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Calgary Police Service Calgary Police Service 2007 Citizen Survey 2007 Citizen Survey

GABRIELLE ARRIZZA
PLANNING ANALYST RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT SECTION 2

Table of Contents
Methodology Perceptions of Officers CPS Relationship with Citizens Citizen Satisfaction Contact with CPS Satisfaction with Last Contact Victimization and Reporting Perceptions of Crime in Neighbourhoods Perceptions of Safety Top Neighbourhood Concerns Top City Concerns School Safety School Resource Officers Information Preferences Calgary Police Commission Demographics Implications Appendix A Questionnaire Appendix B Verbatim files Appendix C Cross Tabulations 4 5 7 10 15 18 23 27 29 33 34 35 39 42 43 47 49 51 Available in R & D Section Available in R & D Section

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Methodology
The 2007 CPS Citizen Survey is the sixth that the Service has undertaken since 1995. The surveys were conducted over the telephone by a professional market research company. The sample was drawn randomly from current telephone number lists of Calgarians aged 18 and older. 2,008 surveys were completed, representing a margin of error of +/– 2.2%, 19 times out of 20. The surveys were completed in December 2007. Most of the survey is replicated, allowing for year to year comparisons, strengthening the confidence of the results over time. The 2007 questionnaire includes a few new questions, reflecting current topical issues.
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Perceptions of Officers
Generally speaking, Calgary Police Officers are…
“Strongly agree” and “somewhat agree” % …professional in appearance …knowledgeable …hardworking …honest …courteous …professional in conduct …fair 99 97 97 95 95 94 93 Mean (Out of 4.00) 3.85 3.57 3.62 3.50 3.53 3.49 3.39

…easy to approach 92 3.51 Respondents were asked to rate each of these statements on a 4 point scale where 4 is “strongly agree”, 3 is “somewhat agree”, 2 is “somewhat disagree”, and 1 is “strongly disagree”.

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Perceptions of Officers
1995-2007 comparisons Mean (out of 4)
Professional in appearance Knowledgeable in their job Hardworking Courteous Honest Easy to approach Professional in conduct Fair

1995
N/A* 3.58 3.50 3.51 3.49 3.47 N/A 3.43

1997
N/A 3.66 3.59 3.59 3.59 3.56 N/A 3.59

2000
N/A 3.66 3.59 3.58 3.58 3.60 N/A 3.56

2003
3.88 3.63 3.55 3.54 3.55 3.54 N/A 3.41

2005
3.84 3.59 3.56 3.52 3.52 3.50 3.50 3.43

2007
3.85 3.57 3.62 3.53 3.50 3.51 3.49 3.39 6

* N/A - Not available

CPS Relationship with Citizens
1995 1997 2000 2003 2005 2007
Percentages of respondents who “strongly agree” and “somewhat agree”. The location of police facilities makes policing services easy to obtain. The hours of operation of police facilities makes policing services easy to obtain. The Calgary Police Service… …provides an adequate amount or level of service to the public. ...provides the types of services that are needed by the community. ...adequately communicates crime issues and trends to the community.

N/A N/A

N/A N/A

88% N/A

88% N/A

84% N/A

85% 87%

N/A N/A N/A

N/A N/A N/A

N/A 89% 93%

90% 92% 90%

89% 90% 86%

85% 89% 87% 7

CPS Relationship with Citizens
1995 1997 2000 2003 2005 2007
Percentages of respondents who “strongly agree” and “somewhat agree”. The Calgary Police Service… …asks Calgarians about policing issues in the city. ...uses its authority and force appropriately. ...responds in a fair way when dealing with all segments of the Calgary community. ...maintains appropriate visibility in the community.

N/A 88% 85% N/A

N/A 91% 89% N/A

N/A 92% 91% 88%

N/A 90% 89% 89%

72% 85% 84% 88%

71% 88% 87% 84%

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CPS Relationship with Citizens
Comparison of Means (Out of 4.00)
The Calgary Police Service provides the types of services that are needed by the community. The Calgary Police Service… ...maintains appropriate visibility in the community. ...adequately communicates crime issues and trends to the community. ...uses its authority and force appropriately. ...responds in a fair way when dealing with all segments of the Calgary community. …has the trust of the public.

2000
3.48

2003
3.40

2005
3.42

2007
3.30*

3.44 3.47 3.44 3.40 3.40

3.35 3.36 3.34 3.31 3.34

3.36 3.34 3.33 3.32 3.30

3.23* 3.28* 3.25* 3.25* N/A

* The differences between 2005 and 2007 means are statistically significant, showing declining agreement with these statements. .

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Citizen Satisfaction
Overall, how satisfied are you with the service provided by the Calgary Police Service?

Very Satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied Very Dissatisfied

33% 57% 8% 2%

90% of Calgarians are either “very satisfied” or “satisfied” with the service provided by the Calgary Police Service.

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Citizen Satisfaction
If respondents said they were not “very satisfied”, they were asked to explain. The most often mentioned responses were: Police need to be more visible Police are ineffective against crime Negative attitudes of personnel, i.e. not courteous, arrogant, not caring Too much time spent on traffic Police do not deal with public concerns Issue or case was not solved

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Citizen Satisfaction
Comparison of Satisfaction Ratings 1995-2007
1995 “Very satisfied” and “Satisfied”* 96% 1997 95% 2000 96% 2003 91% 2005* 92% 2007 90%

*Prior to 2005, the response categories were "very satisfied” and “somewhat satisfied“. In 2005, these two response categories were changed to “very satisfied” and “satisfied”.

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Citizen Satisfaction
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1995

Tracking Citizen Satisfaction

% Very satisfied and satisfied % Dissatisfied and very dissatisfied

1997

2000

2003

2005

2007 *
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* The response categories have been changed slightly over the years the survey has been conducted. In 2007, these two response categories were “very satisfied” and “satisfied”.

Citizen Satisfaction
Comparison of Satisfaction Rating Means
1995 Mean (Out of 4) 1997 2000 2003 2005 2007

3.48

3.66

3.54

3.38

3.29

3.21

* The re-wording of the response categories in 2005 make it not comparable with the other years.

The mean scores have been declining slightly since the high reached in 1997.

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Contact with CPS
In the past 12 months have you had any contact either on the telephone or in person with an officer or other on-duty employee of the Calgary Police Service?
Yes 44% No 56%

To compare, 42% respondents had contact in 2005.

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Contact with CPS
Type of Respondents’ Contact with CPS N= 870* Called 911 or 266-1234 Officer dispatched/follow-up investigation Traffic accident, Officer dispatched Went to a police facility Spoke with Officer on the street Stopped because of traffic violation Encountered a check stop Community meeting/crime prevention/education program Charged by police officer Other 27% 18% 12% 9% 9% 6% 3% 2% 1% 13%
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* Number of respondents who had contact with CPS in the past 12 months.

Contact with CPS
Respondents who stated that they had gone to a police facility ( n=81) were asked three additional questions.
When you went to the police facility, did you wait… …longer than you expected …about the amount of time you expected …less time than you expected 16% 20% 64% When you went to the Yes police facility, were you greeted when 65% you walked in the door? …were you told how long it would be before you would be served? Yes 34% No 35%

No 66%

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Satisfaction with Last Contact
N = 870 N = 825

10%

9%
Very Satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied

28%

53%

Very Dissatisfied

81% of respondents were either “very satisfied” or “satisfied” with the service they received from the Calgary Police Service.
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Satisfaction with Last Contact
Comparison of Satisfaction Ratings 1997-2007
1997 Mean (Out of 4) 3.39 2000 3.43 2003 3.32 2005 3.26 2007 3.25

A comparison of the means indicates that the differences are not statistically significant between 2005 and 2007.

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Satisfaction with Last Contact
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Tracking Satisfaction with Last Contact

% Very satisfied and satisfied % Dissatisfied and very dissatisfied

1997

2000

2003

2005

2007

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Satisfaction with Last Contact
Thinking about this last contact, how would you rate the service you received? Was the person… Very… Somewhat… Not Very… Not at all… Mean (Out of
4.00)

…courteous …thorough 73% 17% 4% 5% 3.58 64% 25% 4% 6% 3.47

…knowledgeable 68% 25% 4% 3% 3.57

…concerned* 44% 36% 12% 8% 3.15

* “The person was concerned with my problem” was only asked if respondents indicated they had spoken with a CPS employee or officer, therefore n = 648. The other aspects of service were asked of respondents who had contact with someone from Calgary Police Service (n=870).

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Satisfaction with Last Contact
Comparison of satisfaction with last contact rating. Mean (out of 4.00) Courteous Thorough Knowledgeable Concerned 2000 3.68 3.60 3.65 3.37 2003 3.55 3.60 3.56 3.23 2005 3.55 3.50 3.56 3.31 2007 3.58 3.47 3.57 3.15

The satisfaction with the service citizens have received remains very positive.

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Victimization and Reporting
In the past 12 months, were you the victim of a crime?

13 %

Yes No

87 %

• Crime was not specified and was left up to the respondent’s perception. The intent of this question was to gauge reporting behaviour rather than the nature of victimization.

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Victimization and Reporting
• • • Respondents who answered that they had been the victim of a crime, were asked if they reported the incident to the police. Of the 252 respondents who said they had been the victim of a crime, 79% said they reported the incident to the police. The top reasons cited for reporting crime were:
• I am supposed to report crime • It was a serious crime • I needed the police report for insurance purposes

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Victimization and Reporting
• The respondents who said they did not report the incident to the police (n=52) were asked why. • Most of these respondents cited that: • they did not want to bother the police or the incident was not serious enough, • they felt the police could not do anything anyway, •the incident was dealt with in another way (private matter that they took care of or they reported it to another official).

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Victimization and Reporting
Citizens were asked if it was available, would they be willing to report an incident on a police website? 79% said yes.

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Perceptions of Crime in Neighbourhoods
38%
Increased Decreased Remained about the same

56% 6%

The majority of respondents think crime has remained about the same in their neighbourhoods.

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Perceptions of Crime in Neighbourhoods
General Social Survey 1999* (Calgary CMA) Increased Decreased Stayed the same 31% 7% 47% General Social Survey CPS 2003‡ CPS 2005‡ CPS 2007‡ 2004** (Calgary CMA) 29% 5% 56% 27% 10% 63% 31% 7% 61% 38% 6% 56%

* Source: Statistics Canada. General Social Survey on Victimization, Cycle 18: An Overview of Findings. Catalogue no. 85-553. 1999. “Don’t know” responses are not included. **Source: Statistics Canada. General Social Survey on Victimization, Cycle 18: An Overview of Findings. Catalogue no. 85-565. 2004. “Don’t know” responses are not included. ‡These do not include “don’t know” responses, do not add up to 100% due to rounding.

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Perceptions of Safety
How safe do you feel, or how safe would you feel… …around the LRT areas such as the Very Safe platforms or parking areas? …in and around the downtown and city centre areas? Reasonably Safe Somewhat Unsafe Very Unsafe Mean (out of 4) LRT areas % 16 37 40 7 2.37 Down town % 17 37 40 6 2.36
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Perceptions of Safety
...around the LRT areas such as the platforms or parking areas.
Very safe Reasonably safe Somewhat unsafe Very unsafe

2007 (av e rage 2.37)

2005 (av e rage 2.52)

0%

20%

40%

60%

80%

100%

In the 2007 citizen survey, fewer people felt “very unsafe” and more people felt “somewhat unsafe” compared to 2005.
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Perceptions of Safety
...in and around the downtown and city centre areas.
Very safe Reasonably safe Somewhat unsafe Very unsafe

2007 (av e rage 2.36)

2005 (av e rage 2.53)

0%

20%

40%

60%

80%

100%

In the 2007 citizen survey, even though fewer people felt “very unsafe”, more people felt “somewhat unsafe” compared to 2005.
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Perceptions of Safety
What makes you feel safe, or what would make you feel safe from crime…
…in your neighbourhood? More police officers (n=1684) Knowing police can respond to calls faster Better environmental design, i.e., street lighting, landscaping No visible crime Fewer suspicious persons around …in the city? (n=1858) More police officers Not seeing drug dealing or drug use in public places Fewer suspicious persons around Better environmental design
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Top Neighbourhood Concerns
In your opinion, what are the three most important policing concerns or problems in your neighbourhood? House break-ins/break and enter Vandalism Traffic violations Drug law enforcement Theft of vehicles Theft other than vehicles

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Top City Concerns
In your opinion, what are the three most important policing concerns or problems in the city? Drug law enforcement Illegal gang activity Traffic violations House break-ins/break and enter Assault Vandalism

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School Safety
Respondents were asked if they currently have any children in elementary, junior high, and senior high school. Then they were asked a number of questions about school safety in Calgary. Elementary school 17% N= 348 11% N= 216 11% N=227

Junior high school Senior high school

The percentages are of all respondents (2008).

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School Safety
Not including traffic accidents and personal accidents, how safe are Calgary schools and school areas for our children?
Elementary N=549 Very safe Reasonably safe Somewhat unsafe Very unsafe Mean (out of 4) 30% 57% 10% 2% 3.15 Junior high N=498 15% 60% 22% 3% 2.86 Senior high N=473 10% 53% 30% 7% 2.66

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School Safety
Safety Perceptions of People with Children in Schools

Senior high Junior high Elementary 0 20 40 60 80 100

2007 2005 2003 2000

Percent of respondents who have children in school, and consider Calgary schools and school areas “very safe” and “reasonably safe”. In general, the perceptions are stable over time. 37 Elementary schools are considered more safe than junior high or senior high schools.

School Safety
What, if any, are the major safety concerns in Calgary schools? Responses in order of mention: Availability of drugs Bullying Gangs Weapons Violence
The safety concerns mentioned are the same as in 2005.
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School Resource Officers
Are you aware that the Calgary Police provides a school resource officer on site at most of Calgary’s high schools to deal with school policing issues?

28 % No

72 % Yes
This question was asked of all respondents, n=2008.

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School Resource Officers
How should the school resource officer program be funded? Continue to fund the program with tax dollars School boards should fund the program Funding should come from somewhere else Continue to fund the program with tax dollars and school boards should fund the program (joint funding) 67 % 12 % 7% 14 %

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School Resource Officers
Do you think the school resource officer program should be in… % respondents who said “yes” …elementary schools …junior high schools …senior high schools 59 91 98

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Information Preferences
From what sources do you get the majority of your information about crime and crime issues in Calgary?
Newspapers Television newscasts Radio Internet/Web page Family/friends Community newsletters/pamphlets Neighbours and community members Television programs Calgary Police Service (police publications/presentations)

How would you PREFER to get information about policing issues in Calgary?
Television newscasts Newspaper Internet/Web pages Radio Community newsletters/pamphlets Calgary Police Service 31% 28% 14% 8% 7% 5% 42

Calgary Police Commission
Before now, did you know that Calgary has a Police Commission?

25 % No

75 % Yes

The awareness of the Police Commission has been stable over the previous surveys. In 2005 75% of respondents were aware of the commission, 76% in 2003, and 79% in 2000.
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Calgary Police Commission
The respondents who were aware of the Police Commission, were asked if they were also aware that the Calgary Police Commission… % Yes responses

2005 N=1489 81 78 78 66 52

2007 N = 1509 81 73 74 61 51 44

…appoints the Chief of Police in Calgary? …presents the Calgary Police Service budget to City Council? …establishes policies for the Calgary Police Service? …can be contacted by the public about police officer conduct? …holds public meetings?

Calgary Police Commission
If you want to know more about the Calgary Police Commission, from where would you prefer to get that information?
43%

11%

9%

9%

8%

5%

3%

1%

Fa

Po

Ra

Co

In te rn et /W eb

Ne

Te

Ne

m

li c e Fa ci lity

le v

di

ws

ws le t te r s, pr in

mm

ily

o

is i

pa pe r d te m at er ia l

un

/F

on in fo

ity As so c ia t io n

ri e nd s

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Calgary Police Commission
The “other” responses included: Telephone/311 City Hall/Aldermen Directly from CPS/CPC Via mail Library In general, public awareness of the Police Commission remains high. The preference for information on the Internet continues from the previous citizen survey.

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Demographics
Demographic Profile of Sample N=2008 Gender Female Male Age 18 to 24 25 to 34 35 to44 45 to 54 55 to 64 65 or over % 52 48 % 7 15 21 24 16 17 Do you consider yourself to be a member of a visible minority? Yes No 18 81
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Level of Education completed Elementary school Junior high school High school College/trade school Some university University degree Post-graduate degree

% 1 3 23 26 9 28 12

Demographics
Annual Household Income
Under $50,000 $20,000 or less Over $20,000 to $30,000 Over $30,000 to $40,000 Over $40,000 to $50,000 26 % 6% 8% 6% 6% Over $50,000 Over $50,000 to $60,000 Over $60,000 to $70,000 Over $70,000 to $80,000 Over $80,000 to $90,000 Over $90,000 to $100,000 Over $100,000 74 % 10% 9% 8% 8% 6% 33%

Note: These percentages are for those respondents who answered this question, and do not include the “don’t know” and “refused” responses.
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Implications
• Conducting the citizen survey provides CPS with a snapshot of the
perceptions of the citizens of Calgary. The value of the survey is enhanced by tracking changes over time. Using the same questions strengthens the validity and reliability of the survey tool. • The CPS has conducted citizen surveys in 1995, 1997, 2000, 2003, 2005, and 2007. In general, the results of the surveys have been consistent for the same questions. • The various aspects of service that are addressed in the citizen surveys are related to satisfaction with police service and perceptions of the police.

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Implications
• A couple of areas are showing declining ratings: citizen
satisfaction and perceptions of safety. The ratings are still very positive and the decline is slight. However, it is statistically significant for most years. • The victimization and reporting questions are new to the survey in 2007. Further research should be conducted to assess the impact of reporting behaviour on the provision of police services. • To help maintain positive citizen satisfaction, CPS should continue to focus on providing good quality service to Calgarians, both at the individual officer’s level and at the Service level. • The Service should continue to engage the public about personal and public safety and offer positive messages so that perceptions can remain positive. • CPS should continue to engage the public by gathering feedback and consulting with Calgarians.
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Appendix A
Questionnaire inserted.

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Appendix B
The verbatim response files are available in the Research & Development Section, 4th floor, Andrew Davison Building.

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Appendix C
The cross tabulation files are available in the Research & Development Section, 4th floor, Andrew Davison Building.

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