and spice... Bernard Broyer Juliénas Bernard Jomain Red Wine intense red color, almost blue, elegant nuances of black currants, strong, rustic Bernard Jomain Brouilly Bernard Lavis Red Wine intense ruby-red color, smells of fresh red fruit, plants, clear, rounded, soft flavor, full Bernard Lavis Beaujolais-Villages Bernard Pichet Red Wine orange-red color, hints of blossoms and raspberries, youthful, plant aromas, balanced Bernard Pichet Chiroubles or    

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Bernard Santé Red Wine delicious orange-red color, strong, concentrated scent of licorice and flowers, very soft, sweet,... Bernard Santé Chénas Cave Beaujolaise de Quincié Red Wine shining, clear, pepper-flowery scent, hints of very ripe grapes, open personality, rounded, long ... Cave Beaujolaise de Quincié Régnié Cave de Ponchon Red Wine clear, lively, fruity flavor, well structured, harmonious, pretty Florent Dufour Régnié Cave de Saint-Vérand Cuvée réservée Vieilles vignes Red Wine blue-red color, intense scent of red frui and spring roses, noble, clear, spicy notes, pleasant, ... Cave Beaujolaise de Saint-Vérand Cave des Vignerons de Bel-Air Red Wine strong red color, pretty scent of black currants and tobacco, soft flavor with aromas of very rip... Cave des Vignerons de Bel-Air Morgon Cave des Vignerons de Liergues Rosé Wine pretty, clear color with hints of autmn, pleasant scent of red currants and quinces, lively, soft... Cave des Vignerons de Liergues Cave du Beau Vallon Au pays des pierres dorées Red Wine blue-red color, alcoholic-fruity scent of black currants and spices, full, rounded, aromas of sto... Cave du Beau Vallon Cave du Bois de La Salle Red Wine clear, sparkling, smells of red currants and raspberries, well balanced, fresh, long, lively tann... or     Page 44 

Cave du Château du Bois de La Salle Saint-Amour Cave Jean-Ernest Descombes Red Wine shining, tempting ruby-red color, intense scent of red fruit and spices, hints of roasted coffee ... Cave Jean-Ernest Descombes Morgon Cédric Martin White Wine golden color, copper tone, free scent with cloves, gingerbread, and flowers, elegant apricot nuan... Martin Cédric Cellier de la Vieille Eglise Red Wine deep ruby-red color, shimmers amber, bouquet of underwood and spicy fruit, lively, somewhat flesh... Cellier de la Vieille Eglise Juliénas Château Bonnet Elevé en fût de chêne Vieilles vignes Red Wine blue-red color, lovely oak hints, vanilla, open Pierre Perrachon Chénas Château de Belleverne Red Wine ruby-red color, smells of flowers and red fruit, sharp tannins, balanced Sylvie Bataillard Saint-Amour Château de Belleverne Red Wine dark orange-red color, purple reflexes, complex, fine smell of raisins, flintstone, and red fruit... Bataillard Père et Fils Chénas Château de Chénas Red Wine medium orange-red color, nuances of black currants and spring roses, warm, soft, well balanced, p... Cave Château de Chénas Chénas or    

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Château de la Prat Red Wine strong red color, complex, elegant scent of very ripe grapes with mineral, strong, lively, pretty Aujoux Juliénas Château de Leynes White Wine golden-yellow color, smells like the vine, good character, soft, harmonious Jean Bernard Château de Pizay Red Wine deep orange red color, pretty aromas of red fruit, fine, clear, rich, balanced, delicious, enchan... SCEA Domaine Château de Pizay Château de Raousset Red Wine intense ruby-red color with purple reflexes, fine, expressive scent of strawberries and currants,... SCEA des Héritiers du Compte de Raousset Chiroubles Château de Raousset Red Wine intense red color, fruity scent, pleasant personality, strong, lasting Château de Raousset Morgon Château de Vaux Cuvée traditionnelle Red Wine light ruby-red color, crystal clear reflexes, very pretty scent of fresh grapes, elegant, harmoni... Jacques et Marie-Ange de Vermont Beaujolais-Villages Château des Boccards Red Wine intense orange red color, scent of overripe fruit, hunt-, and pepper hins, long lasting, soft, ro... James Pelloux Chénas Château des Jacques Clos du Grand Carquelin Red Wine shining orange-red color, strong, wood scent, fruity nuances, hints of roasted coffee, oak wood, ... Château des Jacques Moulin-À-Vent or     Page 46 

Château des Ravatys Cuvée Mathilde Courbe Red Wine light red color, smells of cut wood and underwood, lively, fine, harmonious, long lasting Institut Pasteur Côte de Brouilly Château du Bluizard Red Wine intense red color, smells of sour cherries and raspberries, full, well structured, cherry aromas SCE des Domaines Saint-Charles Brouilly Château du Bourg Cuvée Réserve Red Wine dark ruby red color, intense, fruity scent, soft, fleshy, aroma of red fruit, pleasant, balanced,... GAEC Georges Matray et Fils Fleurie CHAMPAGNE Champagne is a sparkling wine produced by inducing the secondary fermentation of wine. It is named after the Champagne region of France. While the term "champagne" is often used by makers of sparkling wine in other parts of the world, such as California and Canada, it should properly be used to refer only to the wines made in the region of Champagne, France. The community, under the auspices of the Comité Interprofessionel du Vin de Champagne has developed a comprehensive set of rules and regulations for all wine that comes from the region. These rules are designed to ensure that the highest quality product is produced and include a codification of the most suitable places for grapes to grow, the most suitable types of grapes – all Champagne is produced from one or a blend of up to three varieties of grapes: chardonnay, pinot noir, and pinot meunier – and has identified a lengthy set of requirements that specify most aspects of viticulture. This includes vine pruning, the yield of the vineyard, the degree of pressing applied to the grapes, and the time that bottles must remain on the lees. Only if a wine meets all these requirements may the name Champagne be placed on the bottle. The rules that have been agreed upon by the CIVC are then presented to the INAO for final approval. In Europe and most other countries, the name "champagne" is legally protected as part of the Treaty of Madrid (1891) to mean only sparkling wine produced in its namesake region and adhering to the standards defined for that name as an Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée. This right was reaffirmed in the Treaty of Versailles following World War I. Even the term méthode champenoise, or champagne method is, as of 2005, forbidden in or     Page 47 

favour of méthode traditionelle. There are sparkling wines made all over the world, and many use special terms to define their own sparkling wines: Spain uses Cava, Italy calls it spumante, and South Africa uses Cap Classique. A sparkling wine made from Muscat grapes in Italy uses the DOCG Asti. In Germany, Sekt is a common sparkling wine. Even other regions of France are forbidden to use the name Champagne; for example, wine-makers in Burgundy and Alsace produce Crémant. Other sparkling wines not from Champagne sometimes use the term "sparkling wine" prominently on their label. While most countries have labeling laws that protect wine producing locations such as Champagne, some – including the United States – continue to allow U.S. wine producers to utilize the name “Champagne” on the label of products that do not come from Champagne. To allow this practice, the U.S. Congress passed a law claiming that the term "champagne" is semi-generic. This often leads to consumer confusion about genuine Champagne and is seen as deceptive by some consumers and wine experts. While some U.S. companies ironically claim that their long usage of the term prevents them from dropping the word champagne on the bottle, many quality U.S. sparkling winemakers have ceased use of the term, instead favoring "sparkling wine" as their identifier. Champagne's sugar content varies. The sweetest level is doux (meaning sweet), proceeding in order of increasing dryness to demi-sec (half-dry), sec (dry), extra sec (extra dry), brut (almost completely dry), and extra brut / brut nature / brut zero (no additional sugar, sometimes ferociously dry.). The Champagne wine-growing region The plots of land in each wine-growing commune are meticulously classified into numerous parcels. The vineyard as a whole does not form a single block but is divided into several zones of equal importance. The area of wine production is strictly defined in accordance with the law of 22 July 1927 and accounts for approximately three per cent of the total area under vine in France. The Montagne de Reims is a large, fairly flat plateau, thickly carpeted with vineyards that slope gently towards the valleys of the Vesle and the Ardre to the north and the Marne to the south. or    

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The Marne Valley extends 100kms, from Saâcy-sur-Marne in the département of Seineet-Marne to Tours-sur-Marne beyond Epernay. The vineyards line the flanks of the valley that slope more or less gently towards the banks of the river and nestle into smaller valleys on either side. The Côte des Blancs, so-called because it is almost exclusively devoted to white grapes, is a cliff at right angles with the Montagne de Reims south of Epernay. South of the département of the Marne, you can catch glimpses of vineyards to the north and south of Sézanne. The area under vine in the region of Vitry-le-François, remains confined to a few communes only. The Côte des Bar extend the wine-growing area to the south. Those around Villenauxela-Grande are in effect the continuation of the southern section of the Marne vineyard, but Montgueux in the immediate vicinity of Troyes also cultivates a few dozen hectares of vines. Mainly, however, they lie clustered around Bar-sur-Seine and Bar-sur-Aube plus a few dozen hectares of plantings to the east in the département of the HauteMarne. Champagne Regions This isn't vital information, unless you are a true Champagne expert, so I'll deal with it quickly. There are just five main regions within Champagne where the grapes are grown, and where the houses source their grapes will influence the quality and style of the final product. It's not really of much use to the general consumer, however, as you won't find these names on the label. Firstly, the Montagne de Reims is the most northerly area, and is planted mainly with Pinot Noir, mainly on north facing slopes. Wines produced here are firm and austere. The Côte des Blancs is a mostly east-facing region south of Epernay. It is almost entirely planted with Chardonnay, and produces a wine much less hard than the Montagne de Reims. There is a little Pinot Noir planted in the very south of this region. The Vallée de la Marne runs west-east, and is planted with all three grape varieties, although the Pinot Meunier dominates. Furher south is the Côte des Sézanne, primarily Chardonnay country, and finally the Aube, the southernmost of all five regions, is planted mainly with Pinot Noir. This latter region is quite a distance further south than or     Page 49 

the other four, and is thus warmer, so it is planted with mainly Pinot Noir. The Wines What determines how much you pay for a bottle is the style of wine inside it. A nonvintage (often abbreviated to NV) wine is a blend of wine from several different years. They are blended so as to maintain a house style, and this is the entry level for Champagne. Vintage wines are produced from a single year, and most houses will only release a vintage wine if they deem that the grapes harvested that year are of sufficient quality. Accordingly, they are more expensive than the NV wines. They are identifiable simply by the presence of a vintage year on the label. Prestige cuvées are released by some of the top houses, and here quality can be excellent. Some examples include Dom Pérignon (Moët et Chandon), Comtes de Champagne (Taittinger), Belle Epoque (Perrier-Jouët), Dom Ruinart (Ruinart), Bollinger RD and Grande Année (Bollinger), Cristal (Roederer), La Grande Dame (Veuve Clicquot), Cuvée Winston Churchill (Pol Roger - named after the Prime Minister, who had a penchant for Pol Roger as well as cigars), among others. I taste many of these wines in this Prestige Cuvée Champagne tasting. To be really helpful, acknowledging the fact that NV wines do taste different from year to year, regardless of how well the house style is maintained, the now sadly deceased Daniel Thibault introduced cellaring dates to the NV wines at Charles Heidsieck, and I wouldn't be surprised if more houses follow suit. The wine in the bottle is still a blend of wines from several years, the year on the label indicating only the year which the finished, blended wine was laid down in Heidsieck's cellars to mature. But the date allows us to differentiate between bottles containing different blends, and with different amounts of bottle age. I once popped in to one wine merchant and found the 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995 and 1996 on the shelves. Without the cellaring dates these would have looked like five bottles of identical NV wine, which in truth they most certainly were not. Other points of interest include the rosé Champagnes, which may be made by either allowing the wine to stay in contact with the red grape skins for a while (the saignée method), or by adding in a little red wine to colour the product. The terms Blanc de Blancs and Blanc de Noirs indicate wines made solely from white grapes (Chardonnay) and black grapes (Pinot Noir and Meunier) respectively. As an aside, you may notice as you are inspecting the label, the letters NM (most commonly) followed by a number. There are four levels of producer in Champagne, and in all cases the level of producer is indicated on the bottle by the letters NM, RM, CM or     Page 50 

or MA, followed by a unique number. The most important producers are the négociantmanipulants, these being large companies which buy in, blend and produce very large quantities of wine. The other three levels are récoltant-manipulants (growers who make and sell their own wine), co-opératives-manipulants (the co-ops) and marque-auxiliaire (used for own label Champagne). Vintages The most recent truly great Champagne vintages were 1996, 1990 and 1985. Other good vintages include 1995, 1989, 1988, 1983, 1982 and 1979. How is Champagne made? Grapes used for Champagne are generally picked earlier, when sugar levels are lower and acid levels higher. Except for pink or rosé Champagnes, the juice of harvested grapes is pressed off quickly, to keep the wine white. The traditional method of making Champagne is known as the Méthode Champenoise. The first fermentation begins in the same way as any wine, converting the natural sugar in the grapes into alcohol while the resultant carbon dioxide is allowed to escape. This produces the "base wine". This wine is not very pleasurable by itself, being too acidic. At this point the blend is assembled, using wines from various vineyards, and, in the case of non-vintage Champagne, various years. The blended wine is put in bottles along with yeast and a small amount of sugar, called the liqueur de tirage, and stored in a wine cellar horizontally, for a second fermentation. During the secondary fermentation the carbon dioxide is trapped in the bottle, keeping it dissolved in the wine. The amount of added sugar will determine the pressure of the bottle. To reach the standard value of 6 bars inside the bottle is necessary to have 18 grams of sugar, and the amount of yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is regulated by the European Commission (Regulation 1622/2000, 24 July 2000) to be 0.3 grams per bottle. The "liqueur de tirage" is then a mixture of sugar, yeast and still champagne wine.

Champagne Capsules After ageing (a mimimum from one and a half to three years), they undergo a process known as riddling (remuage in French), in which they are rotated a small amount each day and gradually moved to a neck-down orientation, so that the sediment ('lees') collects in their necks and can be removed. The removal process is called "disgorging" (dégorgement in French), and was a skilled manual process, where the cork and the lees or     Page 51 

were removed without losing large quantities of the liquid, and a dosage (a varying amount of additional sugar) is added. Until this process was invented (reputedly by Madame Clicquot in 1800) Champagne was cloudy, a style still seen occasionally today under the label méthode ancestrale. Modern disgorgement is automated by freezing a small amount of the liquid in the neck and removing this plug of ice containing the lees. A cork is then inserted with a capsule and wire cage securing it in place. Wines from Champagne cannot legally be sold until it has aged on the lees in the bottle for at least 18 months. Champagne's AOC regulations require that vintage Champagnes are aged in cellars for three years or more before disgorgement, but most top producers exceed this minimum requirement, holding bottles on the lees for 6 to 8 years before disgorgement. Even experts disagree about the effects of aging on Champagne after disgorgement. Some prefer the freshness and vitality of young, recently disgorged Champagne, and others prefer the baked apple and caramel flavors that develop from a year or more of aging. The majority of the Champagne produced is non-vintage (also known as mixed vintage), a blend of wines from several years. Typically the majority of the wine is from the current year but a percentage is made of "reserve wine" from previous years. This serves to smooth out some of the vintage variations caused by the marginal growing climate in Champagne. Most Champagne houses strive for a consistent "house style" from year to year, and this is the hardest task of the winemaker. The grapes to produce vintage Champagne must be 100% from the year indicated (other sparkling wines in the EU need only be 85% to be called vintage). To maintain the quality of non-vintage champagne a maximum of half the grapes harvested in one year can be used in the production of vintage Champagne ensuring at least 50%, though usually more, is reserved for non-vintage wines. Vintage Champagnes are the product of a single high-quality year, and bottles from prestigious makers can be rare and expensive. Champagne Varieties Champagne is a single Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée. Grapes must be the white Chardonnay, or the red Pinot Noir or Pinot Meunier (a few very rare other grapes that were historically important are allowed, but very unusual). Champagnes made exclusively from Chardonnay are known as blanc de blancs, and those exclusively from or     Page 52 

the red grapes as blanc de noirs. Champagne is typically a white wine even if it is produced with red grapes, because the juice is extracted from the grapes using a gentle process that minimizes the amount of time the juice spends in contact with the skins, which is what makes red wine red. Rosé wines are also produced, either by permitting the juice to spend more time with the skins to impart a pink color to the wine, or by adding a small amount of red wine during blending. The amount of sugar (dosage) added after the second fermentation and ageing also varies, from brut zéro or brut natural, where none is added, through brut, extra-dry, sec, demi-sec and doux. The most common is brut, although in the early 20th century Champagne was generally much sweeter. Most Champagne is non-vintage, produced from a blend of years (the exact blend is only mentioned on the label by a few growers), while that produced from a single vintage is labelled with the year and Millésimé. Many Champagnes are produced from bought-in grapes by well known brands such as Veuve Clicquot or Mumm. Origins Wines from the Champagne region were already known before medieval times. Churches owned vineyards, and monks produced wine for use in the sacrament of Eucharist. French kings were traditionally anointed in Reims. Champagne wine flowed as part of coronation festivities. Kings appreciated the still, light, and crisp wine, and offered it as an homage to other monarchs in Europe. In the 17th century, still wines of Champagne were the chosen wines for celebration in European countries. English people were the biggest consumers of Champagne wines, and drank a lot of sparkling wines. The first commercial sparkling wine was produced in the Limoux area of Languedoc about 1535. They did not invent it; nobody knows who first made it, although the British make a reasonably good claim. Contrary to legend and popular belief, the French monk Dom Perignon did not invent champagne, although it is almost certainly true that he developed many advances in the production of this beverage. Somewhere in the end of the 17th century, the sparkling method was imported in the Champagne region, associated with specific procedures for production (smooth or     Page 53 

pressing, dosage...), and stronger bottles (invented in England) that could hold the added pressure. Around 1700, sparkling Champagne was born. English people loved the new sparkling wine, and spread it all over the world. Brut Champagne, the modern Champagne, was created for the British in 1876. The Russian royalty also consumed huge quantities, preferring the sweeter styles. The Comité Interprofessional du Vin de Champagne All of the over 15,000 growers, cooperatives and over 300 houses that are central to producing Champagne are members of the Comité Interprofessional du Vin de Champagne (CIVC). This organization has a system where both the houses and the growers are represented at all levels. This includes a co-presidency where a grower representative and a representative of the houses share the running of the organization. This system is designed to ensure that the CIVC's primary mission -- to promote and protect Champagne -- is done in a manner that represents the consensus of the community. This power structure has played an important role in the success of Champagne worldwide and the integrity of the appellation itself. Champagne producers The type of champagne producer can be identified from the abbreviations followed by the official number on the bottle:
• • • • • •

NM: Négociant manipulant. These companies (including the majority of the larger brands) buy grapes and make the wine CM: Coopérative de manipulation. Co-operatives that make wines from the growers who are members, with all the grapes pooled together RM: Récoltant manipulant. A grower that also makes wine from their own grapes SR: Société de récoltants. An association of growers making a shared Champagne but who are not a co-operative RC: Récoltant coopérateur. A co-operative member selling Champagne produced by the co-operative under its own name MA: Marque auxiliaire or Marque d'acheteur. A brand name unrelated to the producer or grower; the name is owned by someone else, for example a supermarket ND: Négociant distributeur. A wine merchant selling under his own name Bubbles
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• or    

An initial burst of effervescence occurs when the champagne contacts the dry glass on pouring. These bubbles may form on imperfections in the glass that facilitate nucleation. However, after the initial rush, these naturally occurring imperfections are typically too small to consistently act as nucleation points as the surface tension of the liquid smooths out these minute irregularities. The nucleation sites that act as a source for the ongoing effervescence are not the natural imperfections in the glass, but actually occur either:

where the glass has been etched by the manufacturer or the customer This etching is typically done with acid, a laser, or a glass etching tool from a craft shop to provide nucleation sites large enough for continuous bubble formation (note that not all glasses are etched in this way); or It is interesting to note that Dom Perignon was originally charged by his winemaking Abbey of Hautvillers to get rid of the bubbles since the pressure in the bottles caused many of them to explode in the cellar and was thought to be the work of the devil.

Champagne bottles Side-by-side comparison of champagne bottles. (L to R) On ladder: magnum, full, half, quarter. On floor: Balthazar, Salmanazar, Methuselah, Jeroboam Champagne is mostly fermented in two sizes bottles, standard bottle (750 mL), and Magnum (1.5 L). In general, magnums are thought to be higher quality, as there is less oxygen in the bottle, and the volume to surface area favors the creation of appropriately-sized bubbles. However, there is no hard evidence for this view. Other bottle sizes, named for Biblical figures, are generally filled with Champagne that has been fermented in standard bottles or magnums. List of bottle sizes:
• • • • • • • •

quarter bottle (aka. split or piccolo bottle) (187.5 or 200 ml) mainly used by airlines, hotel mini-bars and nightclubs. half-bottle (aka. Demi) (375 ml) used in restaurants bottle (aka. Imperial) (750 ml) Magnum (1.5 L) (equivalent to 2 bottles) Jeroboam (3 L) (4 bottles) Rehoboam (4.5 L) (6 bottles) Methuselah (6 L) (8 bottles) Salmanazar (9 L) (12 bottles)
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• • • • • •

Balthazar (12 L) (16 bottles) Nebuchadnezzar (15 L) (20 bottles) Melchior (18 L) (24 bottles) Solomon (25 L) Primat (27 L) (36 bottles) Melchizedek (30 L) (40 bottles)

Sizes larger than Jeroboam are rare. Primat sized bottles - and as of 2002 Melchizedek sized bottles - are exclusively offered by the House Drappier. The same names are used for bottles containing wine and port; however Jeroboam, Rehoboam and Methuselah refer to different bottle volumes. On occasion unique sizes have been made for special occasions and people. The most notable example perhaps being the 20 fluid ounce/ 60cl. bottle (Imperial pint) made specially for Sir Winston Churchill by Pol Roger. This was served to Mr Churchill by his butler at 11am as he was getting up.

Opening Champagne bottles The deliberate spraying of Champagne has become an integral part of sports trophy presentations and locker room celebrations, though Champagne enthusiasts sometimes cringe at the waste. To reduce the risk of spilling Champagne and/or turning the cork into a projectile, open a Champagne bottle as follows:
• • • • •

Remove the foil and pull down the wire loop; Drape a towel over the bottle: Place your hand over the cork; Loosen but don't remove the wire cage; Grasp the cork and the cage firmly with your hand, then rotate the bottle (rather than the cork) by holding it at the base; this should allow the cork to come out on its own accord.

The desired effect is to ease the cork out with a sigh or a whisper rather than a pop or to shoot the cork across the room or produce a fountain of foamy wine. Most wine connoisseurs insist that the ideal way to open a bottle of Champagne is to do it so carefully and gently that very little sound is emitted at all. or    

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Serving Champagne Champagne is usually served in a champagne flute, whose characteristics include a long stem with a tall, narrow bowl and opening. The wider flat glass (cup) commonly associated with Champagne is no longer preferred by connoisseurs because it does not preserve the bubbles and aroma of the wine as well. But Champagne is better for tasting with a big red wine glass (i.e. a glass for bordeaux), as the aroma spreads better in the large area of the glass, but contrary to the cup, the aroma stays in the glass. Don't try to fill the glass: flutes shall be filled only 2/3 of the glass, and big red wine glasses not more than 1/3 of the glass. Champagne is always served cold, and is best at the temperature 7C° (43 to 48°F). Often the bottle is chilled in a bucket of ice and water before and after opening. Champagne buckets are made specifically for this purpose.

Champagne Types Non Vintage (N.V.) Blended from wines of several years to achieve a constant "style de maison" House style. This blend will depend on the art and history behind the house and its Chef du Caves. Many NV Champagnes are a blend of thirty or forty different wines. A non-vintage Champagne cannot be sold until it is 15 months old, although most reputable houses will age the wine in their cellars for longer periods. An NV wine will often improve in the bottle after purchase, if it is kept in the right conditions, ideally a cellar, but failing that, in a cool dark place. As the bottle ages the Champagne will become softer on the palate, richer in taste. However, it is not recommended to keep Champagne longer than it was originally cellared by the maker. Vintage Vintage Champagne is a blend of wines from a particular year, when the quality of the harvest was sufficient to declare a "Vintage". Obviously, not every year is a vintage year, but the vintage is left to the individual houses themselves to declare. Therefore, some houses declare a vintage Champagne in a year where others did not feel the quality justified it. or     Page 57 

Vintage Champagne must be 39 months old before it is sold, i.e. 3 years after the 1st January following the harvest around September. Again, many Marques will age their wines for longer than this legal minimum. Rosé Rosé Champagne can be made in one of two ways: First by maceration of black grapes during pressing, so that the colour leeches out from the skins (the juice from black grapes is white) or by adding a small proportion of the red wine form the Champagne region (often Bouzy Rouge) to give the wine a rose tint. The former method (de saignée) is more expensive and difficult to control, but many would say produces the better Champagne. An excellent Rosé is Laurent-Perrier, produced de saignée. Prestige Cuvées Most Champagne houses produce a special bottle in a vintage year and these are normally deemed to be "Prestige or Deluxe cuvées". Probably the most famous of these is Moët's Cuvée Dom Pérignon. In fact Moët invented the Cuvée Prestige with D.P. in 1921. Prestige cuvées represent the pinnacle of a house's achievement and can be a vintage or occasionally a blend of vintages. They cost around three times more than a NonVintage, and around double the price of a Vintage. BRAND NAMES ABELE AYALA KRUG BESSERAT de BELLEFON BILLECART-SALMON BOLLINGER LANSON LAURENT-PERRIER MERCIER CHARLES HEIDSIECK MERCIER MOËT & CHANDON or     Page 58 

G.H. MUMM & Cie PERRIER JOUET PIPER-HEIDSIECK Louis ROEDERER Loire Valley Wines The Loire Valley is famous for its white wines. None of them use Chardonnay as a main grape variety. Chenin Blanc or Sauvignon are widely used. About 75% of the production is made of white wine. Although Loire is a land of white wine, some red wines are very interesting. They are fruity and pleasant. The Loire Valley is probably the most beautiful wine region in France and in the world. The Most Beautiful Villages of the Loire The most basic information on the wines of Loire is:
Location: From the Massif Central to the Atlantic coast around Nantes. The Loire wine region follows the Loire river in its valley Loire region information n/a 30,000 hectares Chenin Blanc Sauvignon 400 million bottles Loire wine making Dry white wine Sweet white wine Semi-dry white wine Sparkling white wine Fruity red wine Rosé wine

Size: Size of the vineyards: Grapes in Loire:


Type of Wine:

Loire Wine and food: or    

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Geography of the Loire Valley: The Valley of the Loire, in the Centre West of France, is often considered as the most beautiful French wine region.


The region is wide and follows the river, starting in the Auvergne and Massif Central and finishing in the Atlantic coast around Nantes city. The Loire River is wide and deep. The landscape is quiet and undulated. It is probably more accurate to say that the Loire Valley is made of several different regions, which have one thing in common: the river. Loire Region Information: From the Massif Central mountains to the Atlantic coast and Nantes cities. The Loire wine region follows the Loire river in its valley and the rivers flowing into (Cher, Loir, Layon, etc) n/a Atlantic weather in the West (mild winter and summer) Continental in the East (cold winter, warm summer) n/a Nantes Tours Tours Bourges Châteaux de la Loire (Chambord, Azay le Rideau, Amboise, etc) Loire Valley wine road (the most beautiful in France !) Angers (heritage city) Atlantic Coast (salt production)


Size: Weather: Population:

Main Cities:

Places of Interest: or    

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History of wine in the Loire Valley: Vines already existed when Romans invaded the Loire Valley. The legend says that Saint Martin was the first to make wine in the Loire region. It was in 380. The wine production then grew fast. In both river banks, wine makers made white wine. On the hills, they went for red wine. Such as in Burgundy, most of the vineyards belong to monasteries and monks had developed the wine production in the whole region. Wine making in the Loire Valley: The wines reflect the mood of the landscape. They are soft, pleasant, charming and light. About three-quart of the production are white wines. The main grapes are Chenin Blanc and Sauvignon for white wine and Cabernet Franc for red wine. Loire wine making information: Size of the vineyards: Vineyards: Soil: Weather: White Grapes in Loire Valley: Red Grapes in Loire Valley: Production: Type of Wine: 30,000 hectares n/a Various: Clayey-limestone, limestone, siliceous and chalky soils Continental in the East of the Loire Valley Oceanic in the West of the Valley Chenin Blanc Sauvignon Melon Cabernet Franc Gamay Cabernet Sauvignon Pinot Noir over 400 million bottles Dry white wine Sweet white wine
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Semi-dry white wine Sparkling white wine Fruity red wine Rosé wine

Wines of Loire and food: Loire wines go very well with any dish based on pork, from paté to roast, ham and chicken, from fish to sea-food, from eel to trout. They are just palatable with all the summer cooking. Muscadet is excellent with oysters, the Sancerre with goat-cheese. Muscadet Muscadet is produced in 4 wine terroirs around the city of Nantes. The Muscadet Sèvre et Maine is the most important and the best of them. In the Muscadet region, wine makers use to leave the grape juice to rest during winter before putting the wine in bottle. Muscadet is a dry white wine that is a fine companion to shellfish. The quality of Muscadet varies very much from one winery to another. Muscadet wine information: Appellation Muscadet Controlée Appellation Muscadet Sèvre et Maine Controlée Appellation Muscadet Coteaux de la Loire Controlée Appellation Muscadet Côtes de Grandlieu Controlée Around the city of Nantes, from Ancenis to the Atlantic coast Vallet, La Haye Fouassière, Le Landreau, Mouzillon, La Chapelle Heulin, Château Thébaud, Maisdon sur Sèvre, Le Landreau, Saint Philbert de Grand Lieu Granite 12,500 ha (30,900 acres) almost 100 million bottles Melon (or Muscadet)
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Soil: Size: Production: Grapes: or    

Type of wines:

Dry white wine also sweet white wine Drink now and up to 2 years 2003 White flowers Anise Citrus Oysters Shellfish Aperitif Nantais

Age: Vintages: (recommended) Aromas:



Anjou Anjou wines are made around the city of Angers. They were very popular as soon as in the 6th century. During the 13th and 14th centuries, Anjou was one of the most popular wines in England. And then in Holland and Belgium. Nowadays Anjou is famous for the rosé d'Anjou. Rosé makes about half of the production in Anjou. However we should recommend the white wine from Anjou. New techniques and aging in oak barrel have improved the wine. Red wine from Anjou Villages deserve as well a special note. Anjou wine information: Appellation Anjou Rouge Controlée Appellation Anjou Gamay Controlée Appellation Anjou Villages Controlée Appellation Cabernet d'Anjou Controlée Appellation Rosé d'Anjou Controlée Appellation Anjou Blanc Controlée Appellation Anjou Mousseux Controlée Covers Maine et Loire department, west of Touraine Beaulieu sur Layon, Thouarcé, Martigné Briand, Saint Lambert du Lattay, La Pommeraye, Faye d'Anjou, Rochefort sur Loire,
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Location: Places: or    

Rablay sur Layon, Brissac Quincé Soil: Size: Production: Various 9,000 ha (22,200 acres) 55 million bottles Rosé and red: Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Grolleau White: Chenin blanc, Sauvignon, Chardonnay Sweet rosé Dry white wine Light and medium body red wine Red: 2 to 6 years White: 1 to 3 years Rosé: now to 2 years 2003, 1997 Red: Black currant and black fruits Red fruits Aromas: White: White flowers Apricot Crystallized fruit Red: Red meat Food: White: Fish Rosé: Cold meat Cheese: White: Chabichou du Poitou Red: or     Page 64 


Type of wines:

Age: Vintages: (recommended)

Camembert Crottin de Chavignol Coteaux du Layon Coteaux du Layon is the widest wine area of the Anjou region. Along the Layon river, the vines are protected by the hills in this lovely contryside. Although wine makers produce a good semi-dry white wine, Coteaux du Layon is well known for the sweet white wine and for at least 15 centuries! The most reputed of all is the sweet wine coming from Chaume. The vine growers leave the grapes in their vines until they begin to over-ripe. They are then ready to harvest. It means that harvest take place in Coteaux du Layon later than other places in the Loire valley. Coteaux du Layon wine information: Appellation Coteaux du Layon Appellation Coteaux du Layon Villages Appellation Chaume Premier Cru Controlée Controlée Controlée



South of Angers city and West of Saumur, along the Layon river Rochefort sur Loire, Saint Lambert du Lattay, Beaulieu sur Layon, Saint Aubin de Luigné, Faye d'Anjou Concourson sur Layon, etc Schist 1,800 ha (4,450 acres) 7 million bottles Chenin blanc Sweet white wine Semi-dry white wine


Soil: Size: Production: Grapes: Type of wines:

Age: Vintages: (recommended) Aromas:

10 to 20 years 2003, 1997, 1995, 1990, 1989 Honey Fig
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Acacia Food: Dessert wine Livarot Maroilles Pont l'Eveque


Saumur In Saumur, wine makers build caves in the chalky soil so that wine can rest in stable condition. If you visit the area, we recommend you visit one of these caves (called "tuffeau" in french). Wine makers produce red, dry white and sparkling white and rosé wines. Red wines are fruity and light. The ones from Saumur Champigny are among the best red wines in the Loire Valley. Sparkling wines take advantage of the chalky soil and of the caves mentioned above. They can be a cheaper alternative to Champagne. White wines from Saumur are nervous and can age a few years in a cellar. Saumur wine information: Appellation Saumur Champigny Controlée Appellation Saumur Controlée Appellation Cabernet de Saumur Controlée Appellation Coteaux de Saumur Controlée Appellation Saumur Rouge Controlée Appellation Saumur Blanc Controlée Appellation Saumur Brut Controlée South East of Angers city, on the left bank of the river, and East of Coteaux du Layon and Anjou. Saumur, Le Puy Notre Dame, Varrains, Vaudelnay, Saint Cyr en Bourg, Turquant, Champigny, Dampierre sur Loire, etc Chalk Limestone 4,000 ha (9,900 acres) 20 million bottles Red: Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon
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Location: Places: Soil: Size: Production: Grapes: or    

White: Chenin blanc, Chardonnay Type of wines: Fruity red wine Dry white wine Dry sparkling white wine Red: 2 to 8 years White: 1 to 3 years Red: 2003, 1998, 1997 White: 2003 Sparkling wine: White flowers Brioche Aromas: White wine: Apple Broom Red wine: Red fruits Licorice Food: Various Red: Chabichou du Poitou Crottin de Chavignol Saint Nectaire Valencay

Age: Vintages: (recommended)


Touraine Touraine is a huge wine area, just at the centre of the Loire Valley. It is also the place where you can find most of the famous Châteaux de la Loire. All kind of wines are produced in Touraine. Red wines from Touraine are predominantly made from Gamay grapes. The other place where we can find Gamay is in Beaujolais where it is the only grape used. Here in Touraine, Gamay is used with Cabernet, from Bordeaux, and Pinot Noir, from Burgundy. It means that red wine from Touraine is a great condensed french wine or     Page 67 

However Gamay wines in Touraine do not taste that good. More and more, wine makers use Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc and Pinot Noir to bring balance to the wine. Touraine wine information: Appellation Touraine Controlée Appellation Touraine Mesland Controlée Appellation Touraine Azay le Rideau Controlée Appellation Touraine Noble Joué Controlée Appellation Touraine Amboise Controlée At the heart of the Loire valley, around the city of Tours and close to the Châteaux de la Loire Noyers sur Cher, Meusnes, Saint Georges sur Cher, Pouillé, Chatillon sur Cher, Amboise, Limeray, Cheillé Sand Clay Limestone 6,000 ha (15,000 acres) 26 million bottles Red and rosé: Gamay, Cabernet Franc, Pinot Noir, Malbec, Pineau White: Chenin blanc, Sauvignon Light and fruity red wine Light and fresh dry white wine Medium rosé Sparkling red, rosé and white wines Red: 2 to 7 years White: 1 to 4 years Rosé: drink now and up to 2 years 2003 Red: Red fruits
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Location: Places:


Size: Production:

Grapes: Type of wines:

Age: Vintages: (recommended) Aromas: or    

Black fruits Raspberry White: Menthol Vanilla Litchee Red: Red meat White: Aperitif Red: Boursin Camembert Chabichou du Poitou Cheese: Saint Nectaire Valencay White: Maconnais Cheddar Bourgueil Bourgueil is a terroir of red wine, similar to Chinon. You need to be an expert to distinguish the one from the other. This is because Bourgueil and Chinon share the same terroir specificity, history and wine making tradition. It seems that some Bourgueil wines mature longer than their Chinon neighbor. Specially the ones coming from the south of the appellation and called "vins de cotes". Bourgueil is often compared to the wines from Médoc in Bordeaux. Cabernet grapes are used to make both wines. Bourgueil wine information: Name: Location: Places: Appellation Bourgueil Appellation Saint Nicolas de Bourgueil Controlée West of Tours city, and East of Saumur Bourgueil, Saint Nicolas de Bourgueil and Restigné, Benais, Ingrandes de Touraine
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Controlée or    


Limestone Sand Gravel 1,200 ha (2,900 acres) 9 million bottles Cabernet Franc (or Petit Breton) Fruity red wine Dry rosé (less than 5% of the production) Bourgueil: 3 to 10 years Saint Nicolas de Bourgueil: 2 to 5 years 2003, 1997 Red fruits Black currant Green capsicum With a starter Port Salut Reblochon Saint Nectaire Valencay Gouda

Size: Production: Grapes: Type of wines:

Age: Vintages: (recommended) Aromas:




Vouvray There is not only one Vouvray but several different Vouvrays. The wine can be sweet, flavored or full-body and dry. But one can say that Vouvray is always at its best. The sweet wine has a golden color, is vigorous, fruity and fresh. The dry and semi dry are rich and intense. There is also a sparkling wine in Vouvray. It is fruity as well - a trademark of the Vouvray terroir ! - and can mature for a few years which is quite uncommon for a sparkling wine. Vouvray is definitely an unique wine, well more accurately, Vouvray are a few unique wines! or     Page 70 

Vouvray wine information: Name: Location: Places: Soil: Size: Production: Grapes: Type of wines: Appellation Vouvray Controlée Right bank of the Loire river Close to Tours city and the Châteaux of Loire 8 villages: Vouvray, Rochecorbon, Vernou sur Brenne, etc Clayey limestone Chalk 2,000 ha (4,900 acres) 13 million bottles Chenin blanc (Pineau blanc de la Loire) Sweet viscous white wine Dry white wine Semi dry white wine Sparkling white wine Sweet: sometimes over a century ! Dry: 5 to 25 years Semi-dry: drink now and up to 5 years Sparkling: 1 to 4 years 2003, 1997, 1995, 1990, 1989 Quince Honey Almond Chicken in white sauce Veal in white sauce Fruits Cabécou Camembert Crottin de Chavignol Livarot
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Vintages: (recommended) Aromas:


Cheese: or    

Pouilly Fumé Pouilly Fumé has an unusual flavor for a dry white wine: a strong flavor of musk and smoked. Pouilly sur Loire is a different wine made with Chasselas grape variety. It should be drunk young. When the phylloxera destroyed all the vines 2 centuries ago, vine growers replace them with Sauvignon to create the Pouilly Fumé. Nowadays Pouilly sur Loire makes less than 5% of the production of Pouilly. Pouilly is very close from Sancerre, just on the other side of the river. However both wines are a little bit different. Pouilly Fumé is probably thicker, deeper and has more structure. Pouilly Fumé wine information: Name: Location: Places: Soil: Size: Production: Appellation Pouilly Fumé Controlée Eastern part of the Loire Valley East of Sancerre and Bourges Pouilly sur Loire, Saint Andelain, Tracy sur Loire, etc Limestone Clayey-limestone 850 ha (2,100 acres) 6 million bottles White wine only! Pouilly Fumé: Sauvignon Pouilly sur Loire: Chasselas Thick dry white wine 1 to 5 years 2003 Smoked Broom Acacia
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Grapes: Type of wines: Age: Vintages: (recommended) Aromas: or    


Salmon Chicken Veal Aperitif Crottin de Chavignol


Sancerre Sancerre is one of the most famous white wines in France. Sancerre is also a very nice village with a typical castle. Sancerre white wine is more delicate than close-by Pouilly Fumé. Sancerre matures a little bit fast than its neighbor. Although wine tasters need to differentiate the Sancerre wines coming from marl terroir from the ones coming from limestone vineyards. The first are fruity and well balanced, the second are full flavored but less stable. Sancerre is produced on 15 villages. The wines coming from Bué and Chavignol are the best Sancerre wine information: Name: Location: Appellation Sancerre Controlée North-east of Bourges city, in the east part of the Loire Valley, on the left bank of the river Bannay, Bué, Chavignol, Crézancy, Menetou-Ratel, Ménétréol, Montigny, St-Satur, Ste-Gemme, Sancerre, Sury-en-vaux, Thauvenay, Veaugues, Verdigny and Vinon Marl (called "white soil") Limestone 2,200 ha (5,400 acres) 16 million bottles Sauvignon Blanc
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Soil: Size: Production: Grapes: or    

Type of wines:

Nervous dry white wine Light and flavored red wine 1 to 5 years 2003 Grapefruit (and citrus) White flowers Shellfish Trout Fish Chabichou du Poitou Crottin de Chavignol Pouligny Saint Pierre Valencay

Age: Vintages: (recommended) Aromas:




Sparkling Wine The traditional of all of these wines is closely connected with that of sparkling wines. Today the designation (SPARKLING WINE) is reserved for products produced in certain French districts and in determined amounts. But the production of sparkling wines is also carried out in many other wine districts. In general, sparkling wines are those which foam readily because of the presence of high concentrations of dissolved CO2. The CO2 pressure is 4.05-5.06Pa (4-5 atm) at 20 C. However, in the United States, wines containing a pressure of slightly more than 2.03 Pa (2 atm) may be called sparkling wines. The methods of production are the following: 1. Sparkling wine process (bottle fermentation, removal of yeast by gorging) 2. Transfer process (bottle fermentation, transfer to a tank, and removal of the yeast by filtration) 3. Bulk fermentation 4. Carbonation or     Page 74 

Sparkling wine Process:In the classical bottle fermentation, a dry white wine (cuvé) undergoes a secondary fermentation after the addition of about 25 g per liter of sucrose fermentation takes place in thick walled, tightly closed bottles at 9-12C. The fermentation requires several months. After that the wine remains on the yeast for several months or years. During this period the yeast collects in the neck of the bottles, a process which is aided by shaking and by an increasing inclination of the bottles so that they approach a vertical position. Finally, the yeast deposit is frozen in the neck of the bottle and disgorges when the bottle is opened. The lost amount is then replaced by adding a solution of sucrose in wine. The sucrose concentration depends on the desired and product and the bottles are tightly closed after addition of the dosage. Transfer Process.In this process the bottle fermentation is carried out as above, but the yeast is removed by transferring the wine from the bottles to a tank in a closed system and under nitrogen pressure. After addition of the dosage, the wine is filtered in a closed system and with nitrogen or carbon dioxide counters pressure and filled into bottles. This method permits retention of the carbon dioxide in the wine.

Bulk fermentation:This process is suitable for mass production of sparkling wine and results in wine of somewhat lesser quality the secondary fermentation is carried out in a pressurized vessel. A certain concentration of unfermented, residual sugar is retained in the wine so that there is no need for addition of dosages. After filtration the wine can be filled into bottles. In this process the carbon dioxide evolved during the secondary fermentation is also retained. Carbonation:In contrast to the preceding process the sparkling character of wine obtained by impregnating the base wine with carbon dioxide. That means that there is no secondary fermentation. This process is suitable for the production of less expensive wines and its quality is largely determined by the quality of the base wine. Also in contrast to the preceding processes, which involve a secondary fermentation, the carbon dioxide is only weakly bound and escapes more quickly after the bottles are opened. The choice of yeast is highly important for bottle fermentations since this fermentation is carried out under more demanding conditions. The alcohol concentration of the cuve’ or     Page 75 

(about 11% by vol.) the low temperature, and slowly increases pressure of co2 are all inhibitory for the yeast. It is also important that the yeast be fairly flocculent and forms a compact deposit. Strains of S.cerevisiae and S.bayanus are used in commercial practice.

TRADITIONAL METHOD OF SPARKLING WINES - Original clarification process was discovered by Dom Perignon who used pinot noir grapes to make SPARKLING WINES Champagne - The Region
• Most northerly major wine producing region in France. • Continental climate, which means cold winters and warm summers. • Main grape varieties grown in this region are: • Chardonnay (w) • Pinot noir (r) • Pinot meunier (r) • Sub-soil is chalk

Production Steps of the Traditional Method 1. Primary Fermentation Sugar + yeast -------> -OH (alcohol) + CO2 + heat This primary fermentation will usually yield a product which is 9% alcohol by volume. The different grape varieties are always vinified separately. Most of the vinifications is done in stainless steel, rarely is oak used (oak exceptions are Krug and Bollinger). The porduct of primary fermentation is quite acidic. Some wines undergo malolactic fermentation, some do not. 2. Blending (Assemblage) Different percentages of varietals are combined for consistent house styles. This can either mean that different varietals from the same (current) year are blended, or Vin Clair from other vintage years are blended in as well. or    

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3. Secondary Fermentation (in the bottle, ALWAYS) The product of the blending process (the cuvee) is taken, and to it is added just the precise amount of liqueur de triage. The liqueur de tirage is a solution of sugar and yeast which will re-initiate the fermentation process. Secondary fermentation is done to raise the alcohol percentage by 2%, to a total of about 11% alc/vol. Secondary fermentation always takes place in the bottle according to the traditional method of Champagne. Magnums are regarded as the perfect sized vessel for the secondary fermentation process. The product is then crown capped (like beer), so that the CO2 gas produced by secondary fermentation does not escape. 4. Maturation Maturation occurs on the lees (in the bottle) and is dependent upon yeast autolysis. The minimum maturation requirements for traditional method are: - Non-Vintage, 1 year on the lees - Vintage, 3 years on the lees 5. Riddling (Remuage) The repositioning of bottles from horizontal to a somewhat vertical position to assist in the removal of the sediment (lees). Long ago, this was accomplished by using a sandwich board type device called a pupitres. Modern gyropalettes are mechanised riddling mechanisms which take most of the hand work out of riddling. 6. Degorgement Originally done by freezing the sediment plug in the neck of the bottle. Inverted bottle's neck was dipped in an icy brine vat, the solids of the plug then coagulated, and could be removed in one go. or    

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Modern method of plug removal is to use nitrous oxide (N2O). 7. Dosage (aka, the Colonel's Secret Step) In Champagne, the product is dosed with something called liqueur d'expedition. This stage determines the final sweetness of the wine (acidity balance by altering sweetness level). The liqueur d'expedition is different for every producer, and is usually a fairly well guarded secret. However, it could be something like Cognac or icewine, depending on how the producer wanted to affect the sweetness/acidity balance of the final product. The following are sweetness levels commonly associated with qualitative labelling descriptors: Extra Brut (not common) -----> 0-6 gr/L residual sugar Brut (more common) -----> 6-15 gr/L residual sugar Extra Dry -----> 12-20 gr/L residual sugar Sec -----> 17-35 gr/L residual sugar 8. Corkage Finally, the product is closed with a cork and hasp.

SPARKLING WINE:A type of wine, usually white, that is effervescent with bubbles of carbon dioxide gas which sparkle as they rise to the surface. While champagne is the best-known, sparkling wines are produced in almost every wine region in the world. They are generally at their best when made by the méthode champenoise, acquiring their sparkle through a secondary fermentation inside a sealed bottle which prevents the gas from escaping. Inferior versions may be made by carbonation, the injection of carbon dioxide gas into the wine. There are many styles of sparkling wine and these vary greatly both in sweetness and in the amount of effervescence. Sparkling wines in France are called mousseux for fully sparkling, pétillant for lightly sparkling, and perlant for very lightly sparkling. The Italian equivalents are spumante, frizzante and frizzantino. Crémant is another type of sparkling wine from France, while the predominant sparkling wine from Italy is spumante, from Germany Sekt, and from Spain cava. See also Charmat method. or    

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SPARKLING WINES From California, Spain, Italy, Germany, Australia and France All that glitters is not gold and all that sparkles is not Champagne. Despite the American penchant for calling all wine with bubbles Champagne, the only kind of sparkling wine that has a right to call itself Champagne is stuff that comes from the region of the same name in northern France. Does that mean the only good sparkling wine comes from the Champagne region? Not at all. Many good sparkling wines come from Italy, Spain, Germany, the United States, and other areas of France. California Several French Champagne houses have California sparkling wine operations. And they’re no weak sisters, either. In fact, many think the non-vintage California wines may be as good as or better than non-vintage French Champagnes, and certainly they are better values at $12 to $18. As with their French counterparts, the California sparkling wine wineries are in cooler climates (Sonoma and Mendocino counties) and use the same grapes, primarily pinot noir and chardonnay with some pinot meunier. This produces a richer taste than sparkling wines made from grapes in other countries. The richest wines have the highest percentage of red pinot noir. All chardonnay sparklers, called blanc de blanc are the lightest. The 1992 Domaine Carneros Le Reve is an elegant California blanc de blanc from the house of Taittinger. Domaine Chandon's Blanc de Noir, made from pinot noir, is a consistently good full-flavored sparkling wine from Moet & Chandon. Maybe the best California sparkling wine of all is Roederer Estate Brut Anderson Valley NV. But you don't have to have French parentage to make good value sparkling wine in California. Also look for Korbel, S. Anderson, Gloria Ferrer, Iron Horse, Jepson, and Scharffenberger (now owned by Moet). And beyond California, there is Washington state, particularly Domaine St. Michelle Brut from the wine juggernaut Chateau St. Michelle and Gruet Brut New Mexico NV (yes, New Mexico). or    

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Spain Spain is the largest consumer of sparkling wine in the world and it's hard to beat producers such as Freixenet, Codorniu, and Paul Cheneau on price, which is rarely more than $10. Spanish sparkling wine, called "cava" after the word for cellar, is made in Penedes in northeast Spain. Cavas are made in the French style, called "metodo classico," a reformation of "methode champenoise," a French term now illegal under European Community rules unless the wine comes from Champagne. "Metodo classico" means that the second fermentation—which produces the bubbles—takes place in the bottle. Traditionally, cavas were made from native grapes such as macabeo, parellada, and xarello, but more wineries are switching over to chardonnay to achieve a more universal and thus less distinctive taste. Spanish cavas are generally light, crisp and very refreshing, but not terribly interesting, though there are some exceptions such as Fleur de Nuit and SeguraViudas. Italy In Italy the name of the game is prosecco, a sparkling wine made from the grape of the same name in the Veneto region of northeastern Italy. The best proseccos such as Rustico by Nino Franco and Venegazzù Prosecco Brut di Valdobbiadene nv from count piero loredan gasparini don’t cost much more than $12 and are bone dry with light citrus flavors and a faint nip of bitter almond on the finish, which is typical of Italian white wines. The key to prosecco is freshness. If you see dust on the bottles, head elsewhere. Freshness is also the key to moscato d'art, a sweet sparkler made in Piedmont in northeastern Italy that's about the same price as prosecco. Thorough chilling will mitigate some of that sweetness, but even without it, the best moscato d'Astis are never cloying. They're great with brunch, perhaps on Christmas or New Year's morning since they are quite low in alcohol. But don't overlook them as an aperitif. Producers to look for are Vietti and Rivetti. Germany German sparkling wines, called Sekt, are engaging alternatives to traditional Champagnes. They can be made of pinot blanc but more often are made with riesling and generally range in price from $12 to $18. Most have bracing acidity. Deinhard Lila Brut NV is a widely available example. More obscure, but worth seeking out is Schumann-Nagler Cuvee Rheingau Riesling, a Sekt trocken, meaning very dry. or    

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Australia One would think Australia too hot for sparkling wines. Yet Aussie winemakers do some amazing things, particularly in the case of Seaview Brut Sparkling Wine (about $10). You won't confuse this with Champagne. But this blend of pinot noir, muscadelle, chenin blanc, and semillon is a fine quaff. France Now we come full circle back to France for sparkling wines that aren't Champagne, meaning they come from everywhere but that specific place. In the Loire Valley, sparkling Vouvray is made from chenin blanc grapes, typically when the grapes are not ripe enough to make still (non sparkling) wine. Because only riesling has more acidity than chenin blanc, these wines are refreshing but with more creamy mouthfeel than the German sparklers. Foreau Brut is about $18. The Jura and Savoie in eastern France produce a lot of lesser known sparkling wines. One of the better ones is Brut Dargent. Cremant d'Alsace is a sparkling wine from Alsace usually made of combinations of pinot noir, pinot blanc, and pinot gris. Because they are very high in acidity, they are crisp and very refreshing. Lucien Albrecht (about $15) is a good name to remember. Regardless of where your sparkling wine comes from, it should have a clean aroma, though not a varietal character since most are blends. Citrus notes are almost always positive and the tinier the bubbles the better. They give the mouth a creamy feel rather than a foamy one created by larger bubbles. Most of all, good sparkling wines should leave the mouth refreshed and ready for another bite of food'or another sip of wine. Storage of Wine Wine Temperature Chart : Temps for Serving / Storing Wine What's the big deal about storing a wine at a certain temperature? Simply put, wine is a perishable good. Storing a fine wine at 100° will cause it to lose its flavor, while storing it at 0° will cause as much damage. The trick with wine is to store it at a stable, ideal temperature, and then to serve it at a temperature which best shows off its personal characteristics. If you serve a wine too cool, the flavors will all be hidden. It's like eating a frozen pizza while it's still frozen. If you serve a wine too hot, all you can taste is the alcohol. or     Page 81 

Wine Serving Temperature Guidelines Temp F 100° 68° 66° 64° 63° 61° 59° 57° 55° 54° 52° 50° 48° 47° Temp C 39° 20° 19° 18° 17° 16° 15° 14° 13° 12° 11° 10° 9° 8° Notes Warm Bath Vintage Port Bordeaux, Shiraz Red Burgundy, Cabernet Rioja, Pinot Noir Chianti, Zinfandel Tawny/NV Port, Madeira Ideal storage for all wines Beaujolais, rose Viognier, Sauternes Chardonnay Riesling
Page 82 or    

45° 43° 41° 39° 37° 35° 33° 32° 0°

7° 6° 5° 4° 3° 2° 1° 0° -18°

Champagne Ice Wines Asti Spumanti Fridge Temperature water freezes Freezer Temperature

Most of the enjoyment that comes from drinking wine involves its aroma. Taste only has four aspects - sweet, sour, salty, acid. The nose does the rest. Vapors are created as wine warms up, so the wine needs to be a few degrees below its ideal drinking temperature for this to work. Room Temperature is rarely 'wine drinking temperature' if you're in the Indian Ocean on a yacht, you hardly want 100° Chardonnay! How about Houston in July? Warmth makes white wines taste dull. Few homes are regulated to match wine-drinking temperatures. So throw out the old "refrigerate all whites, drink all reds at current room temperature" adage. Here is a chart to indicate in general best temperatures for drinking wine at. Remember, though, that you also want to keep in mind the temperature of the room relative to this 'idea temperature'. If your room is 60°F and you are serving a fine Burgundy, perhaps chill the Burgundy to 58°F to allow it a little warming up in the glass. Fridges do well for cooling a wine when necessary, but for warming I prefer to warm it with my hands, glass by glass. or    

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If you run into someone hooked on Room Temperature, have them imagine drinking a fine ice wine in Barrow, Alaska in February. At that temperature, even a wine meant How long will an open bottle of wine keep?

QUESTION Should I be storing the wine I drink everyday in a special way or place?

ANSWER Simply keep your bottles of wine in a cool place away from direct sunlight until you’re ready to drink them. If you are going to store them for more than a few weeks, it is best to store them on their side rather than upright. This will keep the cork moist and therefore airtight. There is no need to store white wines or Champagne/sparkling wines in the refrigerator if you are not planning on drinking them soon. Simply chill them before serving. There are two types of wine you may not plan to drink immediately--wines you have purchased that are ready to drink, and wines designed to be aged. Most wines on the market today are designed to be ready to drink as soon as you purchase them. Therefore, the long-term storage conditions recommended for wines designed to be aged are not necessary. Keep these ready-to-drink wines away from direct sunlight and heat, any source of vibration, and lying on their sides. This will ensure that the cork will remain moist and therefore airtight. There is no need to store white wines or Champagne/sparkling wines in the refrigerator if you are not planning to drink them soon. Simply chill them before serving. If you do begin to accumulate wines designed to be aged, storage becomes more important. The key conditions to keep constant are temperature (needs to be about 55 degrees) and humidity (70% 80%). To achieve this at home, you may need to convert a closet or buy a special unit designed.

Where should I store wine I don't plan to drink immediately? or    

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Where should I store wine after it is opened?

A re-corked, leftover bottle of red or white wine can be stored in the refrigerator for 3 — 5 days without compromising its flavor. Just take the red wine out of the refrigerator to let it come up to room temperature before drinking. A tightly corked leftover bottle of Champagne/sparkling wine can also be kept fresh in the refrigerator for 3 - 5 days. Longer than you may think. Don’t throw it away! Re-cork the wine (if you’ve thrown away the cork use plastic wrap and a rubber band). An open bottle of red or white wine will keep in the refrigerator for 3 — 5 days. A bottle of Champagne/sparkling wine (tightly re-corked) will also keep for 3 — 5 days in the refrigerator.

How long will an open bottle of wine keep?


Whether or not to bottle age your wine after you have purchased it is a very personal and somewhat complex decision. While most white wines are designed to be enjoyed within two to three years after their vintage date, many robust red wines, particularly Cabernet Sauvignon such as William Hill Winery's Reserve Cabernet Sauvignon and Aura, will continue to evolve and improve with additional aging in proper storage conditions. Under the proper storage conditions, the components of red wines will interact and evolve. During bottle aging, the wine's varietal aromas and flavors, as well as tannins and pigment, interact with oak compounds imparted during fermentation and barrel aging. Tannins and pigment compounds will link together to form longer, smoother polymer chains, softening the tannic impression of the wine. This integration can help to develop increasingly complex flavors and aromas, and deepen the wine's color from purplish to a deep, brick red. However, the primary caveat of a fine red wine improving through additional aging is the quality of its storage conditions. The ideal storage environment for wine mirrors the conditions of many wineries' storage caves: • Cool Temperature: 55-65°F. Cool temperatures slow the aging process and help to develop complex varietal character. or     Page 85 

• Consistent Temperature: Less than 10°F fluctuation throughout the year. Temperature fluctuations can cause the wine to expand and contract, possibly causing damage to the cork. • Humidity: Between 60-80%. Humidity over 80% can encourage mold, while dry conditions can cause evaporation and oxidation. • Darkness: Excessive light exposure can cause proteins in wine to become hazy, and can create "off" aromas and flavors. • Vibration-free: Vibration (from appliances or motors) can travel through wine and be detrimental to its development. • Odor-free: The storage area should be free from chemical odors, such as cleaners, household paints, etc. Basements are usually wonderful for storing wine because they meet many of the above criteria. Other options include a little-used, interior closet in an air-conditioned home. Wine storage systems are available that provide optimum temperature and humidity conditions for serious wine collecting. or    

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Storing Wine For any wine lover, storing wine well is very important. There are a few simple principles that need to be understood in order to select proper wine storage conditions. We can logically break down the process into just 3 categories: storing wine for the short haul, storing wine for long term aging and storing (or saving) wines that have already been opened. Short Term Storage This is wine you will consume within 6 months. These may be bottles that are just home from the store and destined to be consumed shortly or bottles that have been pulled from longer storage to be accessible for spur of the moment consumption. The closer you can duplicate the conditions required for long term storage, the better. However, in many situations, keeping the wines in a box in an interior closet is a satisfactory solution. Keep the bottles stored so that:
• the cork stays moist • the wines are at the lowest stable temperature possible • the location is free of vibration • the location is not a storage area for other items that have a strong odor

Stay away from those little 9 bottle racks that end up on top of the refrigerator; it's hot, close to the light and vibrates from the refrigerator compressor. Long Term Storage: This is wine that you will keep for more than 6 months before consumption. A good storage location for wine is generally dark, is free of vibration, has high humidity and has a low stable temperature. Generally accepted 'ideal' conditions are 50 to 55 degrees fare height and 70 percent humidity or higher. The high humidity is important because it keeps the corks from drying and minimizes evaporation. The only problem with even higher levels of humidity is that it brings on growth of mold on the labels or the loosening of labels or     Page 87 

that have water soluble glue. Temperatures lower than 55 degrees only slow the aging of the wines. There have been wines found in very cold cellars of castles in Scotland that are perfectly sound and are much less developed that those kept at 'normal' cellar temperature. A near constant temperature is preferable to one that fluctuates. With regard to light, most modern bottles have ultraviolet filters built into the glass that help protect the contents from most of the effects of UV rays. Despite the filters in the glass, long term storage can still allow enough rays in to create a condition in the wine that is referred to as 'light struck'. The result is that the wine picks up the taste and smell of wet cardboard. This is especially noticeable in delicate white wines and sparkling wines. The condition can be created by putting a bottle of champagne near a fluorescent light for a month. Regular or constant vibrations from pumps, motors or generators should be avoided since the vibrations they cause are thought to negatively affect the evolution of the wines. One additional factor to avoid is storing other items with very strong odors near the wine. There have been many reports of wines picking up the aromas of items stored nearby. If you do not have a suitable wine cellar, there are many types of 'wine refrigerators' that will work as well. They differ from common refrigerators in that they work at higher temperatures (50-65 degree range) and they do not remove humidity from the air. There are kits available that will convert regular refrigerators into suitable wine storage units. Storage after opening: This is storage for bottles of table wine that have been opened but not completely consumed. There are many methods for prolonging the life of opened table wines but even the best can only slow the degradation of the wine. These methods are for still table wines. Sparkling wines and fortified dessert wines have different characteristics and requirements. or    

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Gas Systems: Sparging the bottle with a gas (nitrogen or argon) can be very effective but it is expensive and I've never known anyone who actually used a gas system over a long period of time. They just seem to ultimately be more trouble than they are worth. If you do elect to try such a system, stay away from carbon dioxide since it will mix into solution with the wine. Vacu-vin: An item came on the market a few years ago called a Vacu-vin. This consists of rubber bottle stoppers that hold a weak vacuum created by a hand pump that comes with the system. While some people swear by them, there is a consistent complaint that wines treated with a Vacu-vin seem 'stripped' of aromas and flavor. They actually create a lower pressure environment instead of an actual vacuum. This means they don't remove all the oxygen and oxidation of the wine will still occur. Half bottles, marbles and progressive carafes: These are all ways of limiting the amount of air in contact with the wine. The concept is good if you move quickly and refrigerate the remaining wine. or    

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STORE WINE You can keep a bottle of wine any where in the house or in the apartment as long as the wine is protected from: - Temperature (too warm or too cold) - Vibration - Light - Humidity (too much or too less) - No air circulation Each of these 5 enemies can kill wine or prevent it from maturing. Aging is essential in order to bring wine to its optimum. In time, wine delivers typical aromas and flavors. The process works only if the wine is kept in perfect condition. How long can I keep my bottle of wine? Aging depends on how the bottle is kept, it is also depend where the wine is coming from. Red or white, from Bordeaux or Burgundy, every wine needs much or less time to mature. Please have a look at the list of french wines to find out how long you should keep a bottle of french wine. How to store wine? The easiest way to keep wine is to purchase a self-contained unit (known as a wine cooler). A wine cooler can be as small as a little fridge, with enough space for 24 bottles. Some can hold more than 2,500 bottles. In between the two extremes lies a vast number of options to fit nearly any need and budget. How to store wine The possibility of keeping a good number of bottles in store means you can follow the natural progress of a specific wine, as well as avoiding continual transport of the bottles from the shop home, which certainly doesn't help to enjoy the wine at its best. If it isn't possible to have a basement area where you can build a cellar then you should choose the room in the house where the temperature varies least from summer to winter. In fact, even though the recommended temperature for storing wine is 12°-14°, slightly higher but constant temperatures guarantee sufficient security. If you have an old wardrobe you can insulate it using polystyrene and this will also mean that the bottles are not exposed to direct light, which can have a violent effect on the colour. The bottles should be stored horizontally so that the cork comes into contact or     Page 90 

with the wine and remains damp and springy. Vertical storage tends to dry out the cork and allows oxygen to get into the bottle, oxidising the contents. If you have a room for the purpose you can arrange the bottles on shelves in wood or metal. A high level of humidity may cause the formation of mould on the cork or more simply the label may come off. To prevent this happening you can cover each bottle with transparent film. If the room is too dry you can use a humidifier. The cellar should be kept clean and should not be used to store other foodstuffs. No hams or salamis should be hung there and the storage of detergents or paints would be even less appropriate. CELLARING ...preserving the flavors while postponing the pleasure... Sooner or later, anyone who enjoys wine regularly will start a collection, although often quite unintentionally. Only a very small percentage of all wines produced will improve with age, either tastefully or capitalistically, and the risk of ultimate disappointment is quite high. The risk seems however, to have little deterrent effect. Typically, the one-bottle-at-a-time wine buyer will at some point discover their regular merchant is sold out of their current and typically new-found favorite wine. So, embarking on a desperate mission of serious wine shopping, they get lucky enough to find another source with a few remaining bottles and make the decision to stock up. And so it begins: The Cellar. This "cellar" may wind up in a counter top wine rack on display, a kitchen cupboard, or a cardboard box in a closet, crawl space, or garage. But make no mistake about the implication, this IS the ominous beginning of a wine collection. For now, we'll simply refer to it as "the stash." IT'S ALIVE..! Factors that will cause the drinker to morph into collector and the stash to grow (often uncontrollably) are sentimentality, discovery, boredom, and speculation. Sentimentality results from saving the last bottle or two of a particular favorite for a "special occasion". Discovery of new favorites tends to slow depletion of the existing stash, while, at the same time, adding to its overall volume. Boredom has the same effect. Speculation usually begins when inflation, created by supply and demand, makes monsters out of bottles that began as "great values". The drinker purchases a wine that inadvertently pays a (theoretical) dividend and so decides to begin purposeful wine investing (aka: collecting). or     Page 91 

"Rules" of Wine Collecting 1. Take your time; choose wisely. (There's no hurry to fill your "cellar". There are new wines every year. Read what the critics say, but follow your own taste. Spend more money tasting than acquiring.) 2. Taste before you select. (If you don't like it now, you won't like it later; an ugly duckling might become a swan, but ugly-tasting wine becomes ugly-tasting old wine.) Regardless of the cause, the effect of the growing stash is to make the drinker-cumcollector think about protecting and preserving it. Although this is the most common way wine collections start and grow, it is also completely the opposite of how it should be done. The right way to collect wine is to plan and invest in a proper place to store the collection first, but I won't waste another breath trumpeting this largely lost cause ... THE HEAT IS ON The most important factor in storing wine is CONSISTENCY of temperature. Rapid changes -- plus or minus 10° F within a 24-hour period -- ruin wines. Although one incident may not be fatal, it will permanently change the flavors away from the fresh-and-fruity side, toward the old-and-musty. Repeated temperature fluctuations will surely ruin wine. Heated wine may smell and taste "cooked" or madeirized, like burned sugar. Lacking a dedicated temperature-controlled room or cabinet, it's best to store wine on the floor of an interior closet, where no wall is shared with the outdoors, a furnace, stove, refrigerator, water heater, dish washer, clothes dryer, sauna, kiln, boiler, foundry, particle accelerator, etc. The garage, the root cellar, crawl space under the house, or the unfinished basement are very bad places to store wine, because of wide and rapid temperature fluctuations. There is a tool to help find and monitor suitable temperate environments: a minimum/maximum thermometer. This relatively inexpensive device will show the highest and lowest temperature in any given time period. The analog version is Ushaped with little steel plugs inside the tube, showing the min-max temperatures reached since last checked (it is reset by stroking the tube with a magnet to reposition the plugs). Newer electronic min-max thermometers may be more convenient for the digitally-inclined. or    

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Place either thermometer in the potential storage area and monitor, morning and night, for a week. If the daily Fahrenheit swing is over a few degrees (5-8?), pick a new location and begin again. Once a likely spot is found, the wine stash can be moved there, but monitoring should continue weekly, monthly, seasonally, annually, centennially, etc., until confident of the location's temperate stability. The great body of anecdotal evidence suggests that wines stored at lower ranges (50° 55° F) will be preserved longer and have a longer time for drinking while the wine is at its "peak" of aging. Wines stored at higher ranges (65° - 70°) will age sooner, but not as well, and have a shorter time window for maximum enjoyment. Stored past five years in the vagarities of "room temperature", most wines are likely to show browning color and taste lifeless, flat, or tired. If stored where temperature ever reaches above 75°, the wines may taste cooked or maderized (Sherry-like, but without the floral appeal). Wine aging is not predictable with any certainty and there are no guarantees that even properly stored bottles will improve. Conversely, wine that's not expected to hold up well occasionally does improve with age. Both disappointments and surprises can occur. PROCRASTINATORS' PLONK As the stash grows, you will lose track of individual bottles, guaranteed. Where is that bottle? I know I bought one; did I trade it ... sell it ... drink it? Eventually, this becomes a bigger problem than keeping the temperature stable. It's an ounce-of-prevention problem that most collectors don't consider until it requires a pound-of-cure to inventory and map the cellar. Start simple, but start somewhere. Label each box or bin with a number or letter. Keep a notebook with columns and develop consistent abbreviations for often-repeated info, like varietal, merchant, etc.: Be diligent about entering new purchases and logging consumption. As the collection swells, make tags for each bottle. Save the tags in an envelope tacked to the "cellar door" and batch-process your depletions monthly or quarterly. When hand entry gets old, the computer is the greatest collector's tool yet invented. Lacking the hacking skills to design a custom wine data base? There are inexpensive, excellent, downloadable software programs available, such as Vinoté, that keep track of even more information, such as tasting notes, and make bottle tags. or    

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Start now. Failure to keep track will sooner of later result in Bottles Discovered Post Mortem and you'll be forced to consume Procrastinators' Plonk (an excellent match with Crow). BIN THERE, DUN THAT One can get as fancy as one wants with wine racking, cubicles, bins, whatever. A general rule seems to be, the more customized a cellar, the less flexible the storage and the sooner it is outgrown. Strictly a personal choice, of course, but I'd rather spend money on the bottles than the bottle holders. Cardboard cartons make fine wine storage bins. They're cheap, custom fit to bottle dimensions, and modular. They protect the labels from scuffing and absorb any excess moisture. Stored on their sides, with the ends cut off, the bottles can be viewed by their end caps and the boxes can be stacked three high with relative confidence. Simple plywood shelving can add structural stability and arrangement flexibility. Many wine bottles with cellaring potential come packed in wooden crates. These are also good storage containers for the long term. Whether cardboard or wood, the boxes should be opened and the bottles checked immediately after purchase to find any lowfills, leakers, or empties (it happens!). Re-pack after inspection. Ten years after may be the right time to pull the corks, but too late for merchant warranty. Always store bottles on their sides. Neck-up invites air contamination from corks drying out, shrinking, and losing their seal. Neck-down allows sediment to collect on the cork where it is unwanted and nearly impossible to remove. This position also hides any seepage that may occur from defective cork seals, temperature spikes, or other causes. Bottles resting on their sides keep the corks supple, sediment sequestered, and seals visible. Plan ahead. Eventually, either the quality or quantity of bottles acquired may suggest a more elaborate solution than the stash of cardboard boxes on the closet floor. Escalating options may include faster consumption, renting a wine locker, purchasing a dedicated wine cabinet, insulating and cooling a spare room, or building a passive underground cellar, winery, distillery, etc. MYTHS & DON'T-DO-ITS The only time wine should be kept in a refrigerator is after it has been uncorked. In fact, the smart way to chill wine is to put it in a bucket, filled 2/3 with ice and 1/3 with water, for 20 minutes (using ice alone takes longer, because air pockets between the cubes, even if finely-crushed, insulate against the cold). A refrigerator is not a good place to store wine for several reasons. Refrigerators are designed for short-term cold storage; temperatures within change over a fairly wide or     Page 94 

range, every few minutes or hours. The components are engineered to drop temperature rapidly to below 50° F and not necessarily maintain it within a narrow range of a few degrees. The low temperatures reached, rapid temperature swings, and vibrations from the self-contained compressors that cycle on and off several times daily, all are harmful to wine development. Repeated fluctuations between normal and low temperatures can cause wine to precipitate crystals of potassium bitartrate that look like broken glass (myth), but are completely edible and perfectly harmless; they are merely an annoyance. Dried and powdered, these become "Cream of Tartar" commonly used in baking. The other more serious danger of refrigerating bottles is that the temperature changes (and low humidity) might cause the corks to leak. Bottle-turning as a means of avoiding sediment buildup is a stupid urban myth and completely antithetical to removing particles and sludge. Turning disturbs natural settling, has no reasonable purpose, and will cause premature aging or spoilage. Sediment which settles on one side of the glass usually stays there. This build-up, in fact, makes it easier to remove by decanting and forfeit less wine in doing so. To help settle the loose stuff, stand the bottle (don't shake it) in a cool spot (not the refrigerator) for 24 to 48 hours before decanting (see Sedimental Journey). AGING WINE Most people assume that the longer that you keep a wine, the better it will get. So probably the most commonly asked question you hear is, how long do I keep the wine before drinking? (Since its best to store wine under certain conditions, like in a cool damp underground cellar, this is known as "cellaring" wine.) It is a misconception that you must age wine. The fact is, throughout the world, most wine is drunk "young" (that is relatively soon after it is produced, perhaps 12 to 18 months), even wines that are "better" if aged. While some wines will "mature" and become better over time, others will not and should be drunk immediately, or within a few years. Eventually all wine will "go over the hill," so even the wines meant to be kept for many, many years should be drunk before its too late. Wines which are expected to be matured in the bottle before drinking can go over the hill faster if not properly stored. If someone is giving you a very good deal on an old red wine that you would otherwise expect to be great, start to wonder how it was kept! And a famous name on the label is no guarantee whether a wine will age well (sometimes or    

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they make mistakes, or the grapes that year ("vintage") just won't produce wines suitable for extended aging ("cellaring"). Tannin is a substance that comes from the seeds, stems and skins of grapes. (For a taste of heavy-duty tannin, try a strong cup of tea.) Additional tannin can come from the wood during barrel aging in the winery. It is an acidic preservative and is important to the long term maturing of wine. Through time, tannin (which has a bitter flavor--"mouth shattering"?) will precipitate out of the wine (becoming sediment in the bottle) and the complexity of the wine's flavor from fruit, acid and all the myriad other substances that make up the wine's character will come into greater balance. Generally, it is red wines that are the ones that can (but do not have to be) produced with a fair amount of tannin with an eye towards long term storing and maturation. The bad news is that you shouldn't drink it young since it will taste too harsh (and probably cost too much, besides). The good news is that (with a little luck) after a number of years, what you get is a prized, complex and balanced wine. Remember that red wines get their color from the stems and skins of the grape. This gives the wine tannin and aging capacity. White wines may have no contact with the stems and skins and will have little tannin (though some can be added, again, through barrel aging). Therefore most white wines don't age well. Even the ones which do get better through time will not last nearly as long as their red cousins. A fair average for many "ageable" whites would be about 5 to 7 years (some might go 10). On the other hand, really "ageable" reds can easily be kept for 30 years and longer. So, how do you figure out how long to keep a wine before drinking it? We'll get to a summary, but it is just a summary. Check out other sources for the particulars! The Internet provides a wonderful medium through which people who may have the wine you are thinking about drinking might already have done so. They usually are willing to share their opinions. There are several Usenet groups to this end. Two wineries, side by side, producing the same grapes and the "same" wine. One ages considerably longer than the other. Why? While they are the "same" grapes, perhaps the soil or microclimate (small variations in the local weather due to terrain; what the French call "terroir") is just a bit different. Maybe the vines are older. The winery may have processed the wines differently (for example, heavy filtering). (In fact, even the size of the bottle matters--a half bottle ages faster than larger bottles.) There are lots of reasons, so general rules are just that--general. or     Page 96 

In any event, the red French Beaujolais Nouveau is meant to be drunk within days. Its a light, fruity wine. White wine is the next least aged wine. But here there is a range from a light wine like Sauvignon Blanc or a light Chardonnay, to more ageable "complex" Chardonnay of good White Burgundies. Probably drink the former within a few years (aging isn't needed, and the latter from 3 to 7 years). Dessert wines like Sauternes or other late harvest wines (Riesling, Gewurztraminer, etc.) should be aged. Sauternes get better over a very long time: 10, 20, 30, 40 or more years! Then come the reds. While the vast majority of wines produced today can be drunk immediately, a good number of red wines will benefit by SOME aging and some will benefit from a lot of aging. The ones that you open now that taste like road tar may very well be fantastic in 5 or 10 or 20 years. Look to some French Bordeaux (maybe up to 30 years) or Cabernet Sauvignon. Getting more specific about some red grapes, rules of thumb might be for the very best wines: Cabernet, 10 to 15 years; Merlot, 4 to 7 years for many; Nebbiolo, 10 years or more; Pinot Noir, about 5 years to start. Some people contend that while California wine won't "go bad" in the bottle, it doesn't get any better--unlike French wines that mature (get better) with cellaring. Don't ask me to explain this controversy as I have had plenty of California wine that seemed to me to be better after aging (but then, I said I wasn't an expert. On the other hand, I know I like it when I drink it.) So much for the summary. Didn't help much, did it? As you learn more and more about wine, you get a feel for which wines are produced to be aged. That doesn't mean that you still know when it is the best time to drink the wine. You need to check around. Ask fellow wine drinkers (and, any unbiased wine merchant with whom you can establish a relationship). Get a book that gives opinions. Read the magazines. Ask around on the 'net. These resources have the ability to tell you what happened when they drank the wine. Was it still good, is it starting to go over the hill, is it gone? At least one correspondent tells me that Australian wines seem to mature faster in Australia than in Europe, even if kept at similar temperatures and humidities. Just one more reason why it is best to ask (and taste) about individual wines. or     Page 97 

Lucky ones (like wine critics or friends of expansive people with big cellars) can get to be part of "vertical tastings." A "vintage" is the year in which a wine is produced. Line up a particular wine on a table with a bottle from each vintage, say, 1971 through 1992 and what you get is a "vertical" of that wine. A young wine, designed to age, can taste harsh (from the tannin). As you sample older and older bottles, the wine will mellow. Flavors come into balance. The oldest wines will lose their tannin and their fruitiness and eventually have a flat taste. Somewhere in there is the vintage which tastes the way you like it. That part is up to you, not to the pundits. But their comments can help. There are lots of resources (see Learning About Wine) which can help you get an idea which wines should be drunk when. When we first started learning about wine, we bought way too much white wine, which somehow we still have. Some of it--which was wonderful when purchased--can now best be described as awful. Since you'll hear the old cliche that you should cook only with wines you would drink, that wine isn't even good for cooking. I plan on trying to turn it into vinegar. Aside: One of the first really "good" wines we had was a 1984 Acacia Winery Lake Chardonnay. We bought a case of it and drank it slowly (like I said, we've got a lot of white left over). A few years back we asked the winemaker how it would be. His answer was "never open it . . . just remember the way it was, you'll be happier." We're glad to say he was wrong. As this is being written, that bottle was opened last night (it was 10 years old). Past its prime but still pretty good! So even the winemaker may not always know, either. When you are just starting out, it probably doesn't pay to buy many wines for aging ("laying down"). First off, you are going to want to drink some of them, and the ones that are "good" won't be so good this young, and they'll cost too much besides. There are plenty of wines that are good now. As you drink these wines, you'll get an idea of what types of wine you like. With a little learning, you'll get an idea of the style of wine you want to put away. And you may not make the mistakes we did, besides. (On the other hand, we did manage to get a few wines that did age well and we are just drinking now. So much for rules.) or    

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Don't forget, how you store the wine will affect how long it lasts as well. Even the size of the bottle will change its life. Getting good advice about particular wine is the only good idea here.

INTRODUCTION VINE Creeper of grapes.A vine is any plant of genus or, by extension, any similar climbing or trailing plant.

VINEYARD Vineyard, land on which cultivation of the grape takes place.

VINEYARD MANAGEMENT Vinryard Management includes all the steps in vineyard from the growing of vines to the harvesting of grapes during this time wine faces many things like vine training, proper feeding of pest and dieses control

Before the rainy season vigneron prepares the vineyard to get good quality of grapes, he also takes cares of many things like use good quality of soil, good quality of vine varieties. He handles the vines according to the climate.

At the end final step is to harvest the proper ripened grapes with proper care this can be done manually or mechanically.

VINE A vine is any plant of genus Vitis (the grape plants) or, by extension, any similar climbing or trailing plant. The word, ultimately derived from Latin vīnea, originally referred exclusively to the grape-bearing plant; the modern extended sense is largely or     Page 99 

restricted to North American English, which then uses grapevine to refer specifically to the grape-bearing Vitis species. (Conversely, British English tends to use climber to refer to the broader category, including, for example, ivy.)

VINEYARD Vineyard, land on which cultivation of the grape—known as viticulture—takes place. As many as 40 varieties of grape, Vitis vinifera, are known. The few that grow wild are generally not used; all domesticated varieties require careful cultivation to produce good fruit. While the primary purpose of vineyards throughout history has been the production of grapes for wine, many vines, largely in the New World, are cultivated for eating grapes, grape juice, and dried grapes, or raisins.

Beer Mug

Beer pilsner

Brandy snifter or    

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Collins glass Cocktail glass Champagne flute

Cordial glass Highball glass

Hurricane glass

Irish coffee cup

Margarita/Coupette glass

Old-fashioned glass or    

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Parfait glass

Pousse cafe glass Punch bowl

Red wine glass

Sherry glass

Shot glass

    Whiskey sour glass or     Page 102 

Need more improve your hospitality knowledge invite us as Hotel Team Manager to build your hotel become standard to go your corporate goals Hoi An – Quang Nam – Viet Nam April 23, 2009

Drs. Agustinus Agus Purwanto., MM or    

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