WS Quantum Numbers and Orbitals WS

Document Sample
WS Quantum Numbers and Orbitals WS Powered By Docstoc
					WS Quantum Numbers and Orbitals                                                  Name__________________

1. Indicate which of the following orbital destinations are possible.
           a. 7s          b. 1p          c. 5d           d. 2d           e. 4f            f. 5g         g. 6i

2. Without referring to a text, periodic table or handout, deduce the maximum number of electrons that can
   occupy an:
         a. s orbital _____ b. the subshell of p orbitals _______ c. the subshell of d orbitals ______
         d. the subshell of f orbitals_______            e. the subshell of g orbitals_______

3. Explain why there are 10 members of each d transition metal series. ____________________________
   ___________________________________________________________________________________

4. Explain why there are 14 members of each f inner-transition metal series. ________________________
   ___________________________________________________________________________________

5. Indicate which of the following electron configurations is ruled out by the Pauli exclusion principle.
   a. 1s22s22p7           b. 1s22s22p63s3       c. 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d12      d. 1s22s22p63s23p6

6. Explain why the following ground-state electron configurations are not possible:
   a. 1s22s32p3         b. 1s22s22p33s6        c. 1s22s22p73s23p8            d. 1s22s22p63s23p14s23d14

7. Write the corresponding electron configurations for each of the following pictorial representations.
   Name the element assuming that the configuration describes a neutral atom.


                                                                                                     Name

                                                                                                  a)__________

                                                                                                  b)__________

                                                                                                  c)__________

                                                                                                  d)__________

                                                                                                  e)__________


8. Write the electron configuration for the first excited state of:
   a. Be          b. Be2+        c. He            d. F-           e. O           f. O2-

9. Which of the following electron configurations of neutral atoms represents an excited state?
   a. 1s22s22p53s1      b. 1s22s22p53s2        c. 1s12s1       d. 1s22s22p63s23p63d1

10. Write the ground state electron configurations for the following elements:
    a. Ti         b. K            c. Fe          d. As           e. Ag         f. Zn

11. Write the ground state core notations for the following elements:
    a. P          b. Ni           c. Se           d. Cd         e. Cr            f. Mn
12. Write the corresponding electron configuration for each of the following pictorial representations.
    Name the element that each represents assuming they are neutral atoms.

                                                                                                        Name

                                                                                                      a)________

                                                                                                      b)_______

                                                                                                      c)_______

                                                                                                      d)_______
13. Give two examples of:
                                                                                                   e)_______
       a. an atom with a half-filled subshell
       b. an atom with a completely filled outer shell
       c. an atom with its outer electrons occupying a half-filled subshell and a filled subshell.

14. Indicate which groups of elements have an outer:
        a. s electron configuration
        b. p electron configuration
        c. d electron configuration
        d. f electron configuration
    Some chemists call these various elements the s-block, p-block, d-block and f-block elements.

15. Determine the element of lowest atomic number whose ground state contains:
       a. three d electrons
       b. a complete d subshell
       c. ten total p electrons
       d. an f electron
       e. 13 d electrons
       f. 23 p electrons
       g. 7 s electrons

16. How many unpaired electrons are there in the ground state of each of the following atoms?
    a. Ge      b. Se          c. V             d. Fe          e. Si           f. Mo         g. Ag

17. How many unpaired electrons are there in the ground state of each of the following ions?
    a. Cl-      b. O2-         c. Al3+         d. Ca2+         e. Na+          f. P3-        g. Xe+

18. Write the ground-state core notation for the following ions:
    a. Cl-   b. P3- c. Br- d. Se2- e. Na+           f. Ba2+ g. Fe3+    h. Ag+     i) Ni2+   j) Cr3+

19. Apply Hund’s rule as you write the ground-state electron configuration for:
    a. O+       b. C-          c. F+           d. Ar+

20. Determine the number of unpaired electrons in the ground-state of the following species:
    a. F+         b. Sn2+      c. Bi3+         d. Ar+
21. Arrange the following species into groups of isoelectronic species.

   F-              Sc3+           Be2+           Rb+1            O2-          Na+

   Ti4+            Ar             B3+            He              Se2-         Y3+

22. How many p electrons (allowing for all shells) are there in the ground state of a phosphorus atom?

23. What is the maximum number of electrons that can be accommodated in a shell with n=3?

24. Which group of elements has a [noble gas] ns2 electron configuration?

25. Fill in the blanks with the correct response:
        a. The number of orbitals with the quantum numbers n=3, l=2 and ml = 0 is _________.
        b. The number of valence electrons in the outermost p subshell of a sulfur atom is _________.
        c. The number of unpaired electrons in a Mn2+ ion is _________.
        d. The subshell with the quantum numbers n=4, l=2 is _________.
        e. The ml values for a d orbital are ________________________.
        f. The allowed values of l for the shell with n=2 are _________.
        g. The allowed values of l for the shell with n=4 are _________.
        h. The number of unpaired electrons in the cobalt atom is _________.
        i. The number of orbitals in a shell with n=3 is _________.
        j. The number of orbitals with n=3 and l=1 is _________.
        k. The maximum number of electrons with quantum numbers with n=3 and l=2 is _________.
        l. When n=2, l can be _________.
        m. When n=2, the possible values for ml are _________.
        n. The number of electrons with n=4, l=1 is _________.
        o. The quantum number that characterizes the angular shape of an atomic orbital is _________.
        p. The subshell with n=3 and l=1is designated as the __________ subshell.
        q. The lowest value of n for which a d subshell can occur is n=_________.

26. Which sets of quantum numbers are unacceptable?
      a. n=3, l= -2, ml=0, ms= +½
      b. n=2, l= 2, ml= -1, ms= -½
      c. n=6, l= 2, ml= -2, ms= +½

27. Identify the group of elements on the periodic table which have the following ground state electron
    configuration:
            a. ns2np3      b. ns1         c. ns2np6             d. ns2

28. Write the core notation for the following species:
    a. Zn2+        b. Se2-         c. I-         d. Y            e. P

29. Write the values for the quantum numbers for the bold electron in the following diagrams:
           a. 3p orbitals                                 c. 4d orbitals


           b. 5s
                                                         d. 3d orbitals
Answers:
   1.   b is impossible b/c the 1st energy level or shell only has the s subshell, d is impossible b/c the 2 nd energy level only has s & p subshells
   2.   a) 2e-, b) 6e-, c ) 10e-, d) 14e-,          e) 18e-
   3.   the d block has 5 orbitals that can hold a total of 10 electrons
   4.   the f block has 7 orbitals that can hold a total of 14 electrons
   5.   In answering #5 and #6, some textbooks combine all the p x, py, and pz subshells as just p, all the d’s together and all f’s together. With this
        in mind, a) is impossible b/c 2p7 (max 6 e-), b) impossible b/c 3s3 (max 2 e-), c) impossible b/c 3d12 (max 10 e-), d) is possible.

   6.   a) impossible b/c 2s3 (max 2), b) impossible b/c 2p3 which must be fill before moving on to next level (aufbau) and 3s 6 max 2, c)
        impossible b/x 2p7 (max 6 e-) and 3p8 (max 6 e-), d) impossible b/c 3p1 (aufbau) and 3d14 (max 10)

   7.   a) 1s22s22px22py22pz23s23px13py1 or shortened to 1s22s22p6 3s23p2 which has 4 valence electrons in the 3rd energy level = Silicon, Si
        b) 1s22s22px22py22pz23s23px23py23pz24s13d13d13d13d13d1 (shortened to 1s22s22p6 3s23p64s13d5) with 5 valence e-‘s = Chromium, Cr
        c) 1s22s22px22py22pz23s23px23py23pz24s23d23d23d23d23d24px14py1 (shortened to 1s22s22p6 3s23p64s23d104p2) w/ 4 valence e-‘s =Germanium
        d) 1s22s22px22py22pz23s23px23py23pz24s23d23d23d23d23d24px24py24pz1 (shortened to 1s22s22p6 3s23p64s13d104p5) w/ 7 valence e-‘s = Bromine
        e) 1s22s22px1 or shortened to 1s22s22p1 which has 3 valence electrons in the 2nd energy level = Boron, B

   8.   a) there are 4 e- thus 1s22s12px1 showing the fourth electron jumping up to the 2p x orbital before the 2s orbital is filled.
        b) there are 2 e- thus 1s12s1 showing the second electron jumping up to the 2nd energy level before the 1s orbital is filled.
        c) there are 2 e- thus this answer is the same as answer in (b) because Be2+ and He are Isoelectronic to each other.
        d) there are 10 e- thus 1s22s22px22py22pz13s1 showing the 10th e- jumping up from 2pz orbital to the 3s orbital
        e) there are 8 e- thus 1s22s22px12py12pz13s1 showing the 8th e- jumping up from the 2px orbital to the 3s orbital
        f) there are 10 e- thus this answer is the same as answer (d) O2- and F- are Isoelectronic to each other.

   9.   a) yes b/c the last 2p e- jumps to 3s rather than filling the the 2p subshell. b) Yes b/c the 2p e- jumps to 3s before the 2p subshell is filled.
        c) yes b/c the 2nd 1s e- jumps to 2s rather than filling the 1s subshell. d) yes b/c the only 4s e- jumps to occupy 3d before filling 4s.

   10. a) 1s22s22px22py22pz23s23px23py23pz24s23d13d1            b) 1s22s22px22py22pz23s23px23py23pz24s1
            2 2    2   2   2 2    2   2   2 2   2  1  1 1    1
       c) 1s 2s 2px 2py 2pz 3s 3px 3py 3pz 4s 3d 3d 3d 3d 3d    d) 1s22s22px22py22pz23s23px23py23pz24s23d23d23d23d23d24px14py14pz1
       e) 1s22s22px22py22pz23s23px23py23pz24s13d23d23d23d23d24px24py24pz25s14d24d24d24d24d2
       f) 1s22s22px22py22pz23s23px23py23pz24s23d23d23d23d23d2

   11. a) [Ne] 3s23p3      b) [Ar] 4s23d8       c) [Ar] 4s23d104p4      d) [Kr] 5s24d10     e) [Ar] 4s13d5      f) [Ar] 4s23d5

   12. a) 1s22s22px22py22pz23s23px1 = Aluminum          b) 1s22s22px22py22pz23s23px23py23pz24s23d23d13d1 = Vanadium
             2 2    2   2   1
        c) 1s 2s 2px 2py 2pz = Fluorine            2 2
                                              d) 1s 2s 2px22py22pz23s23px23py23pz24s13d23d23d23d23d24px1 = Gallium
             2 2    2   1   1
        e) 1s 2s 2px 2py 2pz = Oxygen

   13. a) Group 1 elements have a half fill s orbital (ns1 where n = any energy level). Group 15 elements have a half filled p orbital (np 3)
           also, Cr, Mn, Mo, Tc have a half filled d orbital
        b) Nobel gases have a completely filled outer shell (ns2np6) . Only s an p subshells count toward valence.
        c) Group 15 has a filled s subshell and a half filled p subshell. Cu, Ag, and Au have a half filled s subshell and a filled d subshell

   14. a) s-block = groups 1 and 2, b) p-block = groups 13 and 18, c) d-block = groups 3 and 12, d) f-block = inner transition metals
   15. a) V b) Cu c) S d) Ce            e) Nb     f) I   g) K
   16. a) 2 b) 2 c) 3 d) 4 e) 2 f) 6 g) 1
   17. a) O b) 0 c) 0 d) 0 e) 0 f) 0 g) 1

   18. a) Isoelectronic to argon so [Ne] 3s23p6 b) same as (a) c) Isoelectronic to Kr so [Ar] 4s23d104p6 d) same as (c)          e) Isoelectronic to Ne
        so [He] 2s22p6      f) Isoelectronic to Xe so [Kr]5s2 4d105p6 g) [Ar]3d5 h) [Kr] 4d10 i) [Ar] 3d8 j) [Ar] 3d3

   19. a) Isoelectronic to N so 1s22s22px12py12pz1 b) Isoelectronic to N so same as (a)       c) Isoelectronic to O so 1s22s22px22py12pz1
       d) Isoelectronic to Cl so 1s22s22px22py22pz23s23px23py23pz1

   20. a) Isoelectronic to O so 2 b) Isoelectronic to Cd so 0 c) Isoelectronic to Hg so 0 d) Isoelectronic to Cl so 1
   21. Isoelectronic species with 10e- = F-, O2-, Na+       Isoelectronic species with 18e- = Sc3+, Ar, Ti4+
       Isoelectronic species with 2e- = Be2+, B3+, He         Isoelectronic species with 36e- = Rb+, Se2-, Y3+
   22. answer = 9
   23.answer = 18 b/c 2n2
   24. answer = Group 2 or the alkaline earth metals
   25. a) 1 which is the middle 3d orbital       b) 4 valence e-      c) Loses the 4s electrons leaving 5 unpaired 3d e-‘s d) 4d subshell
       e) –2, -1, 0, +1, +2     f) l = 0, 1    g) l = 0, 1, 2, 3     h) 3 unpaired e-‘s i) 9 b/c n2 j) 3 b/c p-block has 3 orbitals k) 10 b/c d-block
       l) 0 or 1 m) –1, 0, +1 n) 6 b/c p-block o) l or azimuthal quantum # p) p subshell q) 3
   26. a) unacceptable b/c l must equal 0, 1, 2, 3 etc (never a negative #)
       b) unacceptable if n=2 then l can only equal 0 or 1 (not 2 which is d-block)             c) is acceptable
   27. a) group 15 b) group 1          c) group 18      d) group 2
   28. a) [Ar] 3d10      b) [Ar] 4s23d104p6      c) [kr] 5s24d105p6 d) [Kr]5s24d1         e) [Ne]3s23p5
   29. a) n = 3, l = 1 ml = +1 ms = + ½                   b) n = 5, l = 0 ml = 0 (or no number at all) ms = - ½
       c) n = 4, l = 2 ml = -2 ms = - ½                   d) ) n = 3, l = 2 ml = 0 ms = + ½