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                    SHANDONG PROVINCE

             Feng Mao1, Qiang Li1, Jianxi Huang1, Zhihua Tang 2, Wensheng Zhou1, Ze liu1

                 1. Architecture School, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China,
    2. School of Geoscience and Environmental Engineering, Central South University, Changsha
                                            410083, China
     This is a preliminary report on our research project about the application of geospatial information technology in the
protection of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal supported by National Key Technology R&D Program of China. This
project was a comprehensive research carried out on the Grand Canal, including archaeological research, virtual display,
monitoring, and protection planning support system, etc. This paper focused on archaeological research of ancient Grand
     The Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal of China, the longest artificial canals all over the world, has a history about
2500 years. The Grand Canal has changed its line many times in different historical periods, so it was difficult to use
conventional methods to conduct macro, comprehensive, long time series studies. In this paper, we used ancient maps,
aerial photograph in 1950s, Landsat5 TM in 1980s and SPOT5 imagery acquired 2004, and combing historical
documents carried on a remote sensing archaeological analysis on the segment of Grand Canal in Shandong Nanwang
     The segment of the Grand Canal in Shandong province was dug in the year 1283 A.D. (Yuan Dynasty). Because
Shandong Nanwang region was the topography highest point of the Grand Canal, how to ensure the Grand Canal water
source became the region's most important issues. In order to solve this problem, in 1411 A.D. (Ming Dynasty) in
Nanwang region a famous project "Yin Wen Ji Yun" was constructed: Dammed Wen River, and dug Small Wen River;
Wen River water through the introduction of Small Wen River flowed into the Grand Canal, and at the entrance a device
was constructed to divide water, seven tenths of water flowed north and three tenths of water flowed south; Meanwhile at
the edge of the Grand Canal constructed five water tanks (five large lakes, called Beiwu Lake) for storing water, when
the water of the Grand Canal was low then discharged the lake water into the canal, so solved the problem of water
source of the Grand Canal. The works embodied the outstanding achievements of ancient China in water control and
enjoyed a status similar to the Dujiangyan. But now the ancient canal has been dry and waste, no longer navigable, canal
lines blurred, all five lakes have disappeared and turned into farmland.
     The archaeological study aimed at finding the course of the ancient Grand Canal and locations of the structures of
the "Yin Wen Ji Yun" project. To this end, we carried on visual interpretation on the 1954 black-and-white aerial
photograph, the course of the ancient Grand Canal and the Small Wen River and the border of Beiwu Lake were
extracted. To multi-spectral 1987 TM and 2004 SPOT5 remote sensing imagery comprehensive interpretation was
carried on. First, using the band combination method and ratio method, we inversed the ancient lakes borders and worked
out the area of ancient lakes in 1987 and 2004 from two phase remote sensing data respectively. Then making use of the
riverway’s spectral characteristics and spatial configuration we extracted the courses of ancient canals, present day canal
and Small Wen River by visual interpretation in 1987 and 2004 also. Finally, 1954, 1987 and 2004 three phases of
interpretation data were registered and overlaid accurately on a unified geographic coordinates. Through three phases of
interpretation data comparison and mutual corroboration and contrast analysis with the ancient map, combining the
records of historical documents, we identified the ancient Grand Canal, Small Wen River and the Beiwu Lake location
and drew up a schematic drawing of the "Yin Wen Ji Yun" project on the 1:50000 vector graph at last.
    From our research some important conclusions can be drawn:
    (1) Remote sensing can be quickly and effectively to find or identify a site location and distribution in the larger
scope, so it was an effective aid for archaeological survey. Through the remote sensing archaeology research, we founded
that in the northern area of Shandong Province the ancient Grand Canal has had two big changes of route, now the
ancient Grand Canal course remains majority, but the ancient water tank has vanished completely.
    (2)Remote sensing technology only provided an indication; Remote Sensing Archaeology must be based on
historical data and verified by other means and ground surveys.
    (3)In the early stage aerial photograph preserved many original earth’s surface states that not having been destroyed
by war, industrialization and population expansion and other factors, so it can provide important information for us to
conduct archaeological studies. Through aerial photographs in 1950s, we can see that in the study area the Beiwu Lake
still existed mainly, and the Grand Canal still had water as before, but in 1980s the Beiwu Lake had all disappeared, the
ancient Grand Canal has became intermittent, this indicated that during the 30 years after the founding of New China,
there have occurred rapid environmental changes.

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