VIEWS: 5 PAGES: 20 POSTED ON: 9/29/2010
Yan Huang Watch: Reflections on a century of Chinese world view Recognition of years of Chinese - the Spring and Autumn view of the world reflect on 2009-02-20 Yanhuang ????1. Spirit of the times and new perspectives ????History is always a constant reading of new textbooks. People study history, not for hair nostalgia, but to reform their own reality and the future direction of optimization. Therefore, each generation, and every age, should be on your own understanding of history. Modern China before 1949, the zeitgeist is the "resistance", "struggle", "seize power", "revolution." Therefore, the "main line to the peasant uprising," the research model has its own rationality. After the founding of New China, the spirit of the times, this should be turned to the revolutionary struggle of the pursuit of modernization. Unfortunately, after this transformation a reality in 29 years. The perspective of modern history, but also before the attendant has changed. New perspective the biggest difference with the old model is that it is more important from the "modernization" perspective, analysis of modern Chinese history, not just the modern history of China as a "revolution in history." From this new perspective, for a series of important events, historical figures and social thought, there was a new understanding.  a systematic summary, quite be read. Here only briefly noted several key issues. ????2. How do the characters in the old regime and its ????Revolution need to seize power. For all the old regime, listing the "no" to help prove the justice of revolutions and the mobilization of the revolutionary forces. Which gradually formed a kind of mindset: the old regime without merit. "Those who support the enemy, we must oppose; who oppose the enemy, we will support." Merits of the social and historical issues, not the conditions at the time of departure from the careful scientific analysis, put up a "class label" to enough. This is one of struggle magical philosophy. No wonder the dialectics Dietzgen called the "theology of revolution of the proletariat," Marx has never been criticized . Revolution need for theology, but it takes science building. Historians of the change is welcome. ????¢Å Westernization Movement. Should not be the method of class analysis and then, leave it to the side of the reactionary line. It is the country of China after the Opium War knocking, learn from the West with progressive movement. It opens in China under the feudal system of Western capitalist mode of production with the prelude, to promote the development of social productive forces in China. Though not without negative effect, but is conducive to the development of capitalism in China, to follow the development trend of Chinese history. ????¢Æ the Late Qing. Including the revitalization of business, industry incentives to encourage the free development of private capital; reform the military system, the gradual abolition of the old green camp, anti-Yong, training new troops; Abolishing, do school, study tour awards; Reform Bureaucracy, rectify the official and so on. Is a more comprehensive reform, largely reformed the old feudal system. Is a reform of the nature of capitalism, in line with the trend of historical development, and have a positive impact. Some Western scholars believe that; Although corrupt Qing Dynasty, but its existing form still makes sense, it is possible to force him to go through modernization and improvement of the "Salvation" in the road. If not overthrow the Qing Dynasty, the "New Deal" measures continue, will not appear on the Early Period of chaos. This involves improving the academic revolution and debate. Discussed further later. ????¢Ç Nanjing Government. After the demise of the Qing Dynasty, warlords, different decree, the initial realization of the Nanjing government of national unity. And she rescheduled the New Testament, tariff autonomy, building three years to accomplish something. Imperialist countries signed a friendship and trade treaty. Although this can not be touched from the fundamental rule of imperialism in China, but it reduced its privileges in China, in line with the aspirations of the people, under the historical conditions at that time there definite progress. She makes the imperialist countries to make concessions, China won tariff autonomy to customize tax rates, tariff free, and basic mastery and control of the customs administrative power. Before the war years (1927-1937), economic development and industrial and agricultural production has been restored and developed. In 1936, GDP reached a record high. Transport has changed. Built more than a thousand kilometers of railway eight years, opened up a civil aviation. If you do not lay the basis for decades of economic construction, China has eight years of war, we should win the final victory will be even more difficult. ????¢È War. Traditional view is that doctrine to the KMT never negative anti-Japanese resistance, active anti-communist; liberated the battlefield as a major battlefield; Sino-Japanese War the Chinese Communist Party leadership so convincing. Should say yes. A war, the two battlefields, three regimes. China's Anti-Japanese War, the whole Chinese ethnic groups, all classes of the war together, and not at the same time there is a foreign war, a civil war. There are two anti-Japanese war, this is true. The strategic position of the two different battlefields. KMT, the Japanese strategic offensive in the front, the positive charge of field operations. Eighth Route Army and New Fourth Army in the back or flank the Japanese responsible for field operations behind enemy lines. Two separate battlefields, the implementation of different strategies and tactics. KMT operations, mainly regular warfare, positional warfare. Eighth Route Army and New Fourth Army, the main guerrilla Zeyi. Liberated battlefield independence, relations with the KMT and the deterioration of the increase. Between the two battlefields, there are contradictions and struggles, and sometimes very sharp. War period, there are three types of Chinese soil Regime: The Nationalist regime, liberated and occupied areas of the puppet regime of the colonial regimes. Anti-Japanese National United Front of the KMT's Chiang Kai-shek set up to play a certain role. Because they hold state power, without their consent and participation, it can not form a Japanese national united front, can not form a national war of resistance. ????¢É Emperor. He is the Manchu imperial family in more accepting of new ideas of the emperor, life is the most important political event in the Reform Movement. He accepted all the recommendations of reformers, there is a high degree of commitment to political reform. In fact, if there is no dynasty, forge ahead, there will not be the Hundred Days Reform. He is the first attempt to follow the example of modern China to reform foreign enlightened emperor of China. Although he has serious weaknesses, but does not prove that he is just a Westernization of the emperor. Some of their status by analyzing the dynasty, and its key performance Chikamasa period, stated he is a patriotic bourgeoisie of the emperor. This new point of view, it is worth attention. Guangxu failure, natural reason. If conditions change, dynasty, without fail, go along the path of political reform, how will China's modern development? Worth considering. ????¢Ê Li. Can not simply say that he is a traitor. He compared the diehards at the time, is open-minded progressive. He dare to face reality, unwilling to die in an attempt to self-reliance. He advocated learning from the West's advanced technology, the founder of a group of military industry, which is the side of resisting foreign aggression. A certain extent, prevent and limit the expansion of foreign economic forces of aggression, delayed the process of semi-colonial China, the development of national capitalism played a useful role. He advocated education to train with the Westernization of Western bourgeois people, which is the rise of bourgeois power, there is a facilitating role. In the struggle to reform and conservative, he next in wait discreet, secret of the political reform more than a sympathy. In the Hundred Days Reform, he supported the revitalization of industry and commerce, support waste stereotyped, Xing school, to reform the political system are not entirely against it. On the diplomatic front, he signed a large number of unequal treaties, was guilty. ????¢Ë Yuan. Can not simply that he is a Qieguodadao. For this he was in the late Republic of China under specific historical conditions of China's political, military, economic, cultural, diplomatic, educational modernization of all aspects of the main role played by the process, should be affirmed. First, the Northern Yuan created by the Government, should see its future generations, between the Far East and the world pattern of impact. And acknowledged that this was the inevitable result of social and historical development. Forces at that time and people tend to contrast, the Sun can not contend with the Yuan. Replaced by Sun Yuan is the result of competition of political power. Sun also advocated the organization of the interim government and the development of the "Provisional Constitution", the fundamental and very different conditions, can not be achieved. Secondly, from the Late Qing to the Republic of China economic reform, China replaced the capitalist system turning point in the history of feudal system, introduced during this period Yuan capitalist policies, reflecting the general trend of historical development. In addition to the economic reform measures (such as the development of transport, the establishment of infrastructure, financial consolidation, reform of the currency), the Yuan has set up schools re-education, new educational modern big way, focusing on enlightenment. In addition, the Yuan has also promoted the modernization of Foreign Affairs, led the recovery of many rights movement. Yuan in people's minds a long time, "dare traitor, traitorous good and large facilities traitorous" and "accept the twenty-one" concept, in fact, not completely figure out the basic facts, or preconceived notions and to come to the conclusion . Objectively speaking, Yuan Diplomatic Thought and Practice, has broken the principle of the late Qing Yi exclusive system is basically weak to compromise the positive combination of diplomacy and Resistance Theory and Practice. As to the inevitable progress of a price to pay, from the perspective of historical development, should not be attributed to the Yuan people. Meanwhile, the Late Qing Dynasty on the cultural and political liberal policies, Yuan positive role played by the objective, it should be affirmed. ????Yuan Shikai proclaimed himself emperor certainly is not right, reactionary. But should not negate his entire political activities. Zhang Xun and with the restoration of their different nature, not to be surprised. Thousands of years of tradition of oriental despotism, too deep. That can get every country on the "first chair" person, "Son of Heaven addiction" is irresistible temptation. From Hongxian Huang Di, the chairman and Great Helmsman, just a few. The difference is that, given a heavier form of change to the heavy content, quality gradually improved, and even theory. Time is getting longer and longer, instead of Falls in to die. ????¢Ì Soong. From the 20th century, 20 years to 40 years, he in finance and foreign relations and other fields, have a significant impact, the KMT regime's internal affairs and foreign policy-makers and key implementers. But his research, but it is not dare to touch the subject of mainland scholars. Only slightly in recent years, a breakthrough for him, especially in foreign affairs work done during the war, to be sure. After the outbreak of the Pacific War, China has made remarkable diplomatic achievements, Soong made an important contribution to this. In diplomatic activities, he insist safeguard China's sovereignty. As he put Hong Kong, Kowloon and the United Kingdom and other concession in China, returned to China after the war, as the inevitable outcome. His diplomatic activities, but also for China's international status after the war laid the foundation. In the beginning of the original Japanese War, the U.S. government policy toward China is quite negative. The Pacific War broke out, Soong in carrying out activities in the United States has made representations to results, and this cooperation between China and the U.S. war to establish and develop a positive role. Considerable period of time this person has a tendency of some progress, played a positive role, is worthy of further study. ????3. Reform or Revolution ????Over half a century, the mainstream ideology in China, the revolution was seen as the driving force behind social development, is paramount. This revolutionary, natural in a narrow sense, refers to the class struggle and violence to seize power. From this point of view, the peasant uprising of the previous are positive attitude, and as the main line of historical research, for the improvement, is very critical. However, the supremacy of the revolution, it is doubtful [25,26]. First of all, that "human society is followed by the evolution of the five modes of production, changes in the mode of production is achieved through revolution." These are from a range of historical phenomenon summed up the characteristics of probability with the exception of the phenomenon are many, do not have the necessity. When they are promoted as "one size fits all" after the certainty of the law to become a social and historical awareness of the shackles of the problem. Secondly, the modern West has two trends lead to two different styles of political tradition: First Anglo-American empiricism, weight improvement, advancing inch by inch, spiral, cool Feats; the other is represented by France, Europe idealism, easily revolution, Hurricane processes . One way to go before Japan, to promote the modernization of the Restoration. China is an extreme cult of revolution, will continue after the victory of the revolution, permanent revolution. Reform the national economy to the edge of collapse. Improved rejection of revolutionary practice (reform), the only catch up slowly. Finally, look at the world today. Nearly half a century, peace and development become the theme. The worship of violent revolution, while filling some of the region into a "backward - chaos - behind the" vicious circle unable to extricate themselves, and become one of the causes of terrorism. ????¢Å on the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom. Traditional view is that he is the first time in modern Chinese history to farmers as the main character with a bourgeois democratic revolution. It represents the Chinese masses against feudalism, against foreign aggression and political demands, the general direction of progress, the nature of justice. Recently, detailed analysis was made for this . There are three merits of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom: a tremendous shock to the entire feudal order; although not beyond the peasant uprising in the form of the frame, but reveal the tendency of capitalist modernization; not dare to resist the Qing Dynasty, but also dare to resist foreign ships and armament Li aggressors. But he also at fault, it should be realistic recognition. First, it does not bring liberation to the farmers, but for a certain name, the farmers are still bound under the feudal system of exploitation. Implementation of its capital in Nanjing after the decision to "pay taxes to pay as usual" policy, meaning that it recognizes and accepts the feudal landlord class, land tenure. Second, it does not make farmers political freedom, not to establish the real power of peasants. Has established a theocratic monarchy combined with authoritarian rule. Hong feet When the rebel garrison Guiping stone, it established the 15 harem. To the founding of Togo, to establish 36 additional harem. Tianjing to the capital, augmented by a further set of 88 harem. In nation-building when he made his son Hong Tiangui for the child the Lord, to ascend the throne. When Wing states in Guangxi to determine who seized political power, active, and Leidai hereditary. Hong ruling, the legislature no chapter outline disorders, renew, surly. Taiping is to implement theocracy. If it unified the country, the history of China will be back to the dark period. Third, the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom is not represented or establish new relations of production. Fourth, it is not an analysis of Confucian culture as opposed to the mainstream of traditional Chinese culture, society at that time and later had a negative impact. Youyi Sibu Xiang Catholic to do signs, not for the national psychology. ????¢Æ understanding of Tseng Kuo-fan, said here on more convenient. Since the liberation of the traditional view of Tseng Kuo-fan was completely negative, that he is foreign to surrender, internal counter-revolutionary traitors butchers slaughter. In recent years, this view against the increasingly commentators, the evaluation is basically over with . First of all, Tseng defeated the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, to avoid the history of China back to the dark ages theocracy. Secondly, he is the Beginning by Chinese modernization. Westernization is the first modern history of China Movement. And its sponsors, advocates, and practitioners is Zeng. He was the first planning to set up the first military facility in China - Anqing by the ordnance. He did not meet modern ships in the hand-made guns, the first study in the United States to send Yung Wing, the United States to make the machine run the machine purchased in preparation for the establishment of modern machine industry. He co-founded with Li Jiangnan Manufacture Bureau. He also promoted the development of science and technology and education modernization. 1872 sent to the United States to study, opened China to send students to the history of the West. He promoted the building of China's navy, for the manufacture from the ship, the Navy's establishment, recruitment and training of sailors, to the navy and the naval articles of association to raise funds for the formulation, have made a lot of exploration. After the development of the Navy are essentially the blueprint for the development according to Tseng's. He modernization movement in China, not only pioneered the Beginning of the power, but also to make China's modernization path towards a very important step. ????¢Ç for the Boxer Rebellion. A new point of view, it is not a progressive trend of history. Old peasant war in China to the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom over. Early 20th century, the bourgeoisie has been the political arena, the farmers can not alone transform China. In the anti-imperialist Boxer Rebellion, but also reject the capitalist mode of production of modern science and technology, against all the "foreign" about things and want to maintain a closed, self-sufficient economy. At this point, the Boxer Rebellion led by the bourgeoisie than the Hundred Days Reform and Revolution, not only is not the progress of history, and history can be said backwards and reactionary. ????¢È the nature of the Hundred Days Reform, no big change. But there are two views, it is worth attention. One is that it is the bourgeois-democratic revolutionary movement. It pursues the constitutional monarchy is a dictatorship of the bourgeoisie, the bourgeois reform movement is the essence of the landlord class to seize power is a preview of Revolution and reformism, and are essentially different. Another view is that it is the improvement or reform of the bourgeoisie. Because the reformers not in favor of bottom-up approach to launch revolution that overthrew the Qing Dynasty, it can not be called revolution. But the improvement should not be confused with the reformist. Can not be modified under any conditions are called reformism. Although the opposition Reform and the Revolution, but under certain conditions, can be transformed. ????4. Open and closed ????Modern capitalist mode of production first in the UK, and this is the result of many factors . History, to say the industrial revolution is inevitable happened, but what happens where, when, it is the result of historical events improvise. It can only happen in the emergence of countries like improvise, and then spread in the world. More countries have the necessary conditions, are more quickly accepted the industrial revolution; and the less qualified the country to receive more for the delay; acceptable way, also show differences between large and small. "It can be inferred that no country is bound to have a capitalist, is absurd. Particularly in China, the arrogance of the heavenly, the Opium War and the British and French troops knocked unconscious, the Sino-French War in 1884 also did not knock wake up until the Sino-Japanese War in 1894 banged about, it Lueqian a body, to Boxer, Boxer did wake up in China, said that it would spontaneously give birth to capitalism, real estate, really balderdash! " ????A sharp contrast with the Western civilization is the closed nature of Chinese civilization. The various aspects and different levels from the point of view, is true. First, her door is closed. This is her Chinese centered, stubborn arrogant mentality, are closely related. This closed harm us 600 years, so we were left far behind the trend of world history. In modern times, has hindered the development of capitalism in China, and the introduction and development of science and technology. Second, thousands of years of our material civilization, spiritual civilization and institutions of civilization, are closed with a distinctive mark. Tend to be too in love "towards each other can hear the voice, but never in contact with" and "do not know Chinese, regardless of Wei" realm. Half of the 19th century, the first Muslim in Shaanxi Province in China after a failed uprising, there are thousands living on the territory of Kazakhstan to the present . Later developed to 12 million people, known as the "Dungan people." 120 years later, the "Shaanxi village" mode of production is still small-peasant economy. Qing Dynasty is still talking about the Shaanxi dialect, do not understand modern Chinese. It can be said that the closed nature of the modern civilized living specimen. Contact in the open country the tremendous changes over 20 years, we can see how important it is open to development. ????Opium War, from the perspective of the revolution, the imperialist aggression against China and China's War of Aggression. This is no doubt. But the focus on the history of the world, from a development perspective, it is advanced modern Western civilization, and China closed the collision between civilization and backwardness. Two civilizations, their territories, there must be a battles . The latter failure is inevitable. Paid a terrible price, but accidentally got a lifeline, opening up and modernization, so that we gradually awakening from the sink. 1840--1978, China's open door has been forced. Tang said even adults, "no reform, no way out." Open consciousness is gradually improving in practice. Unequal treaties signed after the Opium War, naturally the defeat. But there are many unequal treaties, in fact, sent by their own door. Qing officials because of diplomatic rules of ignorance and do not know, and let people to the Mongolian. These bitter facts, but also teach us to understand the importance of opening up. ????The New Culture Movement, the traditional view of her outstanding nature of the political revolution. New perspectives in the New Culture Movement and May Fourth Movement must promote each other under the premise of the May Fourth Movement focused on salvation as reflected in the theme and the theme of the New Culture Movement in the Enlightenment collision and assimilation. Enlightenment of the New Culture Movement launched soon to encounter the salvation of the anti-imperialist political movement, the two soon merge together. Initially, the Enlightenment and the momentum gained by the national salvation movement, the Enlightenment, in turn, provided to the Salvation ideas, talents and teams. But soon overwhelmed enlightenment salvation. Rescue the situation, national interests, people suffering hunger, overwhelming everything, overwhelmed the intellectual freedom, equality, democracy, civil rights and a variety of wonderful ideals and needs overwhelm the individual dignity and rights of the individual attention and respect. Especially in the salvation of the revolutionary tide, in the difficult long-term political and military struggle, the officers and men came in with the farmers and peasants fought together in the environment, the concept of democracy and enlightenment are some of peasant small producers squeeze ideological and psychological gone, took the opportunity to revive feudalism. ????New Culture Movement is the first time in modern history the great ideological liberation movement, there have been short of contending situation. Liberation is to break through the shackles of feudalism, but also an open. Contending is open, she was able to occur because the country was not unified, and as the Warring States period. As long as unity, in this oriental despotism of the country, there can be a real contending. ????5. The true predecessors also ????Figures in modern history, in contemporary by distorting a most serious, than Hu Shi and Lu Xun had. Hu called for "bourgeois idealism," critique for over 20 years, of several million words. Useless, wicked people! This is Hu? ! Conversely, Lu Xun, then take the crown of a Ding Ding scary, perfect, resourceful now! Mr. nether world to know about can be recognized? First of all can not help but ask, Why is that? Hu criticism is a warning shot, knocking Tiger Town. Clean up all the scholars on the mainland too, immobility, obedient. Deification of Lu Xun, is subject to by the "I and Lu Xun are interlinked" to deify "savior." Is "to exorcism of demons, with Zhong Kui." If this in modern times, is for the revolution, if extenuating circumstances. So, after the founding, especially during the Cultural Revolution, by distorting the words of Lu Xun down a large number of cadres and intellectuals, but it is a do not have a heart. Also previous to its original feature, when? Predecessors, should not according to the needs of modern people to expect, but starting from the conditions he lived to see his role in the development of history. Make political and academic (including literature, art) from different perspectives. Political factors, will gradually fade with the development of history. The charm of the academic, but it is eternal. ????¢Å first look at Hu. ????¢Ù political performance need to be analyzed. The "Manchurian" is a matter into sector, Hu's political attitudes significantly changed. In the "Mukden" before, Hu Shi, as liberals, in a power position with the KMT has intense conflict. "Manchurian", the Hu Shi became a member of the ruling clique, became the KMT government's official scholars. He is not in favor of communism, but one should not forget that he is also against the Three People's Principles . He believed in positivism, not in favor of setting any "ultimate truth." And all the world's "isms", are similar with the ultimate truth, so he opposed. He has never been a member of the Kuomintang, the Communists did not hatred. He said to himself, his life never written critique of Marxism, communism, critical articles , while the opposition KMT article was written. In his "New Moon" published article "hardly difficult to know", is famous for the Sun Yat-sen's theory of "easier than" . 'm On the KMT's "founding father" of the important theories challenge is to take a little courage. Hu and other New Moon characters, once to promote "good government" and to this outcry . Which implies the KMT government is not the meaning of good government. Whom the KMT into a rage, is not surprising. Hu said the KMT is a "small criticize a big help," seems in the system than the KMT, the KMT and other faithful lackeys do evil more dangerous, very far-fetched. This and that "clean government can extend the life of the feudal rule, but bribetaker to promote its decline, bribetaker better than clean government," meaning similar. Liberation War, Peking University students took to the streets, hunger and persecution, civil war. Suppression of the Kuomintang reactionaries large facilities and arrested students. Hu at this crucial moment, did not come out to help the Government's favor. Raise the bail, but the students, but also personally talked to jen . The relationship between Hu Shi and very delicate. Can not say he has no political ambitions, but he clung tightly academic research. Habits of a lifetime is not off rogue Chiang Kai-shek, who is actually playing on top of Hu in the shares of the palm, but Hu is not clear on this point. Scholar of the tragedy is here. ????¢Ú Hu's achievements. In the May Fourth period, he advocated literary innovation, promotion of the vernacular, personal liberation, emancipation of women, against the feudal ethics, etc. , a significant influence. Single-take "Literature Reform Discussion," is , raised eight questions: should write with substance, not to imitate the ancients, should pay attention to grammar, not for no groaning disease are advised to hackneyed set of words, not typical, do not speak antithesis, not to avoid saying folk characters. At that time not only of literature played a significant role in promoting the development is to get the present situation, there is great practical significance. Hu advocated learning from the West, he said, "We must recognize our own Pepsi than others. Not only inferior material, machinery than people, and political, social, moral people do not like." "Just imagine, how imperialist aggression pressure not live in Japan for nearly 60 years strenuously self? Why could not bundle the unequal treaties the free development of Japan? "" We came today to rule the country also superstitious ignoramus, who refused to bow to learn the rich people rule the organization and methods " . These words sound today, do not or enlightening? ! He actively promote learning, "Western civilization, the first feature of modern science. The fundamental spirit of science is the pursuit of truth." "Stay a spirit of human nature the greatest demands." "Oriental civilization, the most significant feature is the content. Western's most prominent feature of modern civilization is I do not know enough."  he modern Westerners, especially Western scholars since the nineteenth century the history of scientific method to organize the Chinese thirty-four Millennium to the historical and academic, to its dregs, its essence, the true colors shown by . ????¢Û problem and doctrine of the dispute. Since the founding, Hu has been regarded as opposed to the spread of Marxism in China and evidence. This is a miscarriage of justice. Hu's article , writing as to the motives and directed, is the head of the Department of Anfu, pro-Japanese Han Jian Wang Yi-Tang. Such people, it has also advocated "the People's Livelihood," and sing a socialist, is not it dangerous? Hu pointed out; "tend to be very dangerous doctrine on paper. This mantra, it is easy to do Zhongzhong shameless politicians harmful thing." "Socialist, a Marxist, but also Wang Yi-Tang." "Nice talk about doctrine, is extremely easy, is Tun Town can do. To study and solve a difficult problem." "Is not advising people not of doctrine." "'Doctrine' of the big risk that people satisfied, since the cure-all package that Looking back on the 'fundamental solution', no need to charge from the effort to study specific issues which resolved." Zhao article  pointed out that the problems and doctrines can not be separated. Of doctrine, the fundamental problem of finding a solution, is also very important. Hu expressed the view, "all in favor of some, and some slight differences." Hu's view, there is one-sided. Zhao appears to be made as of colleagues and buddy, very polite, very quiet. Academic discussion is completely normal, do not see the fierce struggle. Hu's indictment, is completely out of context later generations, the result of wanton speculation. I've got two surprises: First, "tend to be very dangerous doctrine on paper. This mantra, it is easy to do all kinds of shameless politicians harmful thing." This case, since the founding, in particular, in the ten years of chaos, do we appear there? Second, experienced the ups and downs of the Chinese academic circle, there are now a wide range of welcome trend. Diversified, it means to study the problem as the center, do not adhere to a doctrine, have all learned to solve the problem. This is not coincide with Hu it? Hu 80 years after the article in the meaning of these realities, I fear, Hu, Lee, Sirs, would not dream of it. ????¢Ü Pursuing Learning. He has a very brilliant exposition, careful pondering, ever been. First Bo and refined . "The ideal scholar, both broad, but also deep. Profound respect, is his special knowledge. Broad, the search of his next Expo. Broad to almost all-knowing, deep dimension to his only use almost no one energy and. " Bo helped fine, "just read a book, a book is not known. More books, then you can read a special book." Essence, to do your eyes, mouth and heart to hand to. Second is the "first reading will be suspect. In no doubt at a doubt, carry on into the side is."  Third, "released to absorb knowledge and ideas is an excellent way." "Publication is absorbed weapon; and can say that the key to heart to hand to be."  Fourth, the research method four-character formula : Qin, I would like, and, slowly. Qin Qin is the eyes, Shouqin, seeking material handling, ground handling seeking truth, seeking evidence of ground. Not the slightest wish is struggling, do not scribble, give an example, establish a permit, the next conclusion is not struggling. And is a calm, calm, open mind to observe. Objectively examine the facts and evidence all unreasonable to put aside prejudice, subject to evidence, and gave himself from the people. Slow is a calm study, Mo jump to conclusions. Fifth, under the wise stupid effort. "All successful people are great, are extremely smart people who are willing to make stupid Kung Fu" . ????¢Ý interaction with others. Some of his characteristics, one of the difficult and . The first residence Christine, deacons ground. Second is the enthusiasm of people loyal to any people are amiable, with no overbearing shelf. This is to get this point of view, it is quite commendable. Third, meticulous scholarship. Fourth, "He who will not be tolerated in the" generosity. He believes that to colleagues and friends, "tolerance is more important than freedom."  so his friends very much, most impressive, is "my friend Hu Shi," the smile. In real life, how so few such people? ! ????¢Æ look at Lu Xun. Can be said that one of the most controversial figures. So far the academic factions still hold the rationale of all, differences can be seen everywhere. Lu Xun scholars in Taiwan have been efforts to play down the political tendency to study them as traditional scholars. Influenced by the mainland Japanese academia. Some Western scholars of Lu Xun studies, with an obvious anti-Communist political leanings. Evaluation of Lu Xun, there are several ideas: First, continue to adhere to the traditional view, deified Lu Xun. Second, the total negation of Lu Xun's literary creation and thought, if any, scholars from the Christian theology of "love" and "tolerance" of the view that he preached "hate" philosophy. Third, realistic re-evaluation, not to Lu Xun to be treated as a god or perfect. Hold this view more and more, but the big gap between the actual presentation. If recognized that: "man" is the starting point of Lu Xun thought all, patriotism and anti-feudal struggle through Lu Xun's life. Some people think that: Lu can not be considered socialism or liberalism, which are "late" non-rational psychology tradition. Politically, he only regarded as allies in the Communist Party, but maintained its outlook and independence. These are worth considering. Limited research on history and current situation, my understanding of Lu Xun, now is not quite clear. Only note a few points. ????¢Ù Lu Xun was misinterpreted and use the. Some of his claims development in the Cultural Revolution, played a role in fueling. For example, the "fake foreigners are not allowed to revolution" , is used to criticize the "Liu-Deng reactionary line" and incitement to rebel spirit. "Four Tiaohan Zi"  and "pull the banner for the tiger, wrapped themselves to frighten other people" is used to down a large number of ideological and cultural leadership cadres. "Hengmeilengdui pointing fingers" and "Daluoshuigou" , is used to make the cruel persecution of cadres and intellectuals. Even his comment period on the Water Margin, also with the hair on the Water Margin's "latest instructions" together with the fight against Zhou Enlai and other weapons. Because of that, I believe that Lu Xun's ultra-leftist ideology, is Mao's theory of weapons. Later learned that this is a misunderstanding. ????Lu Xun was misinterpreted in several ways. First, the migration times and the target of the criticism. ???? ???? ????6. ????"Do not know the truth, just because in the mountain." ???? ???? ???? 7. This is something. ????References ????23. ????24. ????25. ????26. ???? ????28. ????29. ????30. ????31. ????32. ????33. ????34. ????35. ????36. ????37. ????38. ????39. ????40. ????41. ????42. ????43. ????44. ????45. ????46. ????47. ????48. ????49. ????50. ????51. ????52. ????53. ????54. ???? ????56.
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