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					        Year 7 Science Practical Task:

                    Materials & Mixtures
                                       By Nick Stebbing




Contents

Overvie w
Introduction                       2
Habits of Mind                     3

Material for Students
Instructions                       4
Task 1: Freezing                   5
Task 2: Boiling 1                  6
Task 3: Boiling 2                  7
Task 4: Evaporating                8
Task 5: Expansion & Contraction    9
Task 6: Dissolving                10
Questions                         11
Presentation Worksheet            12
Rubric                            13
Assessment Form                   14
               Year 7 Science Practical Tasks – Materials & Mixtures

                                        By Nick Stebbing


    Introduction
    This document outlines an activity designed to enable year 7 science students to investigate
    physical changes. The activity involves students working in small groups to investigate an
    aspect of physical change including those described in the diagram below as well as
    dissolving, expansion and contraction.




    Each group performs a different practical experiment and considers a different set of
    discussion questions. The groups are then asked to prepare an oral presentation in
    order to share what they have found with the rest of the class.

    The worksheets contained in this document include the following…
        An introduction sheet outlining the entire activity
        Activity sheets providing step-by-step instructions for 6 different experiments
        An oral presentation worksheet to help students prepare their speeches.
        A set of questions that each student should be able to answer after observing
          the presentations of each group.
        A rubric detailing how the students will be assessed.
        A form for teachers to use when assessing each students work.




Page 2 of 15                                                                  Nicholas Stebbing 2006
               Year 7 Science Practical Tasks – Materials & Mixtures


    The Habits of Mind
    This activity challenges students to develop a number of different habits of mind
    especially the following…

                   Listening with Empathy and Understanding
                   As part of this activity students must listen as other groups explain
                   their activities and what they have discovered about physical
                   changes. Students must listen carefully to be able to complete the
                   question sheet that has been prepared for them.

                   Striving for Accuracy
                   In this activity the learning of the whole class depends on each group
                   achieving reliable results. As a result accuracy is essential and
                   students have to consider their results very carefully in order to make
                   the correct interpretations.

                   Applying Past Knowledge
                   This activity requires students to explain their results in terms of the
                   particle model of matter, so it relies heavily on their understanding of
                   the particle model and in particular the way particles behave
                   differently in solids, liquids and gases.

                   Thinking and Communicating with Clarity and Precision
                   Each group must consider their results carefully in order to establish
                   exactly what has been demonstrated in terms of the behaviour of the
                   particles in matter. Just as importantly, each group has to be able to
                   effectively communicate what they have discovered to the rest of the
                   class through an oral presentation.

                   Gathering Data through All Senses
                   In this activity students learn more through what they do and see than
                   what they have read or been told.



                   Responding with Wonderment and Awe
                   This activity enables students to learn new things by performing tasks
                   that they may consider to be ordinary and mundane. As a results
                   students see that by taking an analytical approach to everyday things
                   a great deal can be learned about the way the world works.

                   Thinking Interdependently
                   Students work interdependently on two different levels in this task.
                   Firstly each group must work together to complete their task and to
                   consider their results. Secondly the whole class group must work
                   together to learn a range of new things based on each other’s work.
Page 3 of 15                                                              Nicholas Stebbing 2006
                Year 7 Science Practical Tasks – Materials & Mixtures



                                      Instructions

Introduction
   Students will work in groups of three or four to complete a practical activity.
   Each group will complete a different activity and will then be required to give an oral
    presentation to the rest of the class about their activity.
   Students will be expected to complete a report (using the standard format of aim, materials…
    etc). This report is to be completed by each student in the ir workbooks.
   Each student will also be given a question sheet which they will need to complete after seeing
    the presentations of each group.
   The oral presentation and the question sheet will be graded.

Requirements for the oral presentation
   Each member of your group should speak during the presentation.
   The presentation should go for at least five minutes.
   Your presentation should include the following information…
       o The aim of your experiment.
       o The equipment and method that you used.
       o What your results were.
       o Your explanation for the things that you observed. (This should include answers to the
           discussion questions for your activity).

Safety
Students are expected to follow normal safety procedures during this practical including the
wearing of safety goggles and lab coats. It is also important that students listen to and follow any
instructions given by the teacher.




Page 4 of 15                                                                   Nicholas Stebbing 2006
Year 7 Science Practical Tasks – Materials &                   Name:
Mixtures                                                       Date:
                                                               Partners’ names:
Task One

What happens
when water freezes?

Your Task                                                      Students are expected to follow
Your task is to investigate what happens to the volume         normal safety procedures during
and mass of water when it freezes.                             this practical including the wearing
                                                               of safety goggles and lab coats
What you need
1.   A plastic measuring container
2.   Water
3.   A freezer
4.   A set of electronic scales

What to do
Lesson 1
1. Fill the measuring container to one of the measuring marks about half way up.
2. Carefully record the volume of the water in the container (put this in the results section of your
   practical report).
3. Using the electronic scales carefully measure the mass of the water and container (this should
   also be written in the results section of your practical report).
4. Label the container with your names and the name of the experiment using a marker.
5. Ask your teacher to place the container in a freezer.

Lesson 2
6. Your teacher will remove the container from the freezer (the water should have frozen to form
   solid ice).
7. Look at the volume of the water in the container now. Has it changed? Has the shape of the
   container changed? Write your observations in the results section of your report.
8. Using the electronic scales measure the mass of the container and its contents. Write this in the
   results section of your report.
9. In the discussion section of your practical report, try to explain the reasons for what you have
   observed. Your discussion should include answers to the following questions…
        What happens to the particles in the water when it freezes?
        Does the volume of water change when it is frozen? If so, how much does it change by?
        Does the mass of the water change when it is frozen? If so, by how much?
        How can we explain these results using the particle theory?




Page 5 of 15                                                                      Nicholas Stebbing 2006
Year 7 Science Practical Tasks – Materials &                 Name:
Mixtures                                                     Date:
                                                             Partners’ names:
Task Two

Investigating the boiling
point of water
Your Task                                                   Students are expected to follow
To investigate the boiling point of water and find out      normal safety procedures during
the effects of adding salt to the water.                    this practical including the wearing
                                                            of safety goggles and lab coats
What you need
1.   Beaker (250ml)                 5.   Heat-proof mat                9. Matches
2.   Bunsen burner                  6.   Thermometer                   10. A stopwatch
3.   Tripod stand                   7.   Retort stand and clamp
4.   Gauze mat                      8.   Cold tap water

What to do
1. Your teacher will help you to set up your equipment as
   shown in the diagram to the right.
2. Fill a beaker with 100 millilitres of cold tap water and
   place it over the flame of the Bunsen burner.
3. Record the temperature of the water every minute until it
   begins to boil (make a table in the results section of your
   report for this).
4. Note the temperature at which the water begins to boil and
   then continue recording the temperature for another five
   minutes before switching off the Bunsen burner.
5. Another group will complete a similar experiment using
   salt water. You will be given their results for comparison.
6. In the discussion section of your report you should draw a
   line graph showing the temperature changes for the water with and without salt (Use the time
   values as the horizontal axis of your graph). Also answer the following questions…
    What happens to the particles in the water when it boils?
    What is the boiling point of the water with and without the salt?
    If there is a difference, explain why this happens (be sure to consider the behaviour of the
        particles in the water).




Page 6 of 15                                                                    Nicholas Stebbing 2006
Year 7 Science Practical Tasks – Materials                        Name:
& Mixtures                                                        Date:
                                                                  Partners’ names:
Task Three
Investigating the boiling
point of salt water
Your Task
To investigate the boiling point of water and find out      Students are expected to follow
the effects of adding salt to the water.                    normal safety procedures during
                                                            this practical including the wearing
What you need                                               of safety goggles and lab coats
1.   Beaker (250ml)                 5.   Heat-proof mat                  9. Matches
2.   Bunsen burner                  6.   Thermometer                     10. Table salt
3.   Tripod stand                   7.   Retort stand and clamp          11. A stopwatch
4.   Gauze mat                      8.   Cold tap water

What to do
1. Your teacher will help you to set up your equipment as
   shown in the diagram to the right.
2. Fill a beaker with 100 millilitres of cold tap water. Add
   two teaspoons of table salt and stir to dissolve.
3. Place the solution over the flame of the Bunsen burner to
   begin heating it.
4. Record the temperature of the water every minute until it
   begins to boil (make a table in the results section of your
   report for this).
5. Note the temperature at which the water begins to boil and
   then continue recording the temperature for another five
   minutes before switching off the Bunsen burner.
6. Another group will complete a similar experiment using
   water without added salt. You will be given their results for comparison.
7. In the discussion section of your report you should draw a line graph showing the temperature
   changes for the water with and without salt (Use the time values as the horizontal axis of your
   graph). Also answer the following questions…
    What happens to the particles in the water when it boils?
    What is the boiling point of the water with and without the salt?
    If there is a difference, explain why this happens (be sure to consider the behaviour of the
        particles in the water).




Page 7 of 15                                                                     Nicholas Stebbing 2006
Year 7 Science Practical Tasks – Materials &                   Name:
Mixtures                                                       Date:
                                                               Partners’ names:
Task Four
Investigating the
evaporation of water

Your Task                                                     Students are expected to follow
To investigate how the size of the surface area effects the   normal safety procedures during
rate of evaporation.                                          this practical including the wearing
                                                              of safety goggles and lab coats
What you need
1.   A measuring cylinder
2.   An empty ice-cream container (2 litre)
3.   An empty jam jar (at least 500ml)
4.   An empty bottle (at least 500ml)
5.   Water

What to do
Lesson 1
1. Using the measuring cylinder place an equal amount of water into each container. Write this
   amount into the results section of your report.
2. Label the containers with your names and the name of the experiment using a marker.
3. Your teacher will place the containers in a safe place until the next lesson.

Lesson 2
4. Your teacher will return the three containers of water to you.
5. Use the measuring cylinder to measure the amount of water remaining in each container. Record
   this information in your results section.
6. In the discussion section of your practical report, try to explain the reasons for what you have
   observed. Your discussion should include answers to the following questions…
        How much water has evaporated from each container? Which container lost the largest
            amount of water and which one lost the smallest amount?
        What effect does the surface area of the water have on the rate of evaporation?
        What happens to the particles in the water when it evaporates? How does the surface
            area of the container effect this?
        How can this behaviour be explained using the particle model?




Page 8 of 15                                                                   Nicholas Stebbing 2006
Year 7 Science Practical Tasks – Materials &                  Name:
Mixtures                                                      Date:
                                                              Partners’ names:
Task Five
Investigating the expansion
& contraction of metal

Your Task                                                     Students are expected to follow
To investigate the expansion and contraction of metal.        normal safety procedures during
                                                              this practical including the wearing
What you need                                                 of safety goggles and lab coats
1.   Ball and ring apparatus
2.   Tongs
3.   Bunsen burner
4.   Beaker
5.   Ice water

What to do
1. Read the following procedures and set up a table to record your results. It should look
   something like this…

      State of the Ball        State of the Ring            Observations
      Room temperature         Room temperature
      Heated                   Room Temperature
      Heated                   Heated
      Cooled in ice water      Heated

2. Your teacher will help you to set up the ball and ring apparatus.
3. Set up a Bunsen burner (on a heat mat) but do no t light it until it is needed.
4. Using the ball and ring apparatus at room temperature see how easily the ball passes through the
   ring (if it passes through at all). Record your observations in the results section of your report.
5. Heat the ball using the Bunsen burner and again see how it passes through the ring. Record your
   observations.
6. Now heat both the ball and the ring using the Bunsen burner then see how easily the ball passes
   through the ring. Record your observations again.
7. Finally heat the ring again, but put the ball into ice water to cool.
8. In the discussion section of your practical report, try to explain the reasons for what you have
   observed. Your discussion should include answers to the following questions…
        What happens to the ball when it is heated? What happens to the ball when it is cooled in
            ice water? What happens to the ring when it is heated?
        What happens to the particles in a solid when it is heated and when it is cooled?




Page 9 of 15                                                                     Nicholas Stebbing 2006
Year 7 Science Practical Tasks – Materials &                        Name:
Mixtures                                                            Date:
                                                                    Partners’ names:
Task Six

Dissolving substances in water

Your Task                                                      Students are expected to follow
To investigate a range of substances to see which one          normal safety procedures during
will dissolve in water and then to investigate some            this practical including the wearing
factors which may effect the rate of dissolving.               of safety goggles and lab coats

What you need
1. Test tubes
2. Test tube rack
3. Four substances for testing (suitable examples include sodium chloride, copper sulfate, copper
   carbonate, magnesium oxide, starch and sugar)
4. Spatula
5. Cold and hot tap water and water that has been cooled with ice.

What to do
1. Read through the following steps and prepare three tables in your results section to record your
   observations. The first table is shown below.

            Substance                   Observations when added to cold tap water
                                       Before stirring               After stirring




2. Half fill four test tubes with water.
3. Using a spatula, place a small amount of a different substance into each test tube (do not stir or
   shake the test tubes and be careful to note which substance was placed in which test tube).
   Observe how well each substance has dissolved into the water, record your observations.
4. Now stir the contents of each tube and observe how this effects the ability of each substance to
   dissolve. Record your observations.
5. Empty the test tubes and rinse them out. Then fill them with hot tap water.
6. Again add a spatula of a different substance to each tube and observe how well the substances
   dissolve before and after stirring. Record your observations.
7. Empty the test tubes again and fill them with water which has been cooled in ice.
8. Again add a spatula of a different substance to each tube and observe how well the substances
   dissolve before and after stirring. Record your observations.
9. In the discussion section of your practical report, try to explain the reasons for what you have
   observed. Your discussion should include answers to the following q uestions…
        What substances dissolve easily in water, which ones do not dissolve easily?
        What effect does stirring have on the rate of dissolving?
        What effect does the temperature of the water have on the rate of dissolving? How can
           this be explained using the particle model.

Page 10 of 15                                                                    Nicholas Stebbing 2006
Student Name _____________                                                          Date _________


                Year 7 Science Practical Tasks – Materials & Mixtures



                                         Questions

Based on your own practical work and the oral presentations you have seen you should be able to
answer the following questions. Each answer should be written using full sentences. 2 marks will be
given per question.

Question 1: When a substance changes state (for example from liquid to solid by freezing), does its
volume change? Explain this in terms of the particle model.




Question 2: When a substance changes state (for example from liquid to solid by freezing), does its
mass (or weight) change? Explain this in terms of the particle model.




Question 3: What effect does the addition of salt have on the boiling point of water?




Question 4: How does the surface area of a body of water effect the rate of evaporation? How can
this be explained using the particle model?




Question 5: What happens to metal when it is heated up? What happens when it is cooled down?
What are the particles in these solids doing in each case?




Question 6: Name one substance which dissolves easily in water, and one which does not dissolve
easily in water. What effect does stirring have on the ability of a substance to dissolve? What effect
does temperature have on the ability of a substance to dissolve.




Page 11 of 15                                                                    Nicholas Stebbing 2006
Year 7 Science Practical Tasks – Materials & Mixtures                       Name:
                                                                            Date:
Oral Presentation Planning Sheet                                            Partners’ names:



Instructions
Follow the steps below to prepare your group’s presentation. Each group member should complete
one of these sheets individually (do not just complete one sheet per group).

Step 1: Organise the content of your presentation
This section should be completed as a group.
Using the table below briefly describe what will be said during each sectio n of your presentation,
then work out who will be talking during each section and how long they will be talking for.

Section                       What will be said?                Who will say it?     How long will
                                                                                     they talk for?
Introduction
Body – Aim
Body – Equipment
and method
Body - Results
Body – Discussion
(Include answers to your
discussion questions here).
Conclusion


Step 2: Work out exactly what you are going to say
Each group member should complete this section individually.
In the space below write out what you are going to say word for word. If you need more space you
can write in your workbook.




Step 3: Summarise your presentation in point form
On a separate piece of paper summarise what you have written in the box above into a series of
points. Each point should be written in as few words as possible. These points are what you will
refer to while giving your presentation.

Page 12 of 15                                                                    Nicholas Stebbing 2006
                     Year 7 Science Practical Tasks – Materials & Mixtures
          Rubric for assessing student presentations

                Not There Yet (1)            Acceptable (2)              Admirable (3)               Exceptional (4)
Content         Little knowledge of the      Some knowledge of the       A strong knowledge of       Detailed and specific
                content was                  content was                 the content was             knowledge of the topic.
                demonstrated including       demonstrated including      demonstrated.               Observations were
                litt le mention of the       some mention of the         Exp lanations made good     thoroughly exp lained
                particle model. Many of      particle model. Most        use of the particle         in terms of the particle
                the questions were           questions were given        model. All questions        model. Answers to
                poorly answered.             solid answers.              were answered, so me of     questions were
                                                                         them strongly.              complete and accurate.
Organisation    The content of the           Some attempt had been       The informat ion in the     The informat ion
                presentation was poorly      made to arrange the         presentation was            presented was
                organised and departed       content of the              arranged into a logical     organised into an order
                significantly fro m the      presentation in a logical   order. The presentation     which was logical and
                required duration.           order. So me preparation    was well prepared and       engaging. The
                                             was evident although        was close to the            presentation was
                                             the presentation did not    required time.              thoroughly prepared.
                                             meet the required                                       The presentation was
                                             duration.                                               timed precisely, not
                                                                                                     being too long or too
                                                                                                     short.
Presentation    The presentation was a       The presentation was        Some language was           Appropriate language
                litt le hard to understand   mean ingful without         used which was specific     was used including
                and few, if any, of the      using many of the terms     to the topic being          terms specific to the
                terms specific to the        specific to the topic.      presented. The              current unit. The
                unit were correctly          The presenters voice        presenter’s voice was       presenter’s voice was
                used. There was little       had some exp ression,       mostly expressive, well     expressive, well paced
                expression in the            was only a little rushed    paced and of a suitable     and of a suitable
                presenter’s voice and        or slow and was close       volume. Eye contact         volume. Eye contact
                was at a poor pace and       to a good volume.           was maintained for most     with the audience was
                volume. Little eye           Some eye contact was        of the presentation.        maintained for almost
                contact was used.            maintained with the                                     all of the presentation.
                                             audience.
Listening       While listening to the       While listening to the      While listening to the      While listening to the
                presentations of others’     presentations of others’    presentations of others’    presentations of others’
                the presenter was rarely     the presenter was           the presenter was           the presenter was
                quiet and attentive.         sometimes quiet and         mostly quiet and            always quiet and
                Very litt le empathy and     attentive. A little         attentive. Some             attentive. A high level
                understanding was            empathy and                 empathy and                 of empathy and
                demonstrated.                understanding was           understanding was           understanding was
                                             demonstrated.               demonstrated.               demonstrated.
Cooperation     The presentation was         The presentation could      The presentation was        The presentation was
                poorly shared by the         have been shared better     divided well amongst        divided very well
                group. The transition        by the group. The           the group. The transition   amongst the group The
                fro m and to other           transition fro m and to     fro m and to other          transition fro m and to
                speakers was clumsy          other speakers was a        speakers was mostly         other speakers was
                and the content did not      litt le clu msy and the     smooth and the content      smooth and the content
                fit well with that           content partly fitted       fitted well with that       fitted neatly with that
                presented by other           with that presented by      presented by other          presented by other
                group members.               other group members.        group members.              group members.

Total mark is out of 20




Page 13 of 15                                                                                    Nicholas Stebbing 2006
Year 7 Science Practical Tasks – Materials &                  Student’s Name:
Mixtures                                                      Date:
Student Assessment

Presentation:

                Not There Yet (1)   Acceptable (2)   Admirable (3)     Exceptional (4)      Total
Content




Organisation




Presentation




Listening




Cooperation




                                                                 Total for Presentation:            /20

                                                                     Total for Questions:           /12


                                                                          Overall Mark:             /32


Comments:




Page 14 of 15                                                                    Nicholas Stebbing 2006
                Year 7 Science Practical Tasks – Materials & Mixtures




List of materials needed for all of the activities.

1. A plastic measuring container (in store room)
2. A freezer (in store room – the one in the teacher’s room may be better)
3. A set of electronic scales (in the store room)
4. Beaker (250ml) (x2) (in the classroom)
5. Bunsen burner (x3) (in the classroom)
6. Tripod stand (x2) (in the classroom)
7. Gauze mat (x2) (in the classroom)
8. Heat-proof mat (x3) (in the classroom)
9. Thermometer (x2) (in the store room)
10. Retort stand and clamp (x2) (in the classroom)
11. Matches (???)
12. Table salt (on the trolley in the store room)
13. A stopwatch (x2) (in the store room)
14. A measuring cylinder (in the store room)
15. An empty ice-cream container (2 litre) (???)
16. An empty jam jar (at least 500ml) (on the trolley in the store room)
17. An empty bottle (at least 500ml) (on the trolley in the store room)
18. Ball and ring apparatus (on the trolley in the store room)
19. Tongs (in the classroom)
20. Ice water (be sure to get some ice before the prac)
21. Test tubes (in the classroom)
22. Test tube rack (in the classroom)
23. Four substances for testing such as… (on the trolley in the store room)
         sodium chloride
         copper sulfate
         copper carbonate
         magnesium oxide
         starch
         sugar (sucrose)
24. Spatula (???)


Note the assessment rubric for the student’s presentations is designed to emphasise content, group
work and listening skills. The specifics of a strong presentation such as intonation, eye contact and
resources have been combined into the one category. This is intended to provide a low pressure
environment for students to be introduced to oral presentations.

Also note that based on information from here (http://www.whatscookingamerica.net/boilpoint.htm)
I expect 2 teaspoons of salt in 200ml of water to increase the boiling point by around 10 to 20
degrees Celsius (this info may be useful if your students fail to get reliable results).




Page 15 of 15                                                                    Nicholas Stebbing 2006

				
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