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Alternative Energy - Trend and Future Direction in Thailand and Asia beyond 2015

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					         Alternative Energy :
     Trend and Future Direction in
       Thailand and Asia beyond
                 2015


     .   .

                             (   .)

25           2553
                     (   )
•   Energy issues
•   Biodiesel
•   2nd generation Biofuel
•   Biomass Gasification
•   Bio-Natural gas, Bio-CNG
•   Advanced Battery and Electric Vehicle
•   Fuel cell and Electric Vehicle
•   Solar Energy
            Energy Issues

• Energy security
• Counteract climate change
• Demand for energy to fuel rapid
  economic growth in Asia-Pacific
• Improve energy efficiency
                                                                                         2005                    2050
                                       (450ppm)


 • Global Electricity Production                                ● Global Electricity Production
               by Type in 2005                                         by Type in 2050 (450 ppm)
                 Nuclear
                  15%            Oil
                                                                                  Hydrogen
                                 7%                                       Solar
    W ind                                                                           1.3%
                                                                          11.2%                     Nuclear
     1%
                                                                      Tidal                          23.3%
Bio/w aste                                                            1.0%
    1%
                                                                Wind                                           Oil
                                                                                                              0.3%
                                                                12.2%
Hydro                                                                                                         Coal
 16%                                                                                                          0.0%
                                              Coal       Geothermal
                                              40%           2.5%
                                                                                                           Coal +CCS
                                                        Biomass+CCS                                          12.9%
                                                            2.0%
                                                        Biomass/waste
                                                                                                    Gas
                                                            3.8%      Hydro
         Gas                                                                                        4.1%
                                                                      12.4%             Gas+CCS
         20%
                                                                                         12.9%
                                         Source : IEA



                           Source: IEA Energy Technology Perspectives 2008

                                                                                      2050
                                                        4                                    22   . . 2552_STI Policy
                                                                                                    Forum_Edit
                                                       2003                2050 (450 ppm)




                                                                          , 4.00%


                                                 , 19.40%                                             , 26.00%



                                           , 5.20%



                                            , 15.30%
                                                                                                     , 25.00%
                200                                             , 5.10%
                 F3(2003)                                   (
                                                                                     F         2050 (450 ppm)
                                                                          : IEA Energy Technology Perspectives
(   : IEA Energy Technology Perspectives                                            2007)
              2006)                             5
                                                                          2050           22   . . 2552_STI Policy
                                                                                                Forum_Edit
            Biodiesel

Status of Biodiesel production and R&D in
the world
     Biodiesel : Fatty Acid Ester, 1st generation
     BDF
     Biodiesel: Advanced Options, 2nd generation BDF

Biodiesel R&D at NSTDA
Biodiesel: Fatty Acid Ester, 1st generation



         Biodiesel: Fatty Acid Ester, 1st generation

   Issue concerned:

                      High Cost Feedstocks
                      High Operating Cost
                      Cold Flow Properties
                      Oxidation Stability
Biodiesel: Fatty Acid Ester, 1st generation


              Palm Biodiesel R&D in Malaysia
               Biodiesel and Carotene (2002-2006)

    Evaluation as diesel substitute
                                                      CPO
    Pilot plant to 30,000 TPA
    commercial plant for low pour             CrudeMethylEsters
    point (-15 to -210C) palm BDF              distillation
    Recovery of byproducts:
    Phytonutrients                  Biodiesel          Phytonutrients
    Trial conducts of palm                      Concentrate containing:
    biodiesel on commercial trains                Carotenes, Vitamin E,
                                                    Lecithins, Sterols,
                                                  Coenzyme Q, Squalene
Biodiesel: Fatty Acid Ester, 1st generation


                  R&D of Biodiesel in USA (1)
                     Oxidation stability, 2004-2006
                       Biodiesel R&D at NREL


             Fuel quality and stability during storage
             Oxidation stability B100, B5, B20
             Biodiesel on engine test and effect on
              NOx Emissions
Biodiesel: Fatty Acid Ester, 1st generation


                  R&D of Biodiesel in USA (2)
             Heterogeneous catalyst: 1992-2009,
               Iowa State University/Catilin Inc

   Catilin Inc. developed T300 solid catalyst
   save 19 cents/gallon for BDF production
   98% purity glycerine
   No water washing process
   Recycle/reuse catalyst
Biodiesel: Fatty Acid Ester, 1st generation


                  R&D of Biodiesel in USA (3)
                        Biodiesel Innovation /R&D

              Feedstock analysis and development.
              Reaction kinetics.
              New catalyst investigation.
              Process optimization.
              Co-product processing and upgrading.
              Fuel quality test method development.
              Fuel additive evaluation.
              Cold flow blending and operation.
              Fuel blending impact studies.
              Process scale up and evaluation.
      Source: Pacific Biodiesel Technologies
Biodiesel: Fatty Acid Ester, 1st generation

                   R&D of Biodiesel in USA (3)
                        Biodiesel Innovation/ R&D

       1. Water-free Processing for State-of-the-Art
            Technology
       2. Multi-Feedstock Flexibility for Changing Markets
       3. Superior Fuel Quality for End-user Satisfaction
       4. Quality Equipment for the Long Life
       5. Designed for Safety
       6. High Yield Efficiency for the Bottom Line
       7. Complete Methanol Recovery for Reduced Costs
       8. 85% Glycerin Purity for Increased Revenue
       9. Reduced Environmental Footprint for
      Source: Pacific Biodiesel Technologies
            Sustainability
Biodiesel: Fatty Acid Ester, 1st generation


                  R&D of Biodiesel in USA (4)

       Algae as Feedstocks for Biodiesel Production
                       2006-2010

                      High productivity
                      Non-food feedstocks
                      CO2 Sequestration
Biodiesel: Fatty Acid Ester, 1st generation

 Oil Yield of Feedstocks for Biofuel Production

    Feedstocks                         Oil Yield (gallon/acre-year)
    Microalgae                                                  5,000-15,000
                                                 theoretical laboratory yield
    Microalgae                                                        1,850
                                              based on actual biomass yields
    Oil Palm                                                             635
    Rapeseed                                                             127
    Sunflower                                                            102
    Soybean                                                               48
    Corn                                                                  18
    Jatropha                                                           57-76
 Biodiesel: Fatty Acid Ester, 1st generation
   Country                        Algal Fuel Producers
  USA            Algae Floating Systems, Inc.                                   Thin-walled polyethylene
                 AlgaeFuel, based in Berkeley, California
                                                                                tubing
                 Algae Fuel System, Ukiah, CA
                                                                                Low cost and simple
                 Algaewheel, based in Indianapolis, Indiana
                 AlgalOilDiesel, LLP, based in Corvallis, Oregon
                                                                                approach to growing
                 Applied Research Associates, Inc., based in Albuquerque, New   algae at large scale
                 Mexico and in Panama City, Florida
                 Aquatic Energy
                 Algoil Industries, Inc.
                 Aurora BioFuels                                                Vertigro bioreactor, high
                 Blue Marble Energy                                             density vertical
                 Cellana (Shell and HR BioPetroleum)                            bioreactor, constructed
                 Chevron Corporation(in collaboration with US-DOE NREL)         from plastic sheeting
                 Diversified Energy Corporation.                                Commissioning the
                 Global Green Solutions                                         world's first commercial-
                 GreenerBioEnergy                                               scale bioreactor pilot
                 GreenFuel Technologies Corporation                             project in El Paso, Texas.
                 Imperium Renewablesformer Seattle Biodiesel, LLC
                 Inventure Chemical
                 Kai BioEnergy Corp.                                            Algae production 20
                 Live Fuels, Inc.                                               times of soy, harvesting
                 OriginOil, Los Angeles, CA                                     daily
                 PetroSun and Algae BioFuels Inc., Scottsdale, Arizona          Utilizing waste CO2 from
                 Sapphire Energy                                                flue gas, 100m2
                 Solazyme, Inc.                                                 bioreactor
                 Solix Biofuels, Boulder, Colorado
                 Vertigro, El Paso, Texas
                 Virgin Green Fund                                                                     15
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_algal_fuel_producers
Biodiesel R&D at NSTDA




  1.




  2.
  3.
Biodiesel R&D at NSTDA




 1.                          /
 2.                                  1.5
                    /




                                 F         F F
                         F
                F
Biodiesel R&D at NSTDA




  1.                                  (2,000   20,000   /   )
  2.
  3.



  4.   ERIA-EAS BDF standard : 2008
  5.
  6.
Biodiesel R&D at NSTDA




  7.


       Glycerine                   1,3 propanediol

                                              /


                         Monomer
Biodiesel R&D at NSTDA




   1.                    (B10, B20, B50, B100)

                                   -
                            4    –
                                  –
Biodiesel: Advanced options, 2nd generation




                           R&D
                of 2nd generation biofuels in
                        EU and USA
Biodiesel: Advanced options, 2nd generation


                                  EU_NExBTL- Neste Oil
     Broad Variety of
        Oils/Fats,                                      Comparison of Biodiesel Fuel Property
        Fatty Acid



H2      NExBTL process
         Conversion of
        FA to diesel fuel


                           BioFuelGas/
                                Water/
                           Biogasoline



          NExBTL
 Source: Workshop and Report on Implications of Biorefineries for Energy and Trade in APEC Region, November, 2009
Biodiesel: Advanced options, 2nd generation

            USA_UOP LLC_ Ecofining Process, 2007
 Feed:
Oils/Fats
                                                                                      Comparison of
                                                                                Biodiesel Fuel Property




  Source: Workshop and Report on Implications of Biorefineries for Energy and Trade in APEC Region November, 2009
Biodiesel: Advanced options, 2nd generation

                                         EU_CHOREN
                        Agricultural Waste                     CHOREN/Shell/DaimlerChrysler/VW
                                                                               2008
     Carbo -V Process




                                                                             Sun Diesel Property
                        Three Phase Gasification                Higher yield per plantation area
                                                                Reduce total engine emission
                                                                HV 40 MJ /L
                                                              Fuels              Distance driven
                            Gas Treatment
                                                                                         per hectare
                                                              BTL                           64,000

                          FT & Hydrocracking                  Biodiesel from 1st            23,000
                                                              gen, rapeseed
                                                              Bio ethanol                   22,400
                            Sun Diesel
 Source: IEA Joint Task 40/ ERIA Workshop, Tsukuba, Japan, 28 October 2009
Biodiesel: Advanced options, 2nd generation

  2nd generation biofuels from upgrading pyrolysis oil
  USA-UOP /NREL/PNNL/Dynamotive/EnsynGroup (2004-2009)
  EU-BIOCOUP (2006-2011)




    Source: IEA-AMF, June 2008
Bio-natural gas
Biomass Gasification
                                           2546 – 2551

                               (       :                      )

    2546     2547     2548     2549         2550      2551
 
    3,493   3,693    3,452    3,372        3,237     3,300
    2,357   2,608    2,698    2,807        2,932     3,095
     996    1,073    1,084     998         1,043     1,184
    2,905   2,949    2,866    2,435        2,636     2,818
      -      188      724     1,381        1,797     1,848
    9,751   10,511   10,100   10,993       11,645    12,245




:                                             2551
                                                   2550/2551

       (   )                                                     (GJ)
                                          (MJ/kg)                                (MW)
                            (    )                                      (ktoe)
    73,501,000       0.30   22,050,000     16.21    357,435,363         8,461    97.2
                     0.24   17,640,240     16.42    289,652,741         6,857     79
    29,900,000       0.23    6,877,000     15.56    107,006,120         2,533     2.5
                     1.19   35,581,000     15.51    551,810,992         13,064   152.3
     4,249,000       0.19       807,310    16.63    13,425,565           318      3.7
     9,264,000       0.23    2,130,720     19.41    37,221,547           881     10.2


                     0.15    1,389,600     19.94    27,708,624           656      7.5
                     0.06       555,840    21.13    11,744,899           278      3.1
                 /   0.27    2,501,280     17.87    44,697,873          1,058     0.5


                     0.12       301,860    13.38    4,038,887             96      1
                     0.10       251,550    10.61    2,668,945             63      0.6
                     0.03       940,980    16.65    1,581,417             37      0.3
                     0.10       316,600    16.85    5,334,710            126      1.3
                     0.20    1,360,000     16.85    22,916,000           542      6.2
                     0.10       680,000    17.30    11,764,000           278      3.1
                     0.10       600,000    16.85    10,110,000           239      2.6
                            98,118,970              1,499,168,000       35,488   363.4

:                                     (    .)
    Biomass Technology for Heat and/or Power Overview




:
Advanced Li-ion Battery
           &
    Electric Vehicle
                                                                                     (EV)




                          Mitsubishi-
                          Mitsubishi-MiEV                       CITROEN C1                        Nissan Leaf                            MINI E                              Tesla Model S
                          Permanent Magnet Synchronous                                                                                Asynchronous motor
       Motor              Max. Power: 47 kW                         Max. Power: 30 kW                Max. Power: 107 HP               Max. Power: 150 kW                          Max. Power: 30 kW
                          Max. Torque: 180 N-m                                                                                        Max. Torque: 220 N-m

      Seating                            4                                   4                                4                   2 (battery replaced backseats)                5 adults + 2 child seats

                                      160 km                                                              160 km                  251 km – optimal conditions                    260, 370, or 480 km
Range per full charge    (Japan 10-15 Mode Driving Pattern)
                                                                        100-120 km
                                                                                                  (EPA LA-4 Driving Pattern)   (175 km in city, 154 km on highway)             (3 battery pack options)

     Top Speed                       130 km/hr                            96 km/hr                     140-145 km/hr                      120-153 km/hr                                192 km/hr


    Acceleration               0 96 km/hr: < 9 sec.                0 100 km/hr: 15 sec.                                              0 100 km/hr: < 8.5 sec.                    0 96 km/hr: < 5.6 sec.

                                                                                                                                                                        Li-ion (42 kW-h for 260 km; 65 kW-h for
       Battery                 Li-ion (300V, 16 kW-h)                   Li-ion (330V)              Li-ion (90 kW, 24 kW-h)           Li-ion (35 kW-h, 259 kg)
                                                                                                                                                                        370 km; 85 kW-h for 480 km)
                        80% Charge: 30 mins (3-phase, 200V)   80% Charge: 30 mins                                                                                            Quick Charge: 45 mins
                                                                                                    80% Charge: 30 mins        Quick Charge: 4.5 hrs (240V, 32A)
      Charging          Fully Charge: 7 hrs (200V, 15A)       Fully Charge: 6-7 hrs (200V, 13A)
                                                                                                    Fully Charge: 8 hrs        Normal Charge: 20 hrs (120V, 12A)
                                                                                                                                                                        (3-phase, 480V, 100A for 42 kW-h pack)
                                      14 hrs (100V, 15A)      Cost/Charge: ~US$1.20 (40 Baht)                                                                                Battery Swap Time: 5 mins
                                                                                                        2010 – Japan
                         End of 2009 – Japan (as planned)               2010 – UK                                              June 2009 – LA, NY, NJ (field test)
     Availability        April 2010 – Thailand (as planned)   (Produce about 2,000-4,000 cars)
                                                                                                        2012 – USA
                                                                                                                               Dec. 2009 – UK (leased for field test)
                                                                                                                                                                                USA – 2012 (expected)
                                                                                                        2013 – UK
                                    US$ 24,000                           US$ 25,000                  US$ 25,000-33,000               US$ 850/month leasing                      Starting at US$ 49,900
        Price                     (792,000 Baht)                       (825,000 Baht)             (825,000-1,089,000 Baht)              (28,050 Baht)                         ($7,500 less with tax credit)
Specific energy and specific power of different battery types




   Source: Johnson Control-SAFT 2005 and 2007
Lithium-ion battery characteristics, by chemistry
EV   PHEV          (    :   / )




            EV   PHEV
      Announced national targets for EV/PHEV sales – not far behind

As of September 2009. Combined, the total reaches 4 million by 2020;

However if EV/PHEV sales in each country continue to grow beyond when each target
is met, and other countries also set and achieve targets, global sales levels could be far
higher in 2020 than shown here. Are manufacturers prepared for this?

           5.0
                    NewZ   ealand
           4.5      Netherlands
       M
       n
       o
       s
       l
       i




                      w
                    S itzerland
           4.0
                    Aus tralia
                    Denm   ark
           3.5
                    Ireland
           3.0        w
                    S eden
                    C anada
           2.5      G ermany
                    F rance
           2.0      U nited Kingdom
                    U nited States
           1.5      S pain
                    C hina
           1.0

           0.5

           0.0
             2010   2011     2012     2013   2014   2015   2016   2017   2018   2019   2020
Solid Oxide Fuel Cell
       (SOFC)
                       Structure of an SOFC
                                                    - Energy conversion device: Chemical
                                                    to electrical energy

                                                    - Operating T ~ 700-1200ºC

                                                    - Feed fuel to anode, air to cathode

                                                    - Electrodes, electrolyte are
                                                      ceramics

                                                    - Due to high operating T, can use
                                                      H2, CO, natural gas, methane,
                                                      propane, etc. as fuel

                                                    - Electrical Efficiency 35-43%

                                                    - Due to high operating T, suitable
                                                      for stationary systems


Source: www.nasa.gov; http://www1.eere.energy.gov
Examples of Current Products on the
             Market
                    Bloom Energy Server™




           www.bloomenergy.com




- Utilizes planar SOFC architecture first developed for NASA’s Mars program
- Each cell is a flat solid ceramic square made from a common sand-like "powder."
- Each fuel cell produces ≈ 25W
- Each server contains a stack of thousands of cells,providing 100 kW
  and modular structure can be scaled to 1 MW or more
- Runs on natural gas and biogas
- Provides distributed generation, i.e., power generation at the point of consumption, easing

 demands on the power grid
Ceramic Fuel Cells LTD: Gennex
          - Converts natural gas to electricity at 60% electrical
           efficiency (net AC power export, LHV)
          - Produces 0.5-2 kW of electrical energy
          - Internal steam reforming - for high
           conversion efficiency
          - Balance of plant components with clearly
           defined interfaces – simplified integration
          - Compact heat exchanger – for smaller size
Ceramic Fuel Cells LTD: BlueGen
            -Grid-parallel SOFC system that operates on
            natural gas producing highly efficiency electricity.
            - Output: up to 2 kW power export
            - Efficiency: up to 60% electrical efficiency
            - Modular installation; can be configured as:
              mono-generation (power only)
              or co-generation (power+  heat)
Ceramic Fuel Cells LTD: BlueGen
Proton Exchange Membrane
          Fuel Cell
         (PEMFC)
                  Structure of PEMFC
                                      - Operation is similar to SOFC, but due to
                                        use of polymeric electrolyte membrane,
                                        operating T is ≈ 50-100ºC

                                      - Electrolyte conducts protons (H+), not
                                        oxygen ions (O2-) as in SOFC

                                      - Fuel must be pure hydrogen only

                                      - More suitable for automotive
                                        applications than SOFC (low operating
                                        T    quick start-up time)

                                      -Electrical Efficiency:
                                       53-58% (transportation)
                                       25-35% (stationary) (lower than SOFC)


Source: http://www1.eere.energy.gov
Ballard Power Systems
             - Operating temperature -20-52ºC
             - Small units are 0.3 – 3 kW
             - 1 MW modular structure are fully
               scaleable
Ballard Power Systems
           - 75 and 150 kW modules for buses
           - Fuel cells are 2-3 times more efficient
           than conventional diesel engines
           - Runs on hydrogen gas with water as
           product, thus reducing carbon emission
           and other pollutants
           - No moving parts means reduced engine
           wear, noise and maintenance cost
                        Fuel Cell Vehicles



     Los Angeles-based Solar               GM Chevy Equinox testing underway.
     Hydrogen Station to Re-fuel           Intend to commercialize in 2015.
     Honda Fuel Cell Electric
     Vehicle (Honda FCX)




Toyota Aims for $50,000 Fuel-Cell Car by   Mercedes-Benz plans to send 100
2015                                       units of its B-class-based fuel cell car
                                           to the US to be leased to customers
                                           in California
                              Future of Fuel Cells
DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program:
• In 2010, the proposed budget for work on hydrogen fuel cell vehicles reduced, funding boosts support for
  PHEVs, Biomass and Biorefineries
• However, rebalancing portfolio to focus on fuel cells rather than just hydrogen for long term transportation.
  Funding for:
    – Materials R&D
    – Subsystems
    – Reducing catalyst cost
    – Improving membrane durability
• DOE’s R&D focus for stationary power generation: High-temperature fuel cells
    – DOE anticipates that residential CHP (combined heat & power) fuel cells will use primarily natural gas
       fuel to provide electrical power, heating, and hot water.
• Also work on combining with other alternative energy sources, e.g., wind, gas turbine, solar, etc.

European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7):
• Minimum budget of €940 million for hydrogen &
   fuel cell research funding from 2008-2017
• Long-term focuses on:
     – Transport & refueling infrastructure
     – Hydrogen production & distribution
     – Stationary power generation & CHP
     – Early markets
Solar Energy
 Solar Module Retail Price Index
125 watts and higher module index




                              4.21 US $/watt
                              4.21 US $/watt
                             4.12 Euro E/watt
                             4.12 Euro E/watt
Worldwide PV Production 2006/7 and Planned
production capacity increases
                   Japanese PV Roadmap until
                      2030 (NEDO, June 2004)
                   2002      2007    2010                     2020           2030
        50 Yen/kWh
                                                                         Active
                      30 Yen/kWh                          14 Yen/kWh   Grid Control
                                            Battery Back-up
                      Bulk Si &                                                       New Material
Electricity Cost




                     Thin Film Si/                                                      Entering
                     Compound           23
                                     Yen/kWh
                                            Very-Thin Cell/                              /
                                             Multi-junction
                                                                          7 Yen/kWh
                      Present utility cost:
                         23 yen/kWh (private household)
                         15 yen/kWh (industry)
                                                                           10% of total
                      Electricity generation cost:                          electricity
                         5-6 yen/kWh (Nuclear)
                         9 yen/kWh (hydro)
                                                                            demand in
                                                                              Japan
Solar Radiation Map of Thailand

                     Solar Radiation Map of Thailand
                     Installed Capacity > 50,000 MW



                  Daily average = 5.05 kWh./m2-day

                  > 50.2 % of total area = 5.0-5.28
                                          kWh/m2/day

                > 14.3 % of total area = 5.28-5.5
                                 kWh/m2/day
    Technology status of PV




:
                       , 2550.
       Technology status of PV


    Concentrating PV    PV III-V Cells

        Fresnel Lens
                              Electricity
       Parabolic Dish




:
                                            , 2550.
Technology status of Solar thermal




 :
                         , 2550.
111
 .             .
 .              .       12120
      .   02 564 7200   5383-4, 5387-90
          02 564 7201

www.nstda.or.th/cpmo

				
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