HAP 709 Healthcare Databases by oneforseven


									 HAP 709: Healthcare
Introduction to Database Structures
      By Farrokh Alemi, Ph.D.
    Francesco Loaiza, Ph.D. J.D.

Updated by Janusz Wojtusiak, Ph.D.
            Fall 2008
          What is database?
• Is an Excel table with students’ grades a
• Is your notebook a database?
• Is a phonebook a database?
• Is the GMU schedule of classes a
• Is a medical record of a patient a
• Is a list of nurses working in a hospital a
         What is database?
• Database is a collection of data with
  defined structure and purpose.
• Wikipedia: A Database is a structured
  collection of data which is managed to
  meet the needs of a community of users.
• Wordnet: Database is an organized body
  of related information.
  What is computer database?
• Computer database is a database stored
  in a computer.
• It is usually managed by special software
  called Database Management System
• There are many DBMS systems available
  – Access, Oracle, MUMPS, dBASE, portgress,
    sql server, mysql, db2, …
     Objectives of this lecture
• Learn about flat, hierarchical, relational,
  and object-oriented databases
• Learn about information-less databases

        If checking an information item
       takes a fraction of a second, why
      is it that we can go through billions
        of information items in a fraction
                   of a second?
       Types of Data Structures
•   Flat data
•   Hierarchical data
•   Relational data
•   Object-oriented data
                        Flat Models
Student                Midterm   Final
           Name                          Address   Zip code   ...
   ID                   grade    grade
 4561     Ali Safaie     B        A      Manor     22101      ...
 7878                    C        B      Ozkan     44115      ...
 8954                    A        C      Euclid    22101      ...
          Smith Jr.
                 Flat Data
• Most software include free access to flat data
  files. For a small number of cases, flat
  databases do a reasonably fast job.
• Most analytical software use flat data.
• Flat databases waste computer storage by
  requiring it to keep information on items that
  logically cannot be available.
• Flat databases are not conducive to complicated
  search queries
  Relational Databases

  In a relational data base, one
stores a record with related fields
              as data.

In a relational database, tables do
 not need to be of the same size
Table for "Students grades"

      Student ID                Name              Mid-term         Final
       Key column
          4561                Ali Ghadiri               B            A
          7878                Mike Smith                C            B
          8954            Mike Smith Jr.                A            C

Table for "Students' contact information"

   Student ID
                                    Address                  Zip
   Key column
   8954                             2121 Euclid 563          22101
   4561                             1311 Manor Park          22101
   7878                             1619 Ozkan Street        44115
      Advantages of Relational
• Data can be examined from many different
• No need to enter missing information for
  variables that are not logically possible.
• Easy to modify because adding new
  concepts involves adding new Tables, not
  altering old ones.
  Hierarchical models

    Data models in which the
relationship between higher and
    lower items are inherited.
  Example of Hierarchal Model
• File items on your desk top
Advantages of Hierarchical Models
• Operations on parents save time and
  affect all children.
• Many relationships are not hierarchical
Object-oriented data models
  Data are organized in the form of “objects”
   that represent real world entities. Each
   objects have its properties, that can be
       regular values or other objects.
   Advantages of Object-oriented
• High efficiency
• Use of the actual “real life” entities as
• Integration with object-oriented
  programming languages (C++, Java, C# …)
• Lack of one good standard
Distributed data models
 Data are kept in different settings and on
different computers. Distributed databases
need not only addresses for where the data
       are but also need an audit trail
Example of Distributed
     World Wide Web
      Advantages of Distributed
• Security of these databases are difficult to
• Many agreements must be made ahead of
• Data loss is limited to nodes affected.
• Decentralized databases are more flexible
  and allow different units to update and
  maintain their own data.
• Variation in quality of data
 Data-less Information
 Distributed Databases without
   data until need arises, less
problems with privacy of patients
    Components of a Data-less
• Decoder
• Communicator
• Analysis
     Advantages of the Data-less
        Information Systems
• The system is substantially less expensive than
  centralized registries as it requires no new
  equipment and little personnel.

• The use of the system does not require vague
  and time-independent patients’ consents.

• The system does not require duplication of data
  in different databases.
  Inductive Databases
     Researchers investigate
   databases that can answer
questions about things which are
 not in that databases. They use
   artificial intelligence to give
       “plausible” answers.
   Take Home Lesson

  Structure makes it possible to
process and analyze large amount
             of data

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