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					Thomas Mann (ThomasMann)




Thomas Mann (Thomas Mann)



¡¿ ¡¾Biography



Thomas Mann (Thomas Mann ,1875-1955) German writer. Nobel Prize for
Literature.
June 1875 Thomas Mann was born on 6 northern German port city of
Luebeck. His father was a business giant grain, the mother was born in
Brazil, of Portuguese descent. Thomas. Man is the second oldest of
five children, a long his-year-old Heinrich Mann was also a famous
writer. As a successful businessman, Thomas. Mann's father, the actual
style, very influential in Lubeck; which he receives from his mother,
where music, literature and art nurtured. Father's pragmatism and the
mother's artistic temperament represents duality, a Thomas Mann was an
important literary theme.
Although the young people time to Thomas Mann Bing Fei is a Quefa
talent of the child, but his performance for the school's curriculum
De no interest. He is more willing to develop its long-standing love
for writing, and in the form of prose essays, and writing with others
involved in its compilation and publication of the magazine
"Spring Storm." Preserved in a 1889 letter, Thomas Mann was
only 14 years old at the end of the letter is a name "Thomas
Mann, lyrical drama poet." This reflects the Thomas Mann for
their own future as a writer is very serious about this matter.
Thomas Mann's father in 1891 at age 41 premature deaths, the children
were assigned a guardian. The guardian believes that Thomas Mann,
after leaving school should choose a proper job. Thomas Mann obedient
to the will, and thereafter worked in a fire insurance company. Work
in the desk is extremely boring for Thomas Mann and not challenging.
An anecdote about him still no controversy. Is to say, when he
secretly engaged in writing the list of transcription.
In 1892, Mann moved to Munich mother. Thomas. Mann remained in L¨¹beck
matriculation schools complete their studies. He turned most of the
energy literature, his academic performance is not satisfactory,
graduation was only a "moderate" diploma.
In 1893, Thomas Mann in Munich from L¨¹beck to. In 1895, Thomas Mann
gave up work in the fire insurance companies.
1894-1896 years, he attended the Technical University of Munich,
history, art and literature courses. Initially, he was thinking of is
to choose the profession of journalism. Secondary school of
aimlessness, still during the continuation of his university studies.
When in 1896 Thomas Mann 21 years of age adult, he was entitled to the
property left by his father to get from 160 to 180 marks per month
pocket money. In this way, he will have enough income. Thomas Mann has
decided that the teaching activities of the passive freed himself and
became a freelance writer.
In 1897, Mann started his first novel, "a cloth Blok,"
Creation. This novel published in 1901 and immediately a great
success, from Thomas Mann laid the status of literature in Germany.
In 1905, Thomas Mann married with ¿¨µÙæ«ÆÕÁÖ Bensheim. Although Mann on
their own homosexual tendencies is not ignorant, but he chose to
suppress restraint. They had six children, three children and three
women. In addition to the eldest son of Claus. Man, the eldest
daughter Ailikaman also a writer, actor and social activist. Klausmann
and Yilikaman are openly gay.
In 1929, Thomas Mann won the Nobel Prize for Literature. But that did
not stop the Nazi threat to his family. In addition to Thomas Mann's
own work outside the sub-Nazi's appetite, he Gegehengli Seaman
progress of speech, his wife's Jewish origin and his openly gay status
of children is enough to make the Nazi teeth.
In 1933, Thomas Mann, a start exile, first the Swiss and the United
States. In the United States, Thomas. Mann Hill Palisades, California
became the home of many exiles and celebrities who visit the place,
Arnold Schoenberg, Botuoerte Brecht, and his ¸ç¸çºàÀûÏ£* Mann is an honored
guest here.
50's, Mica tin doctrine began in the U.S. outbreak. The two split into
East and West Germany after World War Two. Thomas Mann chose to settle
in 1952 and returned to Switzerland.
July 20, 1955 Thomas? Man was diagnosed with a thrombosis. Kai to the
effect of treatment did not. Thomas? Man on August 12 as
atherosclerosis hospital in Zurich, died aged 80.
?
???¡¿ ¡¾Writing career



In 1894 published a simple short story entitled, "Fallen."
The story published in a book entitled "society" magazine
and has been well received.
In 1901, Thomas Mann's first novel, "²¼µÇ²ªÂå¿Ë family - the decline
of a family" publication. Immediately upon release novel readers
and literary critics caused a positive response and resonance.
However, soon spread in L¨¹beck on the novel of which a large family
and the people mentioned are not entirely fictional, but true story
city children. Novels published soon, spread out on a list, disclosure
of the novel in the figure corresponds to reality. L¨¹beck's Bookstore
has been a customer at his door, because this book can be loaned to
prepare a list of fictional decryption. Novel "²¼µÇ²ªÂå¿Ë family"
is Thomas Mann has created a great impact on one of the work. 28 years
later, it is because the creation of this book, the Royal Swedish
Academy of Sciences awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature Thomas Mann.
Been published after the "Tristan" (1903), "Tonio
Kroger" (1903) and "Death in Venice" (1912) and other
three novella, called on the art of the early outstanding and the
artist's novel.
Before World War I, many of his famous novella published. World War I
period, he's thinking once a crisis, on this war of Xingzhirenshi
unclear, a nationalist stance, Yao Bao Wei-called "German
Jingshenwenhua" Zhanhoubiaoshi Weimar Gonghe Guo Wei Hu.
1924 novel "Magic Mountain", was published to world famous
writers. The novel to a nursing home as the center, describing the
feudal aristocracy and bourgeoisie, many European people, of which
Prussian officers, the Russian ladies, the Dutch colonists, some
Catholics ... ... they are a parasite. The nursing home was filled
with sick, dying the atmosphere, a symbol of capitalism and the
decline of civilization. Works through the idea of conflict between
the characters, revealing the decadent and fascism kinship. Finally,
the protagonist ººË¹¿¨Ë¹ÍÐÆÕ to war to get rid of boring, empty life, see
the description of the European bourgeois social life and the
intrinsic link between the war.
The early 30s, the threat of fascism Thomas Mann had a premonition
that issued the medium-length masterpieces, "Mario and the
Magician" (1930), against the fascist terror in Italy made a
vivid description of the atmosphere.
Hitler came to power in 1933, he condemned the fascist author of the
distortion and destruction of German culture, published in
"Richard Wagner and the great suffering," the famous speech,
and forced into exile, in 1938 moved to the United States, 1941 Thomas
Mann family moved to Pacific Palisades (Los Angeles / California in
the vicinity). U.S. nationality matter dragged on until 1944, Thomas
Mann was obtained U.S. citizenship.
Although his works were banned in Germany, his nationality and
honorary doctorate from the University of Bonn denied, but he did not
succumb to the famous open letter but that the anti-fascist in the
stern. While in exile, he actively participated in anti-fascist
struggle, and insisted on creation, made a long opus "Joseph and
his brothers," the first three and the "Lu Ti in
Weimar" (1939), etc.. He has described his exile: "This is
intolerable. But it made me realize even more easily in Germany was
filled with poison. It is easy, because I actually did not lose
anything. Where I am, where is Germany. I took my German culture. I
and the world keep in touch, I do not see themselves as losers. "
In 1947, the University of Bonn PhD certificate issued to him again.
In the same year the novel "Doctor Faustus" come out.
Published in 1951's novel "Those who are" reflected in his
defeat of Germany should adopt liberal policy ideas.
Unfinished Novel "swindler Felix Ruhr free - the first part of
the memoirs" (1954) again discussed the fate of the artist in
capitalist society the problem.
Thomas Mann adhere to writing until his last breath, he also wrote a
large number of commentaries and letters, in his long literary career,
writing a total of more than 20,000 letters.
Thomas Mann at 50 years of creation, always With a deep concern for
human destiny, holding Watching the progress of humanitarian ideas. In
creation, he inherited the fine tradition of European classical
writers and explore new artistic hands clean, the spirit of financial
performance for the rest of the times.
???
¡¿ ¡¾Nobel Prize in Literature



"²¼µÇ²ªÂå¿Ë family" is basically a book Thomas Mann's own
portrayal of Thomas Mann's grandparents are the honest merchants, more
than 400 characters in the novel is based on many characters as the
prototype of his relatives, he studied Early family letters, ticket
number, warm luxury banquet scene, and even curtains were doing all
fine material, all showing times as much as possible the background,
so the book known as "the German edition of" Dream of Red
Mansions "" As monumental masterpiece system, this book has
been requested Fischer Verlag half but was rejected author. 1920, book
sales that more than 100 thousand in 1929 has sold more than 1 million
it is Germany's best-selling novel ever. But this book also has many
disadvantages, some sections of the apparent stiff, the characters of
the description is too cumbersome, and even some people in L¨¹beck
"²¼µÇ²ªÂå¿Ë a" distorted characterization of the proposed fierce
criticism. Thomas Mann in 1929, won the Nobel Prize in Literature this
book, Nobel Prize jury praised the book had a "German first
elegant realism novel."
The award of the Nobel Prize for Literature is not so surprising Mann.
A few years ago people would think he would win, he is looking forward
to the prize in 1927 on the. November 12, 1929 afternoon, the good
news has finally spread from Stockholm, where Thomas Mann. Thomas Mann
is not very happy, almost exclusively because of the Nobel Prize jury
considered his novel "²¼µÇ²ªÂå¿Ë family." This is mainly because
the Commission's key, the Swedish writers Fredrik B??k, not only not
appreciated, "Magic Mountain" is also a few commentaries in
the broadside about that. Bonus amount of up to 200,000 marks, than
today's 500,000 euros has more. Be used to repay part of Erika and
Klaus from the two children, a multinational travel caused by the high
levels of debt. Klaus Mann said, "Although we did not get the
money, but this made us very pleased." Thomas Mann used to pay
part of the house. Also bought two cars, a Buick convertible, one is
Horch (predecessor of Audi). Thomas Mann reminded reporters in
Stockholm have a money, "stay out", although they did not
understand why, they still will remain in a large part of Switzerland.
When they left Germany in 1933, Thomas Mann lost most of the fixed
assets.
????
?¡¾Germany solemnly commemorating the 50th anniversary of the death of
Thomas Mann¡¿



German President Kohler presided over a ceremony to commemorate the
"Magic Mountain" author, the great German writer Thomas
Mann, the 50th anniversary of the death.
According to reports, the ceremony in Thomas Mann's hometown city of
St. Mary's church of L¨¹beck, about 800 guests attended. Kohler said in
his speech: "In Thomas Mann's works, we can understand the
essence of German culture, many also see whether today or in the past,
the road leading to evil and destruction is always wide open."
- "Oriental Morning Post"
?¡¾¡¿ 100th birth anniversary
The 100th anniversary of the writer, scholar Thomas Mann did not
investigate why the disciples of the problem. Writer Peter P¨¹tz
author, "Thomas Mann for Contemporary German Literature"
sharply pointed out: the impact of Thomas Mann, "is not a
teaching but a confrontation." Because no one can equal him, so
only against him. Literary critic, Marcel Reich-Ranicki concluded:
"Many writers say, no one on them than the" Magic Mountain
"author also does not matter - but they are very angry and
jealous about is the use of Zhao said a trembling voice. "
?¡¿ ¡¾Major works



¡»¡º Novel
"No Den Bruck family - a family's decline" (Buddenbrooks -
Verfall einer Familie), 1901, the laying of the writer's position in
the literary world. Translation: the People's Literature Publishing
House, 1962
"The King's Sacred" (K?nigliche Hoheit), 1909 Äê
"Magic Mountain" (Der Zauberberg) 1924. Translation:
Shanghai Translation Publishing House, 1991
"Joseph and His Brothers" novels (Joseph und seine Br¨¹der
Tetralogie) ,1933-1943 Äê
"Yake Bo's Story" (Die Geschichten Jaakobs), 1933 Äê
"Young Joseph" (Der junge Joseph), 1934 Äê
"Joseph in Egypt" (Joseph in ?gypten), 1936 Äê
"Dependents Joseph" (Joseph der Ern?hrer), 1943 Äê
"Lu Ti in Weimar" (Lotte in Weimar), 1939. Translation:
Shanghai Translation Publishing House, 1989
"Doctor Faustus" (Doktor Faustus), 1947 Äê
"Those who are" (Der Erw?hlte), 1951 Äê
"Liar Felix Ruhr Confessions" (Bekenntnisse des Hochstaplers
Felix Krull), 1954 Äê. Translation: Shanghai translation Publishing
House, 1998
¡ºNarrative type articles, short stories, novelette¡»
"Looking" (Vision), Prosa-Skizze, 1893 Äê
"Fallen" (Gefallen), 1894, the debut.
"The desire of happiness" (Der Wille zum Gl¨¹ck), 1896 Äê
"Disappointment" (Entt?uschung), 1896 Äê
"Death" (Der Tod), 1897 Äê
"Mr. Friedman little people" (Der kleine Herr Friedemann),
1897 Äê
"Clown" (Der Bajazzo), 1897 Äê
"ͼ±ÈÑÇ˹Ãô was Nick" (Tobias Mindernickel), 1898 Äê
"Little Wardrobe" (Der Kleiderschrank), 1899 Äê
"Revenge" (Ger?cht), Novellistische Studie, 1899 Äê
"Little Louis" (Luischen), 1900 Äê
"The road leading to the grave" (Der Weg zum Friedhof), 1900
Äê
"God's brilliant" (Gladius Dei), Novelle, 1902 Äê
"Tawny Oak Law Georgia" (Tonio Kr?ger), Novelle, 1903 Äê
"Tristan" (Tristan), Novelle, 1903 Äê
"Hungry people are" (Die Hungernden), 1903 Äê
"Prodigy" (Das Wunderkind), 1903 Äê
"Lucky" (Ein Gl¨¹ck), 1904 Äê
"In the prophets, where" (Beim Propheten), 1904 Äê
"Difficult times" (Schwere Stunde), 1905 Äê
"An anecdote" (Anekdote), 1908 Äê
"Railway Accidents" (Das Eisenbahnungl¨¹ck), 1909 Äê
"Jappe and Do Escobar is how the fight" (Wie Jappe und Do
Escobar sich pr¨¹gelten), 1911 Äê
"Death in Venice" (Der Tod in Venedig), 1912 Äê
"Owner and dog" (Herr und Hund), Ein Idyll, 1918 Äê
"Children's Song" (Gesang vom Kindchen), Ein Idyll, 1919 Äê
"W?lsungen of Blood" (W?lsungenblut), 1921 Äê
"Tristan and Isolde" (Tristan und Isolde), 1923 Äê
"Disorder, and earlier pain" (Unordnung und fr¨¹hes Leid),
1926 Äê
"Mario and the Magician" (Mario und der Zauberer), 1930 Äê
"Is wrong for the head - an Indian legend" (Die vertauschten
K?pfe - Eine indische Legende), 1940 Äê
"Law" (Das Gesetz), 1944 Äê
"Deceived woman" (Die Betrogene), 1953 Äê
Translation are: Thomas Mann short stories all series, Lijiang
Publishing House, 2002
Drama ¡º¡»
"Florence" (Fiorenza)
¡»¡º Essay
"One of those observations do not care about politics"
(Betrachtungen eines Unpolitischen), 1918 Äê
"Freedoms" (Das Problem der Freiheit), 1937 Äê
"Examination of Schiller" (Versuch ¨¹ber Schiller), 1955 Äê
"On Goethe" (¨¹ber Goethe)
?¡¾German favorite read ten books¡¿



WASHINGTON: Recently, German television station ZDF step followed the
British Broadcasting Company, the Chinese conducted an unprecedented
survey of reading, got the top honors people welcome some of the
books. About 250,000 Germans took part in the selection, Tolkien's
"Lord of the Rings" books topped the list in the most
popular, followed is the "Bible." Ranked 3-10 in the
following order:
Kenfulete (Ken Follett) of the "Temple Spring and Autumn"
(Die Saeule der Erde)
Sui Suskind (Patrick S¨¹skind) of "Perfume" (Das Parfum)
Ê¥°£¿ËËÕÅåÀï's "Little Prince" (Der kleine Prinz)
Thomas Mann's "²¼µÇ²ªÂå¿Ë Family" (Buddenbrooks)
Noah Gordon (Noah Gordon) of "pharmacists" (The Physician)
Paul Coelho The "Alchemist" (Der Alchimist)
Rowling's "Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone" (Harry
Potter und der Stein der Weisen)
ÌÆÄÈ¿ËÂÞ˹ (Donna Cross) the "female pope" (Die P?pstin)
How many of these books are escapism, moralizing, or means of
self-motivation, University of Bremen's literature expert, Professor
Elizabeth Lie Nate So, to say: "As the economy worsens, the
current public mood in Germany is very low. People need to escape from
the path So on to the "Lord of the Rings" and "Spring
and Autumn Temple" like to find comfort in fantasy literature.
"



?Thomas Mann
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Paul ÂÞÍÐÂí˹Âü (Paul Thomas Mann, 1875 -1,955 Äê 6 Ô 6 ÈÕ on August 12),
German writer, Nobel Prize for Literature in 1929.




Thomas Mann
Directory
1 Biography
1.1 years in 1875 -1,913
1.1.1 Early
1.1.2 The first book was published,
1.1.3 Private life
1.2 1914-1929
1.2.1 World War I
1.2.2 Weimar Republic
1.2.3 the Nobel Prize
1930-1944 1.3
1.3.1 "German speech"
1.3.2 Early in exile
1.3.3 "where I am, where is Germany"
1.3.4 "German audience!"
1.3.5 life of repentance
1945-1955 1.4
1.4.1 Thomas Mann and post-war Germany
1.4.2 Return to Europe
2 self-dialogue and future generations to accept the
2.1 Diary
2.2 The impact - then and today
3 entries
3.1 Novels
3.2 chronicles the class articles, short stories, novelette
Of 3.3 Drama
3.4 Essays
4 references
?Life



[1875 -1913 years
?Early
Paul ÂÞÍÐÂí˹Âü born in Germany Lubeck, businessmen ÍÐÂí˹Լº²ºà Lixi M
Heinrich Mann (1871 years old) brother. Zhu Li Yaman his mother
(maiden name Silva - cloth Hons), half of Brazil origin. In addition
to Heinrich and Thomas, she has given birth to Julia (1877 students),
carats (1881 students) and Victor (1890 students). Such families with
every possible way - as Thomas Mann described it many years later, his
childhood "happiness and concern." His father died in 1891
at the time of the disease are non-drug bladder cancer. In his will,
he decided to sell his company and their L¨¹beck (northern German city,
located near Hamburg) housing. His wife and children depend on selling
the interest payments to pay for daily expenses. Although the young
people time to Thomas Mann is not a lack of gifted children, but his
performance in the school curriculum for no interest. He is more
willing to develop its long-standing love for writing, and in the form
of prose essays, and writing with others involved in its compilation
and publication of the magazine "Spring Storm." Preserved in
a letter in 1889, when only 14 years old at the end of Thomas Mann is
a name in the letter, "Thomas Mann, lyrical drama poet."
This reflects the writer Thomas Mann for their own future when this
matter is very serious. In 1894, out of Katalinuo Yimu resentment and
hate high school, he completed secondary school in the seventh year
course and left there, and moved to Munich. His mother and brothers
and sisters had moved the year before he settled there. Thomas Mann's
father died, children were assigned a guardian. The Guardian believes
that Thomas Mann, after leaving school should choose a proper job.
Thomas Mann obedient to the will, and after that a fire insurance
company working on. Work in the desk is extremely boring for Thomas
Mann and non-challenging. An anecdote about his still no controversy.
Is that, in his list secretly engaged in writing transcription. Thomas
Mann's debut in 1894, published an article that simple stories,
"Fallen." The story published in a book entitled
"society" magazine and has been well received. In 1895,
Thomas Mann gave up work in the fire insurance companies began to
study in Munich University of Applied Sciences. Initially, he was
thinking of is to choose the profession of journalism. Secondary
school of aimlessness, still during the continuation of his university
studies. When Thomas Mann 1896 adult over 21 years of age, he was
entitled to the property left by his father to obtain the 160-180
marks per month pocket money. In this way, he will have enough income.
Thomas Mann decided to teaching from those passive activities freed
himself and became a freelance writer.



?
The first book was published
And Heinrich went to Italy, the idea had been generated, they quickly
put into action. Goal is to Rome. In 1897, two brothers in the east of
the town of Palestrina in Rome, rent an apartment. Thomas Mann created
during this period several novellas, including "Shorty, Mr.
Friedman." And began the novel "²¼µÇ²ªÂå¿Ë family" creation.
Thomas Mann, who have an organization entitled "20th Century -
the German way of life and well-being run by the national newspapers
(Das Zwanzigste Jahrhundert - Bl? Tter f¨¹r die deutsche Art und
Wohlfahrt)" did some publications sporadic work.¸ç¸çºàÀûÏ£ office for
some time the editor of the publication. But soon, Thomas Mann gave up
this job. Full of racist tone of the press and publications contained
in the color of anti-Semitism, very appropriate to introduce to the
reader. After two brothers are unwilling to people talk about this
episode. Instead, the Thomas Mann in 1898 in the satirical magazines,
"the most simple (Simplicissimus)" Editorial work for a
year. In 1901, Thomas Mann's first novel, "²¼µÇ²ªÂå¿Ë family - a
family's decline" was published. Novel immediately upon release
and literary critics in the audience rise to a positive response and
resonance. However, soon spread in L¨¹beck on the novel of which a
large family and the people mentioned are not entirely fictitious, but
the city's true story child. Novels published soon, spread out on a
list, disclosure of the novel corresponds to reality in the
characters. L¨¹beck's Bookstore has been a customer at his door,
because this book can be loaned to prepare a list of fictional
decryption. Novel "²¼µÇ²ªÂå¿Ë family" is created by Thomas Mann's
works have a great impact on one. 28 years later, it is because the
creation of this book, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awarded
the Nobel Prize in Literature Thomas Mann. ff



?Private life
Brothers Heinrich and Thomas Mann in 1903 resulted in discord between
signs. Thomas Mann felt ¸ç¸çºàÀûÏ£ not recognize that he is a true artist,
as a riposte, to belittle Heinrich Mann's work "that is silly and
outrageous." Although they did not break off diplomatic
relations, in later years there and a good try, but the literature on
the role of art in public discussion, the two try to avoid conflict.
1904 Thomas Mann met Katrina (more familiar name is Kati Ya) to
propose to her. This is quite alarming. Thomas Mann before and not had
close contact with women, not to mention to his brother as there was a
"diversion done the same things," the. About their sexual
orientation, although Thomas Mann had never confessed, but did not
hide. Of his own at that time decided to live a life of bourgeois
generally accepted. On the "juvenile" and admiration of
same-sex relationships revealed in the author's notes and numerous
literary works such as "²¼µÇ²ªÂå¿Ë family" (Hanno / Kai Graf M?
Lln), "Tonio Kr? Ger" (Tonio Kr? Ger / Hans Hansen) and
"Death in Venice" (Gustav von
Aschenbach / Tadzio).
Kati Ya, to Thomas Mann to marry him in a long period of time, finally
with his February 11, 1905 married. Before and after marriage they had
six children: daughters Erika (1905), the son of Klaus (1906), the son
Golo (1909), the daughter, Monika (1910), the daughter, Elisabeth
(1918), the son of Michael (1919 Äê). Second son Geluo Man is a
historian and philosopher



1912, doctors suspected Kati Ya suffering from tuberculosis, must be
combined with disease in nursing homes Davos (Switzerland) spent a
long period of time. Thomas Mann in a nursing home to visit his wife.
Nursing home atmosphere, Kati Ya to the hospital and the patient's
description of himself in hospital with the impression given of
inspiration, so he created the "Magic Mountain" (1913 -1924
years, 1915 has been interrupted).



?1914-1929
?World War I
When in 1914 the outbreak of World War I, many writers also listen to
public opinion and even supportive. Alfred Kerr, Luobotemu Sylvain
(Robert Musil), Richard Dehmel, and Gerhart Hauptmann that the war was
correct. Thomas Mann, a very measured performance only of patriotism.
In a letter to the Gegehengli Seaman, he wrote: "I have to change
aspects of the material prepared. If the war continue, and I can
confidently say that I really, as they say, get it, is completely
"destroyed" the's. "then he writes:" the name of
God! Do I have to object to these events brought about by the great
spirit in particular, the big change? Is it not grateful, was allowed
to go through to the unexpected big thing? "Thomas Mann in
principle that war is necessary. War can destroy the world, "the
most abhorrent police state" - Czar of Russia. In his
"Thoughts on the war" - on the war as a means of reflection
- a paper for his defense counterparts have a tendency to militarism.
His brother, such as writer Stefan Zweig (Stefan Zweig), Hermann Hesse
(Hermann Hesse), Arthur Schnitzler, and Romain (Romain Rolland), are
against the war. Thomas Mann at this time cut off contacts with his
brother.



?Weimar Republic
June 24, 1922, Foreign Minister Walter Rathenau was assassinated.
Thomas Mann of the incident prompted a more firm and its open support
for republican values. In the "Republic of Germany" in his
speech that his first warning of his supporters and the identity of
the new system. In his view, democracy and humanism are unified. If
people want to follow humanism, we must learn to live among people
democratically.
In 1924, Thomas Mann published the novel "The Magic
Mountain." Novel immediately a great success. Later published a
"pain-free order and the earlier" and "on the
marriage." Writers started writing in 1925, "Joseph
Tetralogy." The prototype is a novel that is so fascinated the
young Thomas Mann. In 1927, Thomas Mann met his child friend,
17-year-old Klaus Heuser. On his author wrote, "He is a man I can
feel the passion of the last." Joseph, who perhaps with his
shadow on it.
Thomas Mann, German literature as a star, as the Prussian Institute of
the Arts "Part poetry," the earliest members, but also to
improve the reputation of literature. He was particularly opposed to
restrictions on creative freedom writers "anti-dirty method
without taste." In the comic book, "Poetry Centre at
work", Thomas Mann, who was smeared as copying, plagiarism
Gerhard Hauptmann works of some of the ingredients. Thomas Mann is a
comic book shows how the holding pen and paper stands behind the
naturalist writers look over his shoulder and his creation.



?Nobel Prize
Awarded the Nobel Prize is not surprised that Thomas Mann. A few years
ago people would think he would win, he is looking forward to the
prize in 1927 on the. November 12, 1929 afternoon, good news has
finally spread from Stockholm, where Thomas Mann. Thomas Mann, not
very happy because the Nobel jury considered almost exclusively on his
novel "²¼µÇ²ªÂå¿Ë family." This is mainly because the
Commission's key, the Swedish writer Fredrik B?? K, not only not
appreciated, "Magic Mountain" also a few commentaries in the
broadside about that. Bonus amount up to 200,000 marks, compared with
today's more than 500,000 euros. Be used to repay part of the two
children Erika and Klaus multinational travel caused by the high
levels of debt. Klaus Mann said, "Although we did not get the
money, but this made us very happy." Thomas Mann used to pay part
of the house. Also bought two cars, a Buick convertible, one is Horch
(predecessor of Audi). In Stockholm, there's money to remind Thomas
Mann, a "stay out", although they did not understand why,
but still will remain in a large part of Switzerland. When they left
Germany in 1933, Thomas Mann lost most of the fixed assets.
In the January 19, 1919 German National People's Congress elections,
that is, the Weimar Republic's beginning, Thomas Mann retained his
vote, but he talked to his brother, are in Aufruf gegen den Unmut
signed one under the name of the dignitaries, in this paper, people
are advised to contribute their strength to the republican form of
government.
While here, because people signed their names to the combination of
the brothers until 1922 but only because Heinrich's a serious illness
and reconciliation, this disease makes Thomas recalled, the
relationship between brothers than they discussed before the
distribution of property also important.



??1930-1944
?"Deutsche Message"
In the September 1930 parliamentary election, the Nazis of the vote
were fantastic. Thomas Mann other suspected Nazis who do not trust
their eyes as to concern the development of a fleet of political
forces decided to speech "called rational." The October 17,
1930 speech in Berlin Beethoven hall known as the "German
speech" to history. In the majority of the members of the Social
Democrats and the Republicans in the mixed audience consisting of many
Nazis, they attempted to disrupt the site noisy but did not succeed.
Mann said bluntly that Nazism is: "eccentric wave of barbaric
acts, vulgar cup, or people only see the annual Shangwang rude."
"Mass spasm, rogue shouting, Hallelujah, Dervis monks Ode to read
a single type of repeated slogan, until the mouth with foam. "He
questioned whether that is German, is" required by the Nazi ideal
of the kind of low-level, pure, pure thought, the sound of heels
marching in the flap , the naive obedient, sincere passion waves; such
a high degree of homogeneity of the whole nation in a mature and
experienced cultural nationalism, as seen in the German nation, can
really achieve. "thunderous applause inside, but his speech did
not aroused the concern of the outside world. Thomas Mann celebrities
are opposed to Nazism, because of his popularity abroad has a very
strong statement of his weight. However, many of his appeal to no one
listening.
February 1933 Thomas Mann and his wife did a long trip abroad, first
to Paris, then to Switzerland Arosa. In the May 10, 1933 in Thomas
Mann's book biblioclast movement survived but he ¸ç¸çºàÀûÏ£ not so lucky.
When the Prussian Institute of the Arts "Part poetry," the
members were asked to swear loyalty to the Nazi government, the Thomas
Mann gave up his job. He and his wife decided to not return to
Germany.



?] Early in exile
As Thomas Mann and his family must leave property in Germany, so
determined to leave Germany is not easy. As Thomas Mann, then a large
part of the Stockholm prize money transfers to Switzerland, but also
brings out the best in local cash, it is not economic constraints.
Press, Thomas Mann has repeatedly asked him in such critical
circumstances do not leave the German people, and is willing to
publish his new book.



His first stop was in exile in France, eventually the family moved to
live in Zurich, Switzerland, near K¨¹snacht. Thomas Mann's personal
freedom because of his German passport expired be restricted. Asked
Thomas Mann returned to Munich, the Nazis, and then extend passport to
him, in fact, wanted to arrest him. 1934, 37 eminent persons were
deprived of German nationality, Albert Einstein was also one of them.
Thomas Mann has been spared, but the Ministry of Finance to Thomas
Mann in the contract with the publishers of tax evasion in the name of
confiscated his property and furniture in Munich.



1934 and travel to the United States in 1935 was Thomas Mann, a first
for the two. Americans are very interested in the well-known writer,
agreed that he no valid passport. 60-year-old's birthday he had in
K¨¹snacht, the Swiss are very grand celebration for him about that.
November 19, 1936 Thomas Mann in Czechoslovakia the Czech Consulate to
apply for citizenship. In the diary recorded the experience of his
brief, called it "strange incident." The door a few weeks
later he was deprived of his German citizenship (and including his
wife Kati Ya and son Golo, daughter, Elizabeth, son Michael). Thomas
Mann also denied the same time the Nazis at the University of Bonn in
1919 was awarded the honorary doctorate title. The title until after
the war December 13, 1946 was revived.



?"Where am I, where is Germany"




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