The American Revolution and Nationhood by Wittgenstein

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									Today’s Lecture:

Revolution and Nationhood

Number:

7

Lecture Organization:

• Class Announcements • Midterm Essay
• Brief Review

• American Revolution • Third Quarter

• First Quarter

• Pre-game show • Second Quarter • Fourth Quarter

• Forming Government
Time

• What is Constitutional

Class Announcements

Website
-- Old exams are posted

-- Essay is Posted (midterm essay)

Class Announcements

Reading -- make sure you are doing the reading
Overlapping Slides

-- download and manipulate yourself

Questions?
Time

Midterm Essay

how it works
1. write it

2. oral exam 3. chance to improve

exam-1 85.5 75 69 87.6 86.4 81.8 84.4 87.6 86.2 68.2 87.5 78 69 86 82 79.6 96.4 93 89 88 65.5 85 90.4 88.6 85 81 77.5 88.4 90.5 78.8 95 82.4 92.2 80 84.2 83.56286

essay

94 88 91 90 90 89 83

Essay:

A = 14. B=7 (B’s are high) Lowest grade = 82

82 98 95 95

91 96 89

87 98

86 97 96 95 95 91.66667

Time

Review

Pre-Game Show
-- against all odds (British superiority)

Review
America’s fighting options
1. Direct Confrontation? 2. War of Forts -- would seem suicidal

-- European convention. -- (e.g., French/Indian war) -- cf: Stratego

3. “Terrorism” – asymmetrical (explain how it works) warfare or “guerilla warfare -- Fabius Maximus Time
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“the Fabian strategy”
(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 8

The American Revolution:
Manhattan Mistake

The first quarter

-- Washington decided to use “direct confrontation” -- almost lost the war (should have been lost) -- Ellis quote …

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The Manhattan Mistake –
He moved his 15,000 troops to positions on long island and Manhattan. This was a mistake. He had placed the army in great peril and created the conditions for defeat. Long island was lost in a day, along with 300 casualties and 1,000 prisoners. By dividing his force between long island and Manhattan, Washington had given Howe the chance to destroy the continental army in pieces. Washington called a counsel of war in which the generals voted 10-3 in favor of retreat. But Washington rejected the advise. His officers wanted a war of posts. But he remained committed to the offense. He waited for the chance to pounce. His decision to linger on Manhattan was militarily suicidal.

[Source: Joseph Ellis -- paraphrased]
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The American Revolution:
Manhattan Mistake

The first quarter

-- butts kicked, they retreats into New Jersey: • Washington is the last man to cross the river • (nods to Hamilton)

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The American Revolution:
Manhattan Mistake Britain’s mistakes
-- taking Fort Washington

The first quarter

(seemed logical to them)

-- Ellis quote …

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The Manhattan Mistake –
Ultimately, he was spared from massive defeat because Howe decided, inexplicably, not to pursue the continental army. He dallied, and then focused his efforts on capturing fort Washington, near the present day George Washington Bridge. It fell on November 16, 1776, all of its 3,000 defenders killed or captured. With Howe preoccupied at fort Washington, the remnants of Washington’s army was able to escape across the Hudson and assume full flight across New Jersey. There was not much of an army left. [Source: Joseph Ellis]

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The American Revolution:
Manhattan Mistake Britain’s mistakes

The first quarter

-- European fighting convention: no fighting in the winter.

(mention Lord Howe and his mistress)

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The American Revolution:

The first quarter

What does Washington do next?
-- his generals meet -- vote overwhelmingly to retreat and change strategy -- 6,000 - 8,000 broken-down troops

Question:

What does Washington do?

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The American Revolution:

The first quarter

What does Washington do next? attack!
-- Princeton and Trenton (shot in the arm) -- Attack Trenton, Christmas Night -- Delaware-River painting (flat boat) -- Personally led the troops at Trenton

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Surprise Attack –

This is regarded as Washington's most famous tactical move. He did personally lead the troops in the assault at Trenton. Washington’s 2200 troops outgunned the enemy, with help from the 18 artillery pieces that Henry Knox had somehow managed to transport across the river. They enemy suffered 100 casualties, and 900 were captured. American casualties were rare, although James Monroe, a future president, was wounded. His decision to attack was particularly bold: He was supposed to rendezvous with three other colonial divisions, but they did not show. Hence, he only had his men and not the others. He felt that it was too important to try to get a victory. He won this all-or-nothing wager. [Source: Joseph Ellis]
3/12/2007 (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 18

His virtue and honor are now satisfied
Now he adopts the “The Fabias Strategy”

Time
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The American Revolution:
Brits take everything
-- The Fabias Strategy begins

Second Quarter

-- Brits decide to attack Philadelphia -- strategic center? -- Washington defeated at Brandywine, Germantown -- colonial government in exile (Maryland)

Pittsburgh: 24 Cardinals: 6

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The American Revolution:
Brits take everything unpopular war?

Second Quarter

“Popular support for the war continued to sputter. As one French partisan of the cause noted, “There is a hundred times more support for the revolution in any Paris cafe than in all the colonies together.”

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The American Revolution:
Brits take everything unpopular war?
-- Ellis’ estimation of popularity:

Second Quarter

• 1776 = height of popularity (first skirmishes) • second/third quarters = not very popular -- more people joined the British army in New York than otherwise -- mention loyalists in the South (Green Legion)

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The American Revolution:

Second Quarter

Lord Howe’s Navigational Mistake
-- He is supposed to rendezvous with Burgoyne

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stranded

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The American Revolution:

Second Quarter

Lord Howe’s Navigational Mistake
-- He is supposed to rendezvous with Burgoyne -- Saratoga -- The French and loans -- The peace proposal (dual sovereignty)

Pittsburgh: 24 Cardinals: 13
Time
3/12/2007 (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 25

The American Revolution:
Valley Forge
-- the key to the war

Third Quarter

Answer: Question:
Why? The survival of the army was paramount

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The American Revolution:
Valley Forge
-- the key to the war -- suffering was immense
Real Suffering –

Third Quarter

The shoeless soldiers tracking blood on the snow. No blankets. Most of the horses died from decay or exposure, and their decaying carcasses filled the air with the stench of the blood in the snow to create sensory images that Washington never forgot. This changed Washington’s conception of virtue. It was no longer an abstract concept.
[Source: Joseph Ellis] 3/12/2007
(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 27

The American Revolution:
Valley Forge
-- They managed to survive
They Survive –

Third Quarter

What did not happen at Valley Forge was more important than what did. The most important thing that did not happen was the dissolution of the continental army. It is not clear how many men died of disease and exposure at valley forge, but new recruits and new re-enlistments bolstered the size of the army to 12,000 in March of 1778, with a core of about 5,000 battle-tested veterans. [Source: Joseph Ellis]
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The American Revolution:
Valley Forge

Third Quarter

Washington’s “world views” begin to change
• the composition of the army had changed
• Washington’s views about slavery change

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Valley Forge – Enlistments
The days of popular enthusiasm for the war were gone forever, as were the enlistments of yeomen farmers and the kind of men who had participated in the Boston siege. Now, the army was composed of indentured servants, former slaves, landless sons and recent immigrants from Ireland and England. Young men between 15-25 years of age. These were the people at valley forge. Their formed a bond between the general and his soldiers. The troops would sing songs like “war and Washington” over and over again to the dismay of visitors. Washington not only admired their suffering, but saw that it was their staying power that ensured the eventual American victory.

[Source: Joseph Ellis]

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The American Revolution:
Monmouth victory
• hard drilling and victory

Third Quarter

Pittsburgh: 27 Cardinals: 16

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The American Revolution:
Southern strategy

Third Quarter

-- Brits embark upon a new campaign in the south -- It will be successful again (overtaking cities, winning battles) -- there are rumors that England is summoning another armada of troops to send over here.

Pittsburgh: 41 Cardinals: 16

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French Troops

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The American Revolution:
Mutinies

Third Quarter

-- several mutinies by continental troops • March on Philadelphia by unpaid troops • mutiny in New Jersey (Washington had those members executed)

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The American Revolution:
failure of central governance

Third Quarter

-- one of the stunning lessons Washington had learned was how ineffective American governing institutions were
-- weak institutions could not properly supply the army, let alone pay them -- compare this to England. (leaves a big impression on W) -- had to order his men to steal cattle in New Jersey -- the currency was a joke

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“The Failure of the Republican Experiment” –
He noted that the best men in America preferred to slumber in the state houses while the common interest of America fell into ruin. “Why was the congress failing to prosecute profiteers and forestallers, hoarders who jacked up the prices of supplies needed by the army, who were pests of society and should be hung on gallows.” How could a responsible group of legislators allow the currency to become a standing joke? The inflation to spiral to such heights? (Expression: Not worth a continental). The failure of political leadership at the national level which had caused corruption, inflation, broken promises .... “infinitely more to be dreaded than the force of great Britain.” Parliament and the British ministry could impose taxes and raise an army because they possessed the sovereign power to speak for the British nation.

[Source: Joseph Ellis]
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“The Basic Dilemma” –

During the early months of the war, the continental congress had assumed powers which rendered possible the creation of the continental army and Washington’s appointment to head it. But by behaving as a national legislature, the congress made itself vulnerable to the same criticism that the colonies had directed toward parliament itself. The central impulse of the American revolution had been a deep aversion to legislation, especially taxes, emanating from any consolidated government in a far away place beyond the direct control and supervision of the citizens affected. From the perspective of Virginia and Massachusetts, the delegates gathering in Philadelphia could not tax them any more than could the House of Commons in London. And since voting in the continental congress had always been by state – one state, one vote – it could not claim to fairly represent the American population as a whole. The articles of confederation, officially adopted in 1781, accurately embodied the same 1 vote principle. It never attempted to create a unified american nation, but rather a confederation of sovereign states. (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 3/12/2007 Time 37 [Source: Joseph Ellis]

The American Revolution:
Several things happen

Fourth Quarter

Washington’s reluctantly goes South
-- he had wanted to bottle the Brits up in New York

-- he needed the French navy, but they wouldn’t go along

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The American Revolution:
Several things happen Benedict Arnold

Fourth Quarter

-- Arnold traded sides and leads a British regiment into Virginia, the place he was supposed to be guarding

Pittsburgh: 48 Cardinals: 16

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(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.

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The American Revolution:
Several things happen The Southern Campaign

Fourth Quarter

-- the Brits were initially successful in the south (Charleston, Camden)

-- But Nathanial Green and the new fighting tactics began to work -- Turned Cornwallis north, toward Virginia we desperately need a picture ….

Pittsburgh: 48 Cardinals: 19
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Washington heads south

British Stronghold

Benedict Arnold Yorktown French Go North Turned Around
Pittsburgh: 48 Cardinals: 33
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French Navy

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The American Revolution:
we won?

Fourth Quarter

-- Britain decided that the war was too costly (it had no ending in site)
-- central failure: not realizing the strategic center of the war. It was not a fort or territory, it was Washington’s army -- underestimated the psychology of the enemy (compare: Vietnam) --at that point the truth is that we did not defeat the British because we couldn’t have

-- instead, we outlasted them

In short, the Fabian strategy worked
Time
3/12/2007 (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 42

Forming American Government
The constitutional convention -- In the summer of 1787, delegates meet at the constitutional convention.

1/18/2007

(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.

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Rome

England
The Greeks Hebrews

American Government

Forming American Government
Schism in American Revolutionary Culture What did the revolution stand for? -- Two views:

“Independence”
-- “freedom from” (governance) -- freedom from far away structures that would regulate you, take your freedom (money) (applied as much to New England or Philadelphia as it did Britain).
-- Widely held by Jefferson & the plantation crowd

Forming American Government
Schism in American Revolutionary Culture What did the revolution stand for? -- Two views:

Nationhood
-- the revolution was about establishing strong, viable institutions that would create an American nation
-- That, within time, we could become a state like Britain (powerful, wealthy and with enlightened government -- This is the view held by Washington and many elites in colonial culture

Forming American Government
The Power of the Central Government -- Exactly how much power would this new central government have?
• Could it pass a Stamp Act? If so, what was the point of the revolution? • Would there be a standing army, would banking interests form and subjugate the farmers like they were doing from overseas, etc.?

• Didn’t we just fight to get rid of that?

Forming American Government
The Power of the Central Government -- There was a range of attitudes in colonial America regarding this issue
-- But importantly, that range was really not well represented by the convention delegates (illustration)

Convention’s Political Design Theory

Question: Terrible Political Mistake:a mistake for the Why was it Leave the Convention anti-federalists to leave or not Patrick Henry – participateain the convention ? “I smell rat” No Central Authority Weak Central Authority Strong Central Authority “Federalists” “Virginia Plan” Limited Monarchy

Anti-federalist New Jersey Plan

Hamilton

4/23/2009

Copyright, Sean Wlson. 2007

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Convention’s Political Design Theory

Compromise Point A

Compromise Point: B

No Central Authority

Weak Central Authority

Strong Central Authority Federalists Virginia Plan

Limited Monarchy

Anti-federalist New Jersey Plan

Hamilton

Time
4/23/2009 Copyright, Sean Wlson. 2007 50

What is “Constitutional?”
Otis and the Writs of Assistance Cases The Statute -- England had a statute on the books that allowed customs officials to search vessels without cause for smuggling and contraband
-- Blanket search-and-seizure law (smuggling problem)

What is “Constitutional?”
Otis and the Writs of Assistance Cases James Otis -- He was a lawyer who challenged the law -- He argued the case before the General Court in Boston in 1761..

What is “Constitutional?”
Otis and the Writs of Assistance Cases His Arguments -- He argues that the Parliamentary law is “unconstitutional.” -- He argues that it violates the rights of Englishman

Question:

For Gryffindore points, someone tell me whether or not Otis is right. Did the statute did violate the English Constitution, and why/why not?

What is “Constitutional?”
“constitutional” -- England doesn’t have a written constitution. -- The highest form of law is the statute. (An act of Parliament) -- Legally, ANY statute that passes into law is therefore “constitutional”

Question: Answer: Why? Because the governing arrangement was state of the art (enlightened)

Remember this?
Monarchy Aristocracy Gentry Peasants, Serfs City-dwelling drunks

“All three elite sectors locked into a powersharing arrangement. If any statute passes the arrangement, that is, by definition, “constitutional”

4/23/2009

Copyright, Sean Wlson. 2007

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What is “Constitutional?”
“constitutional” -- Translation: Parliament and the King could NEVER violate the “British Constitution”
(The so-called English Bill of Rights is statutory)

What is “Constitutional?”
sense of talking -- To an Englishman, “the constitution” means two things: • the countries most IMPORTANT statutes (compare to us: civil rights) • certain “public understandings” about what the way institutions are supposed to work (example: the right to remove the king if he misbehaves)

What is “Constitutional?”
sense of talking -- compare the phrase: “my inner constitution” -- They don’t really have a “constitutional monarchy;” they have a separation-of-powers monarchy with a democratic component
-- compare: “divine-right constitution” -- to some extent, the phrase “constitutional” means “regime ideology” (but only to some extent)

What is “Constitutional?”
America -- America will have a written constitution

Time
3/12/2007 (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 59


								
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