Thomas Mann (ThomasMann) Thomas Mann (Thomas Mann) ¡¿ ¡¾Biography Thomas Mann (Thomas Mann ,1875-1955) German writer. Nobel Prize for Literature. June 1875 Thomas Mann was born on 6 northern German port city of Luebeck. His father was a business giant grain, the mother was born in Brazil, of Portuguese descent. Thomas. Man is the second oldest of five children, a long his-year-old Heinrich Mann was also a famous writer. As a successful businessman, Thomas. Mann's father, the actual style, very influential in Lubeck; which he receives from his mother, where music, literature and art nurtured. Father's pragmatism and the mother's artistic temperament represents duality, a Thomas Mann was an important literary theme. Although the young people time to Thomas Mann Bing Fei is a Quefa talent of the child, but his performance for the school's curriculum De no interest. He is more willing to develop its long-standing love for writing, and in the form of prose essays, and writing with others involved in its compilation and publication of the magazine "Spring Storm." Preserved in a 1889 letter, Thomas Mann was only 14 years old at the end of the letter is a name "Thomas Mann, lyrical drama poet." This reflects the Thomas Mann for their own future as a writer is very serious about this matter. Thomas Mann's father in 1891 at age 41 premature deaths, the children were assigned a guardian. The guardian believes that Thomas Mann, after leaving school should choose a proper job. Thomas Mann obedient to the will, and thereafter worked in a fire insurance company. Work in the desk is extremely boring for Thomas Mann and not challenging. An anecdote about him still no controversy. Is to say, when he secretly engaged in writing the list of transcription. In 1892, Mann moved to Munich mother. Thomas. Mann remained in L¨¹beck matriculation schools complete their studies. He turned most of the energy literature, his academic performance is not satisfactory, graduation was only a "moderate" diploma. In 1893, Thomas Mann in Munich from L¨¹beck to. In 1895, Thomas Mann gave up work in the fire insurance companies. 1894-1896 years, he attended the Technical University of Munich, history, art and literature courses. Initially, he was thinking of is to choose the profession of journalism. Secondary school of aimlessness, still during the continuation of his university studies. When in 1896 Thomas Mann 21 years of age adult, he was entitled to the property left by his father to get from 160 to 180 marks per month pocket money. In this way, he will have enough income. Thomas Mann has decided that the teaching activities of the passive freed himself and became a freelance writer. In 1897, Mann started his first novel, "a cloth Blok," Creation. This novel published in 1901 and immediately a great success, from Thomas Mann laid the status of literature in Germany. In 1905, Thomas Mann married with ¿¨µÙæ«ÆÕÁÖ Bensheim. Although Mann on their own homosexual tendencies is not ignorant, but he chose to suppress restraint. They had six children, three children and three women. In addition to the eldest son of Claus. Man, the eldest daughter Ailikaman also a writer, actor and social activist. Klausmann and Yilikaman are openly gay. In 1929, Thomas Mann won the Nobel Prize for Literature. But that did not stop the Nazi threat to his family. In addition to Thomas Mann's own work outside the sub-Nazi's appetite, he Gegehengli Seaman progress of speech, his wife's Jewish origin and his openly gay status of children is enough to make the Nazi teeth. In 1933, Thomas Mann, a start exile, first the Swiss and the United States. In the United States, Thomas. Mann Hill Palisades, California became the home of many exiles and celebrities who visit the place, Arnold Schoenberg, Botuoerte Brecht, and his ¸ç¸çºàÀûÏ£* Mann is an honored guest here. 50's, Mica tin doctrine began in the U.S. outbreak. The two split into East and West Germany after World War Two. Thomas Mann chose to settle in 1952 and returned to Switzerland. July 20, 1955 Thomas? Man was diagnosed with a thrombosis. Kai to the effect of treatment did not. Thomas? Man on August 12 as atherosclerosis hospital in Zurich, died aged 80. ? ???¡¿ ¡¾Writing career In 1894 published a simple short story entitled, "Fallen." The story published in a book entitled "society" magazine and has been well received. In 1901, Thomas Mann's first novel, "²¼µÇ²ªÂå¿Ë family - the decline of a family" publication. Immediately upon release novel readers and literary critics caused a positive response and resonance. However, soon spread in L¨¹beck on the novel of which a large family and the people mentioned are not entirely fictional, but true story city children. Novels published soon, spread out on a list, disclosure of the novel in the figure corresponds to reality. L¨¹beck's Bookstore has been a customer at his door, because this book can be loaned to prepare a list of fictional decryption. Novel "²¼µÇ²ªÂå¿Ë family" is Thomas Mann has created a great impact on one of the work. 28 years later, it is because the creation of this book, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature Thomas Mann. Been published after the "Tristan" (1903), "Tonio Kroger" (1903) and "Death in Venice" (1912) and other three novella, called on the art of the early outstanding and the artist's novel. Before World War I, many of his famous novella published. World War I period, he's thinking once a crisis, on this war of Xingzhirenshi unclear, a nationalist stance, Yao Bao Wei-called "German Jingshenwenhua" Zhanhoubiaoshi Weimar Gonghe Guo Wei Hu. 1924 novel "Magic Mountain", was published to world famous writers. The novel to a nursing home as the center, describing the feudal aristocracy and bourgeoisie, many European people, of which Prussian officers, the Russian ladies, the Dutch colonists, some Catholics ... ... they are a parasite. The nursing home was filled with sick, dying the atmosphere, a symbol of capitalism and the decline of civilization. Works through the idea of conflict between the characters, revealing the decadent and fascism kinship. Finally, the protagonist ººË¹¿¨Ë¹ÍÐÆÕ to war to get rid of boring, empty life, see the description of the European bourgeois social life and the intrinsic link between the war. The early 30s, the threat of fascism Thomas Mann had a premonition that issued the medium-length masterpieces, "Mario and the Magician" (1930), against the fascist terror in Italy made a vivid description of the atmosphere. Hitler came to power in 1933, he condemned the fascist author of the distortion and destruction of German culture, published in "Richard Wagner and the great suffering," the famous speech, and forced into exile, in 1938 moved to the United States, 1941 Thomas Mann family moved to Pacific Palisades (Los Angeles / California in the vicinity). U.S. nationality matter dragged on until 1944, Thomas Mann was obtained U.S. citizenship. Although his works were banned in Germany, his nationality and honorary doctorate from the University of Bonn denied, but he did not succumb to the famous open letter but that the anti-fascist in the stern. While in exile, he actively participated in anti-fascist struggle, and insisted on creation, made a long opus "Joseph and his brothers," the first three and the "Lu Ti in Weimar" (1939), etc.. He has described his exile: "This is intolerable. But it made me realize even more easily in Germany was filled with poison. It is easy, because I actually did not lose anything. Where I am, where is Germany. I took my German culture. I and the world keep in touch, I do not see themselves as losers. " In 1947, the University of Bonn PhD certificate issued to him again. In the same year the novel "Doctor Faustus" come out. Published in 1951's novel "Those who are" reflected in his defeat of Germany should adopt liberal policy ideas. Unfinished Novel "swindler Felix Ruhr free - the first part of the memoirs" (1954) again discussed the fate of the artist in capitalist society the problem. Thomas Mann adhere to writing until his last breath, he also wrote a large number of commentaries and letters, in his long literary career, writing a total of more than 20,000 letters. Thomas Mann at 50 years of creation, always With a deep concern for human destiny, holding Watching the progress of humanitarian ideas. In creation, he inherited the fine tradition of European classical writers and explore new artistic hands clean, the spirit of financial performance for the rest of the times. ??? ¡¿ ¡¾Nobel Prize in Literature "²¼µÇ²ªÂå¿Ë family" is basically a book Thomas Mann's own portrayal of Thomas Mann's grandparents are the honest merchants, more than 400 characters in the novel is based on many characters as the prototype of his relatives, he studied Early family letters, ticket number, warm luxury banquet scene, and even curtains were doing all fine material, all showing times as much as possible the background, so the book known as "the German edition of" Dream of Red Mansions "" As monumental masterpiece system, this book has been requested Fischer Verlag half but was rejected author. 1920, book sales that more than 100 thousand in 1929 has sold more than 1 million it is Germany's best-selling novel ever. But this book also has many disadvantages, some sections of the apparent stiff, the characters of the description is too cumbersome, and even some people in L¨¹beck "²¼µÇ²ªÂå¿Ë a" distorted characterization of the proposed fierce criticism. Thomas Mann in 1929, won the Nobel Prize in Literature this book, Nobel Prize jury praised the book had a "German first elegant realism novel." The award of the Nobel Prize for Literature is not so surprising Mann. A few years ago people would think he would win, he is looking forward to the prize in 1927 on the. November 12, 1929 afternoon, the good news has finally spread from Stockholm, where Thomas Mann. Thomas Mann is not very happy, almost exclusively because of the Nobel Prize jury considered his novel "²¼µÇ²ªÂå¿Ë family." This is mainly because the Commission's key, the Swedish writers Fredrik B??k, not only not appreciated, "Magic Mountain" is also a few commentaries in the broadside about that. Bonus amount of up to 200,000 marks, than today's 500,000 euros has more. Be used to repay part of Erika and Klaus from the two children, a multinational travel caused by the high levels of debt. Klaus Mann said, "Although we did not get the money, but this made us very pleased." Thomas Mann used to pay part of the house. Also bought two cars, a Buick convertible, one is Horch (predecessor of Audi). Thomas Mann reminded reporters in Stockholm have a money, "stay out", although they did not understand why, they still will remain in a large part of Switzerland. When they left Germany in 1933, Thomas Mann lost most of the fixed assets. ???? ?¡¾Germany solemnly commemorating the 50th anniversary of the death of Thomas Mann¡¿ German President Kohler presided over a ceremony to commemorate the "Magic Mountain" author, the great German writer Thomas Mann, the 50th anniversary of the death. According to reports, the ceremony in Thomas Mann's hometown city of St. Mary's church of L¨¹beck, about 800 guests attended. Kohler said in his speech: "In Thomas Mann's works, we can understand the essence of German culture, many also see whether today or in the past, the road leading to evil and destruction is always wide open." - "Oriental Morning Post" ?¡¾¡¿ 100th birth anniversary The 100th anniversary of the writer, scholar Thomas Mann did not investigate why the disciples of the problem. Writer Peter P¨¹tz author, "Thomas Mann for Contemporary German Literature" sharply pointed out: the impact of Thomas Mann, "is not a teaching but a confrontation." Because no one can equal him, so only against him. Literary critic, Marcel Reich-Ranicki concluded: "Many writers say, no one on them than the" Magic Mountain "author also does not matter - but they are very angry and jealous about is the use of Zhao said a trembling voice. " ?¡¿ ¡¾Major works ¡»¡º Novel "No Den Bruck family - a family's decline" (Buddenbrooks - Verfall einer Familie), 1901, the laying of the writer's position in the literary world. Translation: the People's Literature Publishing House, 1962 "The King's Sacred" (K?nigliche Hoheit), 1909 Äê "Magic Mountain" (Der Zauberberg) 1924. Translation: Shanghai Translation Publishing House, 1991 "Joseph and His Brothers" novels (Joseph und seine Br¨¹der Tetralogie) ,1933-1943 Äê "Yake Bo's Story" (Die Geschichten Jaakobs), 1933 Äê "Young Joseph" (Der junge Joseph), 1934 Äê "Joseph in Egypt" (Joseph in ?gypten), 1936 Äê "Dependents Joseph" (Joseph der Ern?hrer), 1943 Äê "Lu Ti in Weimar" (Lotte in Weimar), 1939. Translation: Shanghai Translation Publishing House, 1989 "Doctor Faustus" (Doktor Faustus), 1947 Äê "Those who are" (Der Erw?hlte), 1951 Äê "Liar Felix Ruhr Confessions" (Bekenntnisse des Hochstaplers Felix Krull), 1954 Äê. Translation: Shanghai translation Publishing House, 1998 ¡ºNarrative type articles, short stories, novelette¡» "Looking" (Vision), Prosa-Skizze, 1893 Äê "Fallen" (Gefallen), 1894, the debut. "The desire of happiness" (Der Wille zum Gl¨¹ck), 1896 Äê "Disappointment" (Entt?uschung), 1896 Äê "Death" (Der Tod), 1897 Äê "Mr. Friedman little people" (Der kleine Herr Friedemann), 1897 Äê "Clown" (Der Bajazzo), 1897 Äê "Í¼±ÈÑÇË¹Ãô was Nick" (Tobias Mindernickel), 1898 Äê "Little Wardrobe" (Der Kleiderschrank), 1899 Äê "Revenge" (Ger?cht), Novellistische Studie, 1899 Äê "Little Louis" (Luischen), 1900 Äê "The road leading to the grave" (Der Weg zum Friedhof), 1900 Äê "God's brilliant" (Gladius Dei), Novelle, 1902 Äê "Tawny Oak Law Georgia" (Tonio Kr?ger), Novelle, 1903 Äê "Tristan" (Tristan), Novelle, 1903 Äê "Hungry people are" (Die Hungernden), 1903 Äê "Prodigy" (Das Wunderkind), 1903 Äê "Lucky" (Ein Gl¨¹ck), 1904 Äê "In the prophets, where" (Beim Propheten), 1904 Äê "Difficult times" (Schwere Stunde), 1905 Äê "An anecdote" (Anekdote), 1908 Äê "Railway Accidents" (Das Eisenbahnungl¨¹ck), 1909 Äê "Jappe and Do Escobar is how the fight" (Wie Jappe und Do Escobar sich pr¨¹gelten), 1911 Äê "Death in Venice" (Der Tod in Venedig), 1912 Äê "Owner and dog" (Herr und Hund), Ein Idyll, 1918 Äê "Children's Song" (Gesang vom Kindchen), Ein Idyll, 1919 Äê "W?lsungen of Blood" (W?lsungenblut), 1921 Äê "Tristan and Isolde" (Tristan und Isolde), 1923 Äê "Disorder, and earlier pain" (Unordnung und fr¨¹hes Leid), 1926 Äê "Mario and the Magician" (Mario und der Zauberer), 1930 Äê "Is wrong for the head - an Indian legend" (Die vertauschten K?pfe - Eine indische Legende), 1940 Äê "Law" (Das Gesetz), 1944 Äê "Deceived woman" (Die Betrogene), 1953 Äê Translation are: Thomas Mann short stories all series, Lijiang Publishing House, 2002 Drama ¡º¡» "Florence" (Fiorenza) ¡»¡º Essay "One of those observations do not care about politics" (Betrachtungen eines Unpolitischen), 1918 Äê "Freedoms" (Das Problem der Freiheit), 1937 Äê "Examination of Schiller" (Versuch ¨¹ber Schiller), 1955 Äê "On Goethe" (¨¹ber Goethe) ?¡¾German favorite read ten books¡¿ WASHINGTON: Recently, German television station ZDF step followed the British Broadcasting Company, the Chinese conducted an unprecedented survey of reading, got the top honors people welcome some of the books. About 250,000 Germans took part in the selection, Tolkien's "Lord of the Rings" books topped the list in the most popular, followed is the "Bible." Ranked 3-10 in the following order: Kenfulete (Ken Follett) of the "Temple Spring and Autumn" (Die Saeule der Erde) Sui Suskind (Patrick S¨¹skind) of "Perfume" (Das Parfum) Ê¥°£¿ËËÕÅåÀï's "Little Prince" (Der kleine Prinz) Thomas Mann's "²¼µÇ²ªÂå¿Ë Family" (Buddenbrooks) Noah Gordon (Noah Gordon) of "pharmacists" (The Physician) Paul Coelho The "Alchemist" (Der Alchimist) Rowling's "Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone" (Harry Potter und der Stein der Weisen) ÌÆÄÈ¿ËÂÞË¹ (Donna Cross) the "female pope" (Die P?pstin) How many of these books are escapism, moralizing, or means of self-motivation, University of Bremen's literature expert, Professor Elizabeth Lie Nate So, to say: "As the economy worsens, the current public mood in Germany is very low. People need to escape from the path So on to the "Lord of the Rings" and "Spring and Autumn Temple" like to find comfort in fantasy literature. " ?Thomas Mann Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Paul ÂÞÍÐÂíË¹Âü (Paul Thomas Mann, 1875 -1,955 Äê 6 ÔÂ 6 ÈÕ on August 12), German writer, Nobel Prize for Literature in 1929. Thomas Mann Directory 1 Biography 1.1 years in 1875 -1,913 1.1.1 Early 1.1.2 The first book was published, 1.1.3 Private life 1.2 1914-1929 1.2.1 World War I 1.2.2 Weimar Republic 1.2.3 the Nobel Prize 1930-1944 1.3 1.3.1 "German speech" 1.3.2 Early in exile 1.3.3 "where I am, where is Germany" 1.3.4 "German audience!" 1.3.5 life of repentance 1945-1955 1.4 1.4.1 Thomas Mann and post-war Germany 1.4.2 Return to Europe 2 self-dialogue and future generations to accept the 2.1 Diary 2.2 The impact - then and today 3 entries 3.1 Novels 3.2 chronicles the class articles, short stories, novelette Of 3.3 Drama 3.4 Essays 4 references ?Life [1875 -1913 years ?Early Paul ÂÞÍÐÂíË¹Âü born in Germany Lubeck, businessmen ÍÐÂíË¹Ô¼º²ºà Lixi M Heinrich Mann (1871 years old) brother. Zhu Li Yaman his mother (maiden name Silva - cloth Hons), half of Brazil origin. In addition to Heinrich and Thomas, she has given birth to Julia (1877 students), carats (1881 students) and Victor (1890 students). Such families with every possible way - as Thomas Mann described it many years later, his childhood "happiness and concern." His father died in 1891 at the time of the disease are non-drug bladder cancer. In his will, he decided to sell his company and their L¨¹beck (northern German city, located near Hamburg) housing. His wife and children depend on selling the interest payments to pay for daily expenses. Although the young people time to Thomas Mann is not a lack of gifted children, but his performance in the school curriculum for no interest. He is more willing to develop its long-standing love for writing, and in the form of prose essays, and writing with others involved in its compilation and publication of the magazine "Spring Storm." Preserved in a letter in 1889, when only 14 years old at the end of Thomas Mann is a name in the letter, "Thomas Mann, lyrical drama poet." This reflects the writer Thomas Mann for their own future when this matter is very serious. In 1894, out of Katalinuo Yimu resentment and hate high school, he completed secondary school in the seventh year course and left there, and moved to Munich. His mother and brothers and sisters had moved the year before he settled there. Thomas Mann's father died, children were assigned a guardian. The Guardian believes that Thomas Mann, after leaving school should choose a proper job. Thomas Mann obedient to the will, and after that a fire insurance company working on. Work in the desk is extremely boring for Thomas Mann and non-challenging. An anecdote about his still no controversy. Is that, in his list secretly engaged in writing transcription. Thomas Mann's debut in 1894, published an article that simple stories, "Fallen." The story published in a book entitled "society" magazine and has been well received. In 1895, Thomas Mann gave up work in the fire insurance companies began to study in Munich University of Applied Sciences. Initially, he was thinking of is to choose the profession of journalism. Secondary school of aimlessness, still during the continuation of his university studies. When Thomas Mann 1896 adult over 21 years of age, he was entitled to the property left by his father to obtain the 160-180 marks per month pocket money. In this way, he will have enough income. Thomas Mann decided to teaching from those passive activities freed himself and became a freelance writer. ? The first book was published And Heinrich went to Italy, the idea had been generated, they quickly put into action. Goal is to Rome. In 1897, two brothers in the east of the town of Palestrina in Rome, rent an apartment. Thomas Mann created during this period several novellas, including "Shorty, Mr. Friedman." And began the novel "²¼µÇ²ªÂå¿Ë family" creation. Thomas Mann, who have an organization entitled "20th Century - the German way of life and well-being run by the national newspapers (Das Zwanzigste Jahrhundert - Bl? Tter f¨¹r die deutsche Art und Wohlfahrt)" did some publications sporadic work.¸ç¸çºàÀûÏ£ office for some time the editor of the publication. But soon, Thomas Mann gave up this job. Full of racist tone of the press and publications contained in the color of anti-Semitism, very appropriate to introduce to the reader. After two brothers are unwilling to people talk about this episode. Instead, the Thomas Mann in 1898 in the satirical magazines, "the most simple (Simplicissimus)" Editorial work for a year. In 1901, Thomas Mann's first novel, "²¼µÇ²ªÂå¿Ë family - a family's decline" was published. Novel immediately upon release and literary critics in the audience rise to a positive response and resonance. However, soon spread in L¨¹beck on the novel of which a large family and the people mentioned are not entirely fictitious, but the city's true story child. Novels published soon, spread out on a list, disclosure of the novel corresponds to reality in the characters. L¨¹beck's Bookstore has been a customer at his door, because this book can be loaned to prepare a list of fictional decryption. Novel "²¼µÇ²ªÂå¿Ë family" is created by Thomas Mann's works have a great impact on one. 28 years later, it is because the creation of this book, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature Thomas Mann. ff ?Private life Brothers Heinrich and Thomas Mann in 1903 resulted in discord between signs. Thomas Mann felt ¸ç¸çºàÀûÏ£ not recognize that he is a true artist, as a riposte, to belittle Heinrich Mann's work "that is silly and outrageous." Although they did not break off diplomatic relations, in later years there and a good try, but the literature on the role of art in public discussion, the two try to avoid conflict. 1904 Thomas Mann met Katrina (more familiar name is Kati Ya) to propose to her. This is quite alarming. Thomas Mann before and not had close contact with women, not to mention to his brother as there was a "diversion done the same things," the. About their sexual orientation, although Thomas Mann had never confessed, but did not hide. Of his own at that time decided to live a life of bourgeois generally accepted. On the "juvenile" and admiration of same-sex relationships revealed in the author's notes and numerous literary works such as "²¼µÇ²ªÂå¿Ë family" (Hanno / Kai Graf M? Lln), "Tonio Kr? Ger" (Tonio Kr? Ger / Hans Hansen) and "Death in Venice" (Gustav von Aschenbach / Tadzio). Kati Ya, to Thomas Mann to marry him in a long period of time, finally with his February 11, 1905 married. Before and after marriage they had six children: daughters Erika (1905), the son of Klaus (1906), the son Golo (1909), the daughter, Monika (1910), the daughter, Elisabeth (1918), the son of Michael (1919 Äê). Second son Geluo Man is a historian and philosopher 1912, doctors suspected Kati Ya suffering from tuberculosis, must be combined with disease in nursing homes Davos (Switzerland) spent a long period of time. Thomas Mann in a nursing home to visit his wife. Nursing home atmosphere, Kati Ya to the hospital and the patient's description of himself in hospital with the impression given of inspiration, so he created the "Magic Mountain" (1913 -1924 years, 1915 has been interrupted). ?1914-1929 ?World War I When in 1914 the outbreak of World War I, many writers also listen to public opinion and even supportive. Alfred Kerr, Luobotemu Sylvain (Robert Musil), Richard Dehmel, and Gerhart Hauptmann that the war was correct. Thomas Mann, a very measured performance only of patriotism. In a letter to the Gegehengli Seaman, he wrote: "I have to change aspects of the material prepared. If the war continue, and I can confidently say that I really, as they say, get it, is completely "destroyed" the's. "then he writes:" the name of God! Do I have to object to these events brought about by the great spirit in particular, the big change? Is it not grateful, was allowed to go through to the unexpected big thing? "Thomas Mann in principle that war is necessary. War can destroy the world, "the most abhorrent police state" - Czar of Russia. In his "Thoughts on the war" - on the war as a means of reflection - a paper for his defense counterparts have a tendency to militarism. His brother, such as writer Stefan Zweig (Stefan Zweig), Hermann Hesse (Hermann Hesse), Arthur Schnitzler, and Romain (Romain Rolland), are against the war. Thomas Mann at this time cut off contacts with his brother. ?Weimar Republic June 24, 1922, Foreign Minister Walter Rathenau was assassinated. Thomas Mann of the incident prompted a more firm and its open support for republican values. In the "Republic of Germany" in his speech that his first warning of his supporters and the identity of the new system. In his view, democracy and humanism are unified. If people want to follow humanism, we must learn to live among people democratically. In 1924, Thomas Mann published the novel "The Magic Mountain." Novel immediately a great success. Later published a "pain-free order and the earlier" and "on the marriage." Writers started writing in 1925, "Joseph Tetralogy." The prototype is a novel that is so fascinated the young Thomas Mann. In 1927, Thomas Mann met his child friend, 17-year-old Klaus Heuser. On his author wrote, "He is a man I can feel the passion of the last." Joseph, who perhaps with his shadow on it. Thomas Mann, German literature as a star, as the Prussian Institute of the Arts "Part poetry," the earliest members, but also to improve the reputation of literature. He was particularly opposed to restrictions on creative freedom writers "anti-dirty method without taste." In the comic book, "Poetry Centre at work", Thomas Mann, who was smeared as copying, plagiarism Gerhard Hauptmann works of some of the ingredients. Thomas Mann is a comic book shows how the holding pen and paper stands behind the naturalist writers look over his shoulder and his creation. ?Nobel Prize Awarded the Nobel Prize is not surprised that Thomas Mann. A few years ago people would think he would win, he is looking forward to the prize in 1927 on the. November 12, 1929 afternoon, good news has finally spread from Stockholm, where Thomas Mann. Thomas Mann, not very happy because the Nobel jury considered almost exclusively on his novel "²¼µÇ²ªÂå¿Ë family." This is mainly because the Commission's key, the Swedish writer Fredrik B?? K, not only not appreciated, "Magic Mountain" also a few commentaries in the broadside about that. Bonus amount up to 200,000 marks, compared with today's more than 500,000 euros. Be used to repay part of the two children Erika and Klaus multinational travel caused by the high levels of debt. Klaus Mann said, "Although we did not get the money, but this made us very happy." Thomas Mann used to pay part of the house. Also bought two cars, a Buick convertible, one is Horch (predecessor of Audi). In Stockholm, there's money to remind Thomas Mann, a "stay out", although they did not understand why, but still will remain in a large part of Switzerland. When they left Germany in 1933, Thomas Mann lost most of the fixed assets. In the January 19, 1919 German National People's Congress elections, that is, the Weimar Republic's beginning, Thomas Mann retained his vote, but he talked to his brother, are in Aufruf gegen den Unmut signed one under the name of the dignitaries, in this paper, people are advised to contribute their strength to the republican form of government. While here, because people signed their names to the combination of the brothers until 1922 but only because Heinrich's a serious illness and reconciliation, this disease makes Thomas recalled, the relationship between brothers than they discussed before the distribution of property also important. ??1930-1944 ?"Deutsche Message" In the September 1930 parliamentary election, the Nazis of the vote were fantastic. Thomas Mann other suspected Nazis who do not trust their eyes as to concern the development of a fleet of political forces decided to speech "called rational." The October 17, 1930 speech in Berlin Beethoven hall known as the "German speech" to history. In the majority of the members of the Social Democrats and the Republicans in the mixed audience consisting of many Nazis, they attempted to disrupt the site noisy but did not succeed. Mann said bluntly that Nazism is: "eccentric wave of barbaric acts, vulgar cup, or people only see the annual Shangwang rude." "Mass spasm, rogue shouting, Hallelujah, Dervis monks Ode to read a single type of repeated slogan, until the mouth with foam. "He questioned whether that is German, is" required by the Nazi ideal of the kind of low-level, pure, pure thought, the sound of heels marching in the flap , the naive obedient, sincere passion waves; such a high degree of homogeneity of the whole nation in a mature and experienced cultural nationalism, as seen in the German nation, can really achieve. "thunderous applause inside, but his speech did not aroused the concern of the outside world. Thomas Mann celebrities are opposed to Nazism, because of his popularity abroad has a very strong statement of his weight. However, many of his appeal to no one listening. February 1933 Thomas Mann and his wife did a long trip abroad, first to Paris, then to Switzerland Arosa. In the May 10, 1933 in Thomas Mann's book biblioclast movement survived but he ¸ç¸çºàÀûÏ£ not so lucky. When the Prussian Institute of the Arts "Part poetry," the members were asked to swear loyalty to the Nazi government, the Thomas Mann gave up his job. He and his wife decided to not return to Germany. ?] Early in exile As Thomas Mann and his family must leave property in Germany, so determined to leave Germany is not easy. As Thomas Mann, then a large part of the Stockholm prize money transfers to Switzerland, but also brings out the best in local cash, it is not economic constraints. Press, Thomas Mann has repeatedly asked him in such critical circumstances do not leave the German people, and is willing to publish his new book. His first stop was in exile in France, eventually the family moved to live in Zurich, Switzerland, near K¨¹snacht. Thomas Mann's personal freedom because of his German passport expired be restricted. Asked Thomas Mann returned to Munich, the Nazis, and then extend passport to him, in fact, wanted to arrest him. 1934, 37 eminent persons were deprived of German nationality, Albert Einstein was also one of them. Thomas Mann has been spared, but the Ministry of Finance to Thomas Mann in the contract with the publishers of tax evasion in the name of confiscated his property and furniture in Munich. 1934 and travel to the United States in 1935 was Thomas Mann, a first for the two. Americans are very interested in the well-known writer, agreed that he no valid passport. 60-year-old's birthday he had in K¨¹snacht, the Swiss are very grand celebration for him about that. November 19, 1936 Thomas Mann in Czechoslovakia the Czech Consulate to apply for citizenship. In the diary recorded the experience of his brief, called it "strange incident." The door a few weeks later he was deprived of his German citizenship (and including his wife Kati Ya and son Golo, daughter, Elizabeth, son Michael). Thomas Mann also denied the same time the Nazis at the University of Bonn in 1919 was awarded the honorary doctorate title. The title until after the war December 13, 1946 was revived. ?"Where am I, where is Germany" ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?