Table of Contents Table of Contents by bdm94754

VIEWS: 36 PAGES: 7

									                                                                                NMI photo
                                                                              Table of
                                                                              Contents
Figure 1. Mike Seibert and Paul Neidinger of Williamsport Preservation
Training Center perform a condition assessment of Thomas Point Shoals
Light Station, Maryland, in 1995.

        Introduction
             Contributors ............................................................................................................. 2
             Program Managers ................................................................................................... 2
             Acknowledgements .................................................................................................. 2
             Note to Readers ....................................................................................................... 3
        Table of Contents
        I. Why Preserve Lighthouses?
             What is a Lighthouse? .............................................................................................. 1
             Lighthouses and Our National Heritage .................................................................... 2
             What Makes a Lighthouse "Historic"? ....................................................................... 4
                  Identifying Historic Properties ............................................................................ 4
                  Benefits of Listing in the National Register of Historic Places .............................. 5
             Federal Agency Responsibilities: the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 ...... 6
        II. History of the Lighthouse Service and Lighthouse Construction Types
             History of the Lighthouse Service ............................................................................. 1
             Lighthouse Construction Types ................................................................................. 3
                  • SIDEBAR: Lighthouse Construction Types........................................................ 6
        III. Standards, Guidelines, and the Preservation Process
             Levels of Treatment: The Secretary of the Interior’s Standards for the Treatment of
                  Historic Properties ............................................................................................. 1
                  Preservation ....................................................................................................... 2
             General Guidelines for the Preservation Planning Process ........................................ 3
                  Historical Research ............................................................................................ 3
                  Identification of Character-Defining Features ...................................................... 4



        Historic Lighthouse Preservation Handbook                                                                                  Page 1
         Documentation of Existing Conditions ............................................................... 4
              • SIDEBAR: Documenting Historic Lighthouses by the Historic American
                  Buildings Survey/Historic American Engineering Record .......................... 5
         Condition Assessment and Analysis .................................................................... 7
         Strategy for Maintenance .................................................................................... 8
              • SIDEBAR: Quantities Tracking, Tallying, and Cost Estimating .................... 9
         Special Requirements ......................................................................................... 10
         Preparation of Record of Treatment .................................................................... 11
IV. Historic Lighthouse Preservation
   Introduction
         Preserving Historic Lighthouses .......................................................................... 1
              Identify, Retain, and Preserve Historic Materials and Character-
                  Defining Features .................................................................................... 2
              Stabilize and Protect Deteriorated Historic Materials and Features as a
                  Preliminary Measure ................................................................................ 3
              Maintain Historic Materials and Features ...................................................... 3
              • SIDEBAR: Protection and Stabilization (“Mothballing”) of Historic Light
                  Stations ................................................................................................... 3
              Repair (Stabilize, Consolidate, and Conserve) Historic Materials
                   and Features ........................................................................................... 7
              Limited Replacement In Kind of Extensively Deteriorated Portions of Historic
                  Features ................................................................................................... 7
              Preserving Materials and Features in Historic Light Stations .......................... 7
         How to Use Part IV of the Handbook ................................................................. 8
   A. Masonry
         Inspecting for Masonry Problems ....................................................................... 3
         Preservation Treatments ..................................................................................... 9
              Protection and Stabilization (Mothballing) .................................................... 9
                  Weatherization ........................................................................................ 9
                  Stabilization ............................................................................................ 14
                  Ventilation .............................................................................................. 14
                  Fire Protection ......................................................................................... 14
              Repair .......................................................................................................... 15
                  Cleaning .................................................................................................. 15
                  External Coating Systems ......................................................................... 16
                  Repointing ............................................................................................... 17



Page 2                                                                                                     Table of Contents
                 Damaged Masonry Repairs ...................................................................... 19
                 Stucco ..................................................................................................... 20
             Limited Replacement In Kind ....................................................................... 23
             • SIDEBAR: Brick Replacement and Coating of Cape Florida Lighthouse ...... 23
             • SIDEBAR: The Building of Minots Ledge Light Station ................................ 26
   B. Iron
        Iron Alloys Found in Historic Lighthouses .......................................................... 2
        Inspecting for Possible Problems ........................................................................ 9
        Preservation Treatments ..................................................................................... 14
             Protection and Stabilization (Mothballing) .................................................... 15
                 Weatherization ........................................................................................ 15
                 Stabilization ............................................................................................ 17
                 Ventilation .............................................................................................. 17
                 Fire Protection ......................................................................................... 17
             Repair .......................................................................................................... 18
                 Cleaning .................................................................................................. 18
                 Paint Removal ......................................................................................... 18
                 • SIDEBAR: Paint Removal Tools ............................................................. 19
                 External Coating Systems ......................................................................... 23
                 Surface Preparation .................................................................................. 24
                 Selection of Paints and Coatings .............................................................. 24
                 • SIDEBAR: Masonry and Iron Interaction in Lighthouse Construction ..... 26
                 Application Methods ............................................................................... 28
                 Caulking, Patching, and Mechanical Repairs............................................ 28
                 Flashing ................................................................................................... 29
                 Dismantling and Assembly of Iron Components ...................................... 29
             Limited Replacement In Kind ....................................................................... 30
             • SIDEBAR: Lighthouse Designer/Builder George Meade .............................. 30
C. Wood
   Inspecting for Problems Associated with Wooden Lighthouses ................................. 3
   Preservation Treatments ........................................................................................... 9
        Protection and Stabilization (Mothballing) .......................................................... 9
             Weatherization ............................................................................................. 9
             Stabilization ................................................................................................. 11
             Ventilation ................................................................................................... 11
             Fire protection .............................................................................................. 12



Historic Lighthouse Preservation Handbook                                                                                Page 3
         Repair ............................................................................................................... 12
              Cleaning ....................................................................................................... 12
              Failing Paint ................................................................................................. 13
              Paint Removal: Selecting the Appropriate/Safest Method .............................. 15
              Methods for Removing Paint ........................................................................ 16
              Painting ........................................................................................................ 20
              Repair of Damaged/Deteriorated Wooden Components ............................... 20
              Structural Stabilization .................................................................................. 23
              Limited Replacement In Kind ....................................................................... 23
D. Concrete
  Historical Overview ................................................................................................. 2
  Types of Concrete .................................................................................................... 3
  Causes of Concrete Deterioration ............................................................................. 4
  Major Signs of Concrete Deterioration...................................................................... 5
  Inspecting for Concrete Problems ............................................................................. 7
  Preservation Treatments ........................................................................................... 11
         Protection and Stabilization (Mothballing) .......................................................... 11
              Weatherization ............................................................................................. 11
              Stabilization ................................................................................................. 13
              Ventilation ................................................................................................... 13
              Fire Protection .............................................................................................. 14
              Planning for Concrete Repair ........................................................................ 14
         Repair ............................................................................................................... 15
              Cleaning ....................................................................................................... 15
              Coatings ....................................................................................................... 15
              Damaged Concrete Repair ............................................................................ 17
         Limited Replacement In Kind ............................................................................. 20
E. Windows
  Window Types ......................................................................................................... 3
  Inspection and Evaluation ........................................................................................ 3
  Preservation Treatments ........................................................................................... 5
         Protection and Stabilization (Mothballing) .......................................................... 5
         Repair ............................................................................................................... 7
              Removing Paint from Wood Windows .......................................................... 7
              Removing Paint from Metal Windows .......................................................... 10
              Repainting .................................................................................................... 11



Page 4                                                                                                      Table of Contents
              Caulking and Glazing ................................................................................... 12
              Repairing Damaged or Deteriorated Windows .............................................. 14
              Epoxy, Fillers, and Consolidants ................................................................... 16
        Limited Replacement In Kind ............................................................................. 17
F. Doors
   Door Types .............................................................................................................. 2
   Inspection and Evaluation ........................................................................................ 4
   Preservation Treatments ........................................................................................... 6
        Protection and Stabilization (Mothballing) .......................................................... 6
              Security ........................................................................................................ 7
        Repair ............................................................................................................... 9
              Door Hardware ............................................................................................ 9
        Limited Replacement In Kind ............................................................................. 10
G. Lanterns
   Lantern Construction ................................................................................................ 3
   Special Conditions Associated with Historic Lantern Systems ................................... 5
        Galvanic Corrosion ............................................................................................ 5
        Rust-Jacking ....................................................................................................... 6
        Ventilation ......................................................................................................... 6
              Lantern Glass ............................................................................................... 7
        Inspecting for Lantern Problems ......................................................................... 9
        Preservation Treatments ..................................................................................... 12
              Protection and Stabilization (Mothballing) .................................................... 12
                  Weatherization ........................................................................................ 12
                  Stabilization ............................................................................................ 14
                  Ventilation .............................................................................................. 14
                  Fire Protection ......................................................................................... 15
              Repair .......................................................................................................... 15
                  Galvanic Corrosion ................................................................................. 15
                  Rust-Jacking ............................................................................................. 16
                  Ventilation .............................................................................................. 16
                  Lantern Glass ........................................................................................... 17
                  • SIDEBAR: Use of Lexan in Lantern Glass Replacement ......................... 18
                  Lantern Roof ............................................................................................ 19
                  Gallery Decks .......................................................................................... 19
                  Removal and Application of Protective Coatings ...................................... 20



Historic Lighthouse Preservation Handbook                                                                                  Page 5
              Limited Replacement In Kind ....................................................................... 21
              Installation of Modern Utilities and Equipment ............................................. 21
              • SIDEBAR: Maintenance of Classical Lenses ................................................ 23
   H. Interiors
         Deterioration of Historic Lighthouse Interiors during the Mothballing Period ..... 2
         Preservation Treatment: Minimizing Condensation Buildup ............................... 3
   I. Grounds
         General Site Recommendations ......................................................................... 3
         Archeological Recommendations ....................................................................... 4
         Landscape Features ............................................................................................ 5
         Security .............................................................................................................. 5
         Limited Replacement In Kind ............................................................................. 5
V. Beyond Basic Preservation
   A. Rehabilitation
         • CASE STUDY: Design for Missing Historic Windows....................................... 2
         • CASE STUDY: Design for Missing Historic Doors ............................................ 4
         • CASE STUDY: St. Simons Island Lighthouse Lantern Glass
              Replacement ................................................................................................ 6
         • CASE STUDY: Rehabilitation of Anacapa Island Lighthouse ............................. 11
         • CASE STUDY: Rehabilitation of Point Bonita Light Station ............................... 18
         • CASE STUDY: Rehabilitation of Point Conception Light Station ....................... 23
   B. Restoration
         • CASE STUDY: Restoration of Cape May Lighthouse ........................................ 2
         • CASE STUDY: Restoration of Cape Hatteras Lighthouse................................... 6
   C. Related Activities
         Examples of Adaptive Use/Rehabilitation ........................................................... 1
         • SIDEBAR: To Relight or not to Relight? ............................................................ 4
         Interpretation and Public Outreach .................................................................... 5
              • CASE STUDY: Interpretation at Split Rock Light Station ............................. 6
         Fundraising Ideas ............................................................................................... 10
         Funding Sources ................................................................................................ 13
         Use of Volunteers/Community Involvement ....................................................... 14
              • CASE STUDY: Point San Luis Lighthouse Keepers ...................................... 15
         Relocating Lighthouses ....................................................................................... 17
              • CASE STUDY: Relocation of the Block Island Southeast Lighthouse ........... 18
         Safety Management Issues .................................................................................. 23



Page 6                                                                                                       Table of Contents
   Fire Prevention and Protection Objectives ................................................................ 26
VI. Resources
   Glossary        ............................................................................................................... 1
        Preservation Terms ............................................................................................. 1
        Technical Terms ................................................................................................. 6
        Lighthouse Specific ............................................................................................ 7
   Organizations .......................................................................................................... 7
        Preservation Related ........................................................................................... 8
        Lighthouse Specific ............................................................................................ 9
        State Historic Preservation Officers .................................................................... 10
   Preparing a National Register Nomination ................................................................ 13
   Choosing an Appropriate Treatment for a Historic Lighthouse Project ...................... 18
   Bibliography/References ........................................................................................... 22
        Sources for the Handbook .................................................................................. 22
        Lighthouse-Related ............................................................................................. 24
        Preservation Guidance ....................................................................................... 26
        Technical Guidance ........................................................................................... 28
        Curation ............................................................................................................. 30
        Interpretation ..................................................................................................... 31
        Archeology ........................................................................................................ 31
        Cultural Landscapes ........................................................................................... 32
        Documentation .................................................................................................. 32
        National Archives Historical Resources .............................................................. 33
        Summary of Historic and Cultural Preservation Laws, Regulations, Orders, and
             Directives ..................................................................................................... 37




Historic Lighthouse Preservation Handbook                                                                                     Page 7

								
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