DESIGNING INSTRUMENTS FOR MEASURING STUDENTS' by hcj

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									        DESIGNING INSTRUMENTS FOR MEASURING STUDENTS’
         EDUCATIONAL OUTCOMES: THE NABTEB APPROACH



                                           By




                                  T.A. Aworefa
                      Ag. Head, NABTEB Lagos Regional Office
                                  Lagos, Nigeria




Abstract


The Focus of this paper is on public examinations and mode of assessment with
particular reference to NABTEB NTC/NBC/ANTC/ANBC Examinations. The paper starts
by defining instruments as well as standardized measuring devices, appropriate to a
given evaluation.    It further explains the steps good test developers must follow
conventionally, in constructing test items in order to measure effectively and accurately
what testees have learnt to do, thereby indicating appropriately, the degree of success in
their past learning activities. The paper further discusses the instruments and techniques
used by NABTEB in assessing students' educational attainment in technical/business
education programmes, under the following modes of assessment: traditional paper-
pencil-tests, assessment of psychomotor and affective areas of project/practical works.
In conclusion, the paper calls on those involved in the design and use of measuring
instruments in the conduct of public examinations, to be security conscious as most
important administrative decisions depend on the information gathered through them.
1.0.       INTRODUCTION

Variables, teachers and psychologists assess formally or informally include educational
attainments, intelligence, aptitude, personality and character.


Assessment in an educational setting, meant to describe the progress of the learners, the
appropriateness of the curriculum and the effectiveness of methodology, can be done
with varying degrees of objectivity.         Broadly speaking, this consists giving all the
relevant evidence its due weight and particularly, not being conspicuously influenced by
selfishness or purely personal biases. This is why psychologists accept that in developing
any measuring instrument, it is important to ask these questions.


       -   Is the instrument valid? i.e. does it really measure what it claims to measure? Or
           is the instrument providing information that is relevant to the decision that is to be
           made?


       -   Is the instrument reliable? i.e. is it an accurate, consistent and stable measuring
           instrument? i.e. does it consistently measure whatever it measures?


With these questions at the back of the mind and other relevant factors like convenience,
appropriateness, usability, storability and interpretability of a measuring instrument,
whatever decisions taken as a result of information collected from the use of it is
regarded as being objective.


2.0        CONCEPT OF INSTRUMENTS

Instruments are selected or developed and well standardized measuring devices,
appropriate to a given evaluation (Adewunmi, 1988). Instruments can be developed in
form of, tests, interviews, observations, projects, questionnaires, inventory and rating
scale etc. Tests are major instruments used in the measure of students’ levels

of knowledge, skills and performance in any teaching-learning situation.
Daramola (1990) viewed tests as standardized or non- standardized measures of an
individual’s response to a systematic sample of stimuli or behaviour from which
inferences about the general behaviour can be made.


He further explained that:


Tests could be either teacher- made tests or standardized tests or both and could take the
form of oral or written tests and essay tests or objective tests as the case may be.
Tests in public examinations are designed to measure students’ present level of
knowledge, skills or performance and to also elicit information on what a student has
learnt to do thereby indicating the degree of success in some past learning activities.
From the foregoing comments, it should be noted that public examinations such as
Primary School Leaving Certificate Examinations, West African School certificate
Examinations (SSCE), Degree/NCE Examinations, National Examinations Council
(NECO) and National Business & Technical Examinations Board (NABTEB)
NTC/NBC/ANTC/ANBC.                 Examinations, held after students have undergone some
training on specified curriculum, adopt the use of tests in the measure of students’
educational outcomes.


2.1       FUNCTIONS OF MEASURING INSTRUMENTS
Osunde (2003) asserted that the central purpose of measuring instruments is to improve
the process of learning and instruction. He said they are of immense help in a teaching–
learning situation. The following are the roles they play:
      -   Periodic appraisal of the level of achievement of students in the various school
          subjects
      -   Identification or diagnosis of learning difficulties individual students or the class
          in general are facing.
      -   Guidance and counselling of the students in the areas of educational and
          vocational decisions, personal and social adjustment problems.
      -   School administrators can pass judgement as to the degree to which the schools’
          objectives are being achieved. The identification of strengths and weaknesses in
          the school’s educational programme and the effectiveness of instructional
          strategies and materials are possible with data collected through measuring
          instruments.
      -   Reporting of the progress students are making to parents. This could be done
          through cumulative results sent to parents.

3.0       BASIC STEPS IN THE DESIGN OF INSTRUMENTS FOR MEASURING
          STUDENTS EDUCATIONAL OUTCOMES
A good test must meet some essential criteria in order for it to accurately assess students’
educational outcomes. Systematic and adequate planning is required on the part of Test
Developers if they must have good tests that are valid, reliable and useable.


A good Test Designer therefore, should note the following major steps in designing a test.
-         Obtaining a List of Instructional Objectives.

The major purpose of constructing and administering a test is to determine the extent to
which instructional objectives have been achieved by the students. An instructional
objective is simply a statement of expected learning outcome.           Therefore, the test
constructor should identify the instructional objectives, which is essential in the effort to
construct test items.


-         Outlining the Content to be Covered
In order to ensure that a test adequately samples the subject matter included in the
instruction, it is essential to make an outline of the content to be covered by the test. The
content is the means through which objectives are to be achieved. It is usually made up
of the topics and subtopics within the subject.


-         Preparation of table of Specifications or test Blue-Print
A table of specifications should be prepared before test items are written. This is because
a test constructor must follow a systematic procedure to arrive at a representative sample
of the instructional objectives and the content to be measured.
Developing a table of specifications is the most crucial aspect in test preparation. This is
because all subsequent decisions such as the form of the test and types of items to be
used, follow from the table of specifications. In preparing a table of specifications, it is
customary to combine the instructional objective and the content and this will give us
essentially, a two dimensional table. Along the horizontal dimension, there is the content
and along the vertical dimension, are process objectives.    (See Appendix 1 attached).



-         Writing the Relevant Test Items
At this stage, the test constructor writes the test items that measure the sample of
students’ behaviour specified in the table of specifications. In writing the test items, the
test constructor should take note of the guidelines which are highlighted in the table of
specifications.


-       Item Analysis
Until items are administered to a group or sample of students and scored, there is no
empirical information about the adequacy of each item of the test or the test as a whole.
The construction of valid and reliable test requires consideration o f quantitative
information regarding the difficulty and discrimination power of each item. Whatever
may be the purpose of a test, whether it is educational or psychological, its adequacy
depends on the care with which each item of the test has been selected.


The item analysis is usually discussed under:
     i.     Discrimination power of each item and
    ii.     Item difficulty


-           Printing and administration of the standardized tests to a larger representative
sample of students and determination of validity and reliability coefficients.


4.0         THE MANDATE OF NATIONAL BUSINESS                         AND     TECHNICAL
            EXAMINATIONS BOARD (NABTEB)
The National Business and Technical Examinations Board (NABTEB) was established
through decree No. 70 (now act No. 70) of 1993 and specifically charged the Board
among others, with the conduct of the technical and Business Examinations hitherto
handled by the West African Examinations Council (WAEC), namely:
      -   The Royal Society of Arts
      -   City and Guilds of London Institute
      -   The WAEC Technical and Business Examinations, and
      -   The Common Entrance Examination into Federal and State Technical Colleges.


By implication, the boundary of its functions is elastic in that it is expected to harmonize
the several other Technical and Business Examinations available in the Nigerian market.


Included among these proliferated examinations are Pitman Series, OGT, Trade Test, etc.
These proliferated Examinations have been absorbed by NABTEB under its various
examinations, namely:
      -   National Technical Certificate (NTC)
      -   National Business Certificate (NBC)
      -   Advanced National Business Certificate (ANBC)
      -   Advanced National Technical Certificate (ANTC)
      -   Common Entrance Examination into Federal and State Technical Colleges, and
      -   Modular Trades Certificate Examinations (Newly introduced)


5.0       STRUCTURE OF NABTEB NTC/NBC/ANBC EXAMINATIONS
      The main features of NABTEB NBC/NTC/ANBC/ANTC examinations are that:
      -   The NTC/NBC replaced the WAEC Technical and WAEC Business certificates.
      -   The NTC/NBC Examinations are based on the NBTE Modular Syllabuses and the
          examinations are at par with SSCE.
      -   The NTC/NBC holder will not only have a vocational trade but will have
          sufficient education to assure upward mobility (admissibility into polytechnics,
          colleges of Education and Universities) like his/her SSC holder counterpart – a
          feature which was lacking in the old arrangement.
      -   The advanced versions of the examinations i.e. ANBC and ANTC will be
          administered to candidates after a minimum of one year industrial experience
       before being admitted into the program as stipulated b y the NBTE modular
       curricula.


6.0    MODES OF NABTEB EXAMINATIONS

Most of our public Examinations are known to be Norm-referenced in nature because
their major concern had been the classification and comparison of candidates. This is no
longer tenable especially when it is considered that the nature of the curriculum and
instructional procedures employed in an educational system are greatly influenced by the
ideology of a nation. A nation in transition, like Nigeria, whose ideology is that of
changing


The society for the better, providing equal access to knowledge and building an
egalitarian society, usually emphasizes socially relevant curriculum, stressing vocational,
scientific, and technological aspects and emphasizing mastery of learning.


Such competence-based instructional strategy, requires criterion – reference tests because
criterion – reference tests are most useful for measuring the mastery of minimum
essentials in an instructional programme.


Apart from the use of criterion – referenced type of tests by NABTEB, the nature of
subjects examined by the Board dictates that its examinations should maintain a good
balance between theory and practical. One of the things that distinguishes students or
graduates of Technical Colleges from the roadside mechanics, Tailors, Food Sellers, or
Artisans is the fact that they are expected to have some theoretical background of what
they are doing rather than the trial-and-error approach of the roadside person. At the
same time, they are not just mere theoretical persons, they must be practically competent.


NABTEB has therefore modified the traditional mode of examinations and made her
examinations more worthwhile and closer to measuring the contents (theory and practice)
of Technical and Business Education.
For this purpose, NABTEB has adopted the use of a combination of the following
measuring instruments.
1. The multiple-choice (objective) tests to make for more coverage of content area.
2. The short-structured tests (of about 25 items) to test.
      a)     verbalization which are known to serve as motor line for the direction of
            musculations in the process of performing actions in psychomotor skills,
            and
      b)     principles and skills that may not be conveniently covered by the multiple
             – choice items and yet cannot be lumped with essay test items.
3. Essay and Mechanical Achievement tests which require candidates to relate, describe
      and write out their own productions or find out how much of the mechanical ability to
      which the candidate had been exposed can be recalled, recognized and applied under
      examination conditions.
4. Evaluation of psychomotor and affective areas of projects/practical works.            This
      involves performance tests where candidates or groups of candidates are assigned
      various things to construct, repair, manipulate or demonstrate skills acquired
      especially in their chosen trades within the period of training in the Technical
      Colleges.


7.0        STRATEGIES FOR ACHIEVING QUALITIES IN THE DESIGN OF
           MEASURING INSTRUMENTS

The development of Essay and practical test items and other skill tests follow the same
pattern.


However, practical test, a proficiency test of skills in a given trade or profession, tests
one’s knowledge, ability and aptitude to do something well. This is why NABTEB
places premium on the recruitment of qualified and experienced staff and examiners in
handling its examinations.


Whoever therefore will be item writers, examiners or verifiers of Trades in NABTEB
must be experts in the fields with relevant teaching and industrial experience. This
knowledge enables subject officers and commissioned item writers participate effectively
in item generation and moderation exercises.


7.1     DESIGN OF NABTEB EXAMINATIONS SYLLABI

The NABTEB Examinations syllabi are based on the NBTE Modular curricula, and it has
being in existence since the inception of the Board. Notable among the Board’s strategies
in the design of its examinations syllabi were numerous workshops and consultative
meetings held in April 1994, geared towards transforming the NBTE modular curricula
into examinations syllabuses. Each panel involved in the workshop, comprised of one
expert from a Technical College, one person who worked on the original NBTE
curriculum in the trade, one representative of the industry and one WAEC examiner in
the trade.


The work of the various panels led to the design of syllabuses in 26 Trades, 5 Trade
related (cognate) courses, and 4 General (core) subjects. Concerted efforts have been
made by the Board to develop syllabi in more Trades due to popular demands from
stakeholders. As at 2005, NABTEB has 34


Trades, 4 Trade related and 6 General Education subjects.
Several other consultative meetings were also held with officials of the state Ministries of
Education, Principals and Staff of Technical College s and professional bodies.


In November, 1994, joint meeting comprising of the representatives of the Federal
Ministry of Education and Youth Development, National Board for Technical Education
(NBTE), the West African Examinations Council (WAEC), Nationa l Business and
Technical examinations Board (NABTEB) and the Association of Principals of Technical
Colleges (NAPTECON) was also held to deliberate on the examination syllabi of
NABTEB.


One of the most interesting aspects of the syllabi is that it has bee n designed and
expanded to provide the products of our Technical Colleges with adequate basic
academic background, necessary for entry into higher institutions of learning for those
that are capable.
The NABTEB examination Syllabi has not only removed one of the major drawbacks
that frustrated and stagnated the products of the old system but also it,
         (a) promotes quality Technical/Business education and training in employable
             skills.
         (b) provides technical education for those with aptitude and ability to compete
             with their counterparts in Senior Secondary Schools for placement in higher
             institutions.
         (c) Provides for a well balanced and informed person
         (d) Provides for the first time in the educational system, for individualized study,
             and
         (e) Provides for private and part time candidates through inherent flexibility in
             the modular approach.


7.2  DESIGN OF TABLE OF SPECIFICATIONS FOR ITEM GENERATION
NABTEB ensures the use of Table of specifications as guides to all item writers
commissioned to generate items.


Not only are details of the important areas supplied but also the number and thinking
levels of such questions are well spelt out in order to maintain good balance and
coverage. (See Appendixes I & II attached)


7.3    EDITING OF TEST ITEMS
In the process of editing generated items, subject officers/specialists and commissioned

test experts, who are armed with the pre-determined content and objectives as specified in

the table of specifications, ensure that

-      The items adequately cover all the relevant content and objectives
-      Any item or items looking ambiguous are discarded or replaced.
-      Basic rules for constructing objective and Essay test items are strictly followed.
7.4      ITEM MODERATION
After all the items received from writers have been edited by the subject officers in the
various components of trades, they are then compiled into groups for moderation by a
committee of not less than four experts in the subject selected from the pool of Examiners
working with the Board.


The services of Examiners who have worked for years with sister examination Bodies or
NABTEB and who have been trained and re-trained over the years are engaged by the
Board in the exercise. This method of selection has eliminated and completely removed
the biases of higher institutions arising from perceived inadequacies of the past. Most
importantly, it has increased the level of confidence of Industries and Higher Institutions
in NABTEB.


During moderation meetings, the compiled items are critically moderated and amended
where necessary including the accompanying Table of Specifications. At this stage, the
blue-prints are also critically examined for details such as
-     Accuracy of dimensions and specifications
-     Appropriateness of the basis for the level being tested.
-     Accuracy of time allocated.
-     The nature of materials and appropriateness
-     Ensuring compliance with the instructional objectives and coverage.
-     Ensuring agreement with the opinions of curriculum experts, test
      construction experts and language experts.
-     Ensuring compliance with the rules of Item generation (objective and
      essay items inclusive).



7.5      DESIGN OF MARKING SCHEMES OR GUIDES
NABTEB examination answer scripts for essay questions are marked at designated
marking venues within the country. The marking schemes are finalized by consensus of
a team of Chief Examiners and Team Leaders while consistency of marking is
determined through standardized marking of dummy scripts first, before the live scripts
are issued. Standardization process does not only facilitate familiarization with the
marking scheme, monitoring the consistency in its use but also helps in checking on the
competence of the Examiners, thus ensuring validity also. Much effort is expended on
vetting of scripts by Chief examiners and Team Leaders. Checkers are also engaged to
ensure that candidates are not at undue advantage or disadvantaged positions for quality
control.


NABTEB provides guidelines for Examiners to scrutinize and detect irregularities and
malpractices from candidates’ scripts during marking. This is a means of quality control
which amenorates the effects of poor supervision and invigilation thus contributing to
assurance of validity, reliability and the integrity of the Examinations. At the end of each
marking exercise, it is made mandatory for Chief examiners to write comprehensive
reports as feedback information on the standard of the papers, suitability of the marking
scheme and other important information on the Examinations.


7.6        EVALUATION OF PSYCHOMOTOR AND AFFECTIVE AREAS OF
           PROJECT/PRACTICAL WORKS.

The types of assessment used by NABTEB in the practical assessment of candidates are
product and process Evaluation models.


In product evaluation, the finished jobs are marked by the appointed practical Examiners
while in process evaluation the presence of the examiner or verifier is required at the
centre during the Practical Examinations to see every candidate performs the step by step
operation of his tasks and rating the candidate’s performa nce accordingly, on the spot
with the aid of practical check lists provided. Some examples of practical
                                           TABLE I

S/N      Trade Assessed by Process       Trade Code       Trade Assessed by          Trade
         Eval.                                            Product Eval.              Code
    1.       Agric Equipment &              010              * Fabrication and         050
             Implementation                                     Welding
             mechanics works
                                                             * Mech. Engr.                 060
                                                             Craft
                                                               Practice
    2.       Motor vehicle                  020              Printing Craft            360
             Mechanics
    3.       Auto-Electrical Work           030              Graphic Art               380

    4.       Elec. Install. & Maint.        040              Ladies Garment            330
             Practice                                        Making


    5.       Radio, TV &                    070              Men’s Garment             320
             Electronics Work                                Making
    6.       Instrument Mechanics           110              Textile Trades            37A
             Work
    7.       Textile Trades                 370

    * (Assessed by product and process evaluation).

Product and process means of assessing practical work of students provide two important

functions:

-        They focus attention on the specific behavioural or attitudinal pattern of work
         e.g. honesty, attitude towards wastage or otherwise of materials
-        They provide a convenient method for recording judgement of observer e.g.

         perseverance.
However, product type of evaluation may be disadvantageous as all processes or

procedures are not measured and assessed from the beginning. (see Appendix IV, sample

of mark sheet for scoring in process evaluation).



7.7    DESIGN OF CHECKLISTS
For an effective assessment of practical skills, NABTEB provides a well designed
marking scheme check lists which are sensitive enough to discriminate between the poor,
fair, good and excellent candidates.


In the process of designing this instrument, mode of evaluating the following tasks are
included.
       -       Correct interpretation of drawings.
       -       Selection of appropriate tools
       -       Sequential approach to the tasks
       -       Safety observation
       -       Aesthetic movement and handling of materials, apparatus, tools etc.
       -       Total time spent on each task (see Appendix III for sample)


7.8        STANDARDIZATION OF CHECK LISTS

NABTEB organizes practical coordination meetings for the purpose of standardizing
practical marking scheme. This involves all practical Examiners who are to be assigned
to specific centres during the period of the practical examinations. It is in such meetings
that the practical test marking schemes are finalized and adopted for use at the centre
during marking.


Imandojemu (2001) asserted that the preparation of a good marking scheme checklist is
the heart and one of the most important aspect of the test itself. He explained further that
practical tests easily lend themselves to subjectivity. This is why every ca re is taken in
NABTEB to draw out a marking scheme checklist schedule that is objective.
7.9       SCORE DETERMINATION FOR PRACTICAL WORK PIECE

The Practical Examiner will ensure that:
-         The project is of a life size of the object to be made and not a miniature of it
-         Upper and Lower limits of dimensions are established
    Scores are then assigned in the following order:
          a) Exact dimensions – 4 marks
          b) Upper limits of dimensions – 3 marks
          c) Lower Limit of dimensions – 2 marks
          d) Outside or beyond these two limits - 1 mark

8.0       GRADING SYSTEM
NABTEB uses multiple cut-off scores on mastery continuum to identify MASTERY,
COMPETENT OR MINIMALLY COMPETENT individuals among
the examinees.


This is done after the standardization of the aggregate scores on each subject.
The master is awarded Distinction, the competent is awarded Credit, while the minimally
competent is awarded pass.


Thus the 3 – range scale on the mastery continuum with the non- mastery continuum
become a 4 – range scale and the grading is based on 8 – point scale for the purpose of
reporting performance in Trade subjects as shown in Table II below:



                                           TABLE II

GRADING SYSTEM FOR TRADE SUBJECTS/COMPONENTS
Boundary/Cut-off          Grade
of standardized           Description           Letter Grade            Number Grade
Scores
80 and above                                                                  1
75 – 79                     Distinction                A                      2
70 – 74                                                                       3
65 – 69                                                                   4
60 – 64                    Credit                   C                     5
55 – 59                                                                   6
50 – 54                    Pass                     P                     7
Below 50                   Fail                     F                     8
To report performance in General education and Trade-related subjects, NABTEB adopts
the usual stannine scores (a 9-Point scale) as indicated in Table III:
                              TABLE III
   GRADING OF GENERAL EDUCATION, TRADE RELATED & BUSINESS
                          STUDIES SUBJECTS
Boundary/Cut-off Grade
of standardized  Description      Letter Grade Number Grade
Scores
80 and above                                       1
75 – 79           Distinction          A           2
70 – 74                                            3
65 – 69                                            4
60 – 64            Credit              C           5
50 – 59                                            6
45 – 49                                            7
40 - 44            Pass                 P          8
Below 40           Fail                 F          9

9.0     RECOMMENDATIONS ON NABTEB STRATEGIES FOR EFFECTIVE
        DESIGN AND USE OF INSTRUMENTS

Based on the experience of NABTEB in the conduct of public examinations for its
teeming stakeholders, the following recommendations have been deduced for effective
design and use of its various measuring instruments.


       conducting research studies on procedures and modes of assessment and using the
         findings to up date the existing instruments in order to adapt to new demands.
       Review of examination syllabuses from time to time.
       Mounting regular training/workshops/seminars and briefing sessions for item
         writers, moderators, supervisors and examiners to update their knowledge in test
         construction and improve their performance in scoring of scripts and examination
         supervision.
    Inspecting and monitoring on a regular basis the facilities provided for teaching
       and learning in centres.
    Applying effective in-built quality control mechanisms in every aspect of the
       operational procedures i.e. test development, administration and processing of
       results.




10.0    CONCLUSION
NABTEB enjoys remarkable amount of confidence from its stakeholders because of
consistency in the adoption of its operational strategies which make the Board highly
responsive to the aspirations and expectations of its teeming beneficiaries.


In order to sustain this kind of reputation in public examinations in general, more
understanding of human assessment is indispensable for people like teachers and
psychologists who exercise great influence through the assessment they make and the
decisions that are taken in consequence.


Assessment, perceived by psychometrists as the sum of techniq ues available for
measuring human performance in all dimensions of behaviour has to be handled with
great caution as most administrative decisions like placement, selection, classification,
prediction certification and others depend on the information gathered through them.
All instruments used in this regard must therefore be carefully selected, developed and
standardized in order to enable public examinations achieve the desired objectives.



REFERENCES

Adewunmi, J.A. (1988) Introduction to Educational Research Technique. Ilorin, Gbenle
Press.

Ahmana, J.S. and Glock, M.D. (1967) Evaluating Pupils Growth: Principles of test
Measurement. Bacon Publishing Company.
Awanbor, D. (2004) Text of an address delivered during courtesy calls on the Vice
Chancellors of selected Universities on the acceptance of NABTEB certificates.

Daramola, S.F. (1990) Measurement of Wants. Unpublished book, University of Ilorin,
Ilorin.

Gayles, C.S. (1977) Issues in the psychological Assessment of Pre-School     Children,
Journal of school Psychology, 15 (2), pp 129 – 135.

Imandoyemu, A.A. (2001) Perspectives in Vocational and Technical Education.
(concept, philosophy and Assessment).

Maduemezia, M.U (1997) Strategies for achieving Quality in Educational Assessment:
WAEC Experience. A paper presented at the 15 th Annual     Conference of Association
                                               st   th
for Educational Assessment in Africa (AEAA) 21 – 27 September, 1997.

NABTEB (1992)      Information Bulletin No. 3 on the conduct of NABTEB
Examinations. December 9, 1992

NABTEB (1997) Information Bulletin No. 6 on the grading system for         NBC./NTC
(ordinary Craft level) March,, 1997.

Onwuegbe, O.C., Osunde, A.U. and Ughamadu, K.A. (1991)              Measurement and
Evaluation in Education. World of books publishers, Benin-City.

Olu Aina (1995) The Challenge of Change in Educational Assessment. A paper
delivered to Directors of vocational Education and Principals of Technical Colleges in
Nigeria. 5th January, 1995.

Osunde, A.U. (2003)          Assessment of Test Items.         Paper presented at the
international Association of Educational Assessment. University of Benin      Workshop
on Measurement and Evaluation, University of Benin, 4 th – 15th     August, 2003.

APPENDIX I
TABLE OF SPECIFICATIONS FOR 062 – (TURNING, MILLING, SHAPING,
PLAINING AND SLOTTING)
S/N Topics                         No. of         Thinking      Level       Cumulative
                                   Question                                 Total
                                   s
          CME 14                          Know- Compreh   Appli-
A                                         ledge ension    cation
      LATHE WORK
       Types and working                   A      B            C
       principles of lathe
        turning machine.
      Settling lathe machine, the
      accessories and operations
      on the lathe machine.           8       2   3        3
      Maintenance       of    lathe
      machine.
 B    SCREW CUTTING AND
      TAPER TURNING
      Calculation of speed,
      simple and compound gear
      trains for screw cutting.
      Methods of taper turning.       6   2        2        2
      Calculation of angle and
      the angular Emo in taper
      turning derived from tool
      setting
 C.   WORK             HOLDING
      METHOD
      Types of work holding
      equipment on lathe
      machine.                        4       1    1           2
      Application of various
      work holding devices.
D.    AUTOMATIC              AND
      SPECIAL          PURPOSE
      LATHE
      The working principles and
      work plan for a turning job.
      Mounting accessories and        6    2       2           2
      operation.
      Grinding lathe tools and
      maintenance.
      CME 15
      PRINCIPLES OF
      MILLING MACHINE
      Types and working
      principles of milling
      machine.
E.    Function, tools and
      constructional details of
      milling machine.
      Accessories and working       10   4   3   3
      principles of milling
      machine.
      Working principles of
      straddle milling at one
      setting.
      Mounting cutters and
      speed calculation.
      Maintenance.
F.    WORK             HOLDING
      DEVICES
      Indentations, selection and
      the use of appropriate work
      holding devices on milling
      machines.
      Mounting and setting jobs
      on milling machines for
      operations.                   6    1   3   2
      Performing of milling
      operations.
 G.   PLANO                 MILL
      MACHINE
      Types and working
      principles of Plano milling   6    2   2   2
      machine.
      Functions and attachment
      of Plano milling machine,
      mounting tools cutters set
      up for various operations.
      Performing the required
      operation on work-piece
      with specifications.


 H.   SHAPING MACHINE
      Types and the uses of
      essential components and
      accessories.
      Functions and
      constructional details of
      shaping machine.              10   3   3   4
      Principles of operation,
      selection of tools and
      setting up.
      Setting and operating the
      shaper to produce various
      components with safety
     precautions.
     Maintenance of shaping
     machine.
I.   CUTTING SPEED AND
     FEED
     Explanation of geometry
     quick return motion and         2   1    1
     the calculation of speed
     and feed.
J.   PLAINING MACHINE,
     SPEED AND FEED
     Types and sizes of plainer
     Functions and working
     principles of plaining
     machines.                      8    2    3    3
     Tools and accessories.
     Mounting work, operation
     and speed
     Calculation of speed and
     feed.
K.   SLOTTING MACHINE
     Types and uses of slotting
     machines.
     Essential components and
     accessories of slotting
     machine.
     Working principles and
     setting up slotting machine.
     Explanation of geometry of
     “Whiteworth” quick return
     motion and calculation of
     working speed.
     Maintenance of slotting        10   2    3    5
     machine.
     Total No. of Items             54   15   18   21




APPENDIX II
TURNING, MILLING, SHAPING, PLANNING AND SLOTTING
SECTION B – ESSAY
S/N    Topics                    No. of          Thinking               Cumulative
                                 Ques-            Level                 Total
                                 tions    Know- Compreh Appli-
                                          ledge ension cation

                                           A        B           C
           CME 14

       LATHE WORK
       Screw-turning and tape      6       1        3           2
       turning.
       Automatic and special
       purpose lathe.
       Work holding methods.

       CME 15
       Principles of milling
       machine.
       Work holding device          4                   2       2
       Plaining & milling
       machine
       CME 16
       Shaping machine             4                2               2
       Cutting speed and feed
       Plaining machine, speed
       and feed
       Slotting machine
       Total No. of Items          14       1           7           6




  APPENDIX III

      MARKING SCHEME CHECK LIST FOR MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
        CRAFT PRACTICE 062 – 2 (TURNING, MILLING, PLAINING AND
                           SLOTTING TEST).
        Paper Code …………… Day ……………………. Date …………………..

  NO.           SKILLS/TASKS TO BE RATED        EXCEL       GOO FAIR         PO
                IN PRACTICAL                    LENT        D                OR
                EXAMINATIONS
1.    Correct interpretation of Drawing          3   2   1
                                             4
2.    Appearance and finish of all
      surfaces
      Squareness of all surfaces
3.
      Accuracy of Linear dimensions 135,
4.
      45, 20, 40, 40, 20 and 18 x 4
5.
      Positional accuracy of all U-cuts
6.
      Positional accuracy of chamfers
7.
      Accuracy of diameters 20, 36, 18,
8.    26 and 19
9.    Positional accuracy of flats x 4
10.   Positional accuracy of 6mm hole
11.   Positional accuracy of 10 x 40mm
      slot
      Accuracy of M24 x 2 diameter
      (threaded or not)
      SCORE RANGE

      Diameters

      All diameters within tolerance - 4
      outside diameters + 0.01 Off
      Tolerance - 1
      Linear Dime nsions

      All Linear Measurements within
      tolerance – 4.
      Linear dimensions off tolerances are
      not scored.

      NOTE

      Candidates’ score should be
      converted to 50 marks using the
      formula:
             X      x 100
                                          N           I
                              Where x is the candidate’s total
                              score and N is the maximum
                              obtainable score. (i.e. N = 40)




                                                                   APPENDIX IV

                          MARKSHEET SUPPLEMENTS FOR PRACTICAL OBSERVATION

                                                      SCHEDULE (CHECK LIST)

                  PAPER CODE ………… DAY ……………….                                           DATE ……………………

                  PAPER TITLE …………………………….. TIME …………………

                  CENTRE NAME ………………………………. CENTRE CODE …………….

                  RATING – EX = 4, GOOD = 3, FAIR = 2, POOR = 1

S/N   CAND.   CAND.   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8       9   10    11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22   23   24   25
      NO.     NAME
NOTE:- This is used for scoring candidates in process assessment in combination
with the marking scheme check list (Appendix III).

								
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