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?Guoxue information / theoretical perspectives / Wang Yuguang:
reading, with the classical counterparts - in Guangdong Province,
Dongguan City Library's Lecture
Wang Yuguang: reading, with the classical counterparts - in Guangdong
Province, Dongguan City Library's Lecture
2009-04-30 Wang Yuguang Guangming Daily Views: 1131
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About Dr. Wang Yuguang history. Currently Professor of Information
Management, Peking University, Head. Another part-time Ministry of
Education of Library Science Teaching Steering Committee Director,
Vice Chairman of China Society for Library Science, the National
Expert Committee on the protection of ancient books.
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Major individual works include "Chinese Historical
Philology", "History of Chinese Literature," I,
"Chinese characters and books: the chapter opened a
civilization," "New Book Publishing Industry of China",
"Masterpieces of reading," "Reading With the mind
"and" Literature and philologist, "and so on. Another
cooperation with others, "the book of thirty Chinese
history", "Reading Chinese Dictionary" and "the
ideal books to Chinese readers," and so on.
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Host the opening words
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Just past the April 23, is World Book Day. Books bearing culture,
passing civilization, accompanied with the book reading behaviors so
that people can transcend time and space, in the spiritual world of
fly. Current social, book publishing industry has become increasingly
developed, the Internet has brought a flood of information. By
contrast, people used to reading but less time. In the limited reading
time, should choose what to read? We work together to listen to the
views of Professor Wang Yuguang.
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Sat in the library was bright and clean large glass windows, the sun
gently floating down on the desk, or listening to the rain outside,
the leaves were drawn to the sound, we not only feel the charm of a
classic, but also realized that the quiet time and space. Today, we
read the classic, not only to acquire knowledge, but also to cultural
heritage and development. This may be the best way to improve the
self.
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What is a classic: the need to have influence, historical, and
extensive three factors
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Speaking of classics, first of all what will work can be a classic
encounter this problem. In fact, the so-called "classic" is
not conclusive.
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Sixty years ago, qing written in "classic talk often," he
said of the classic, as opposed to Confucianism "by" is
concerned, is broad: including the group by, Qin in several history
books, some set of department; to read these books, especially
classics, children may understand the "primary", that is,
philology, and the "Dictionary" is a classic part of the
other books.
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Kung contemporary scholars in the "Summary by the school," a
paper to discuss the Classic, said the reason to become a classic: one
is a classic own reasons, because the truth when it has enough to
inspire future generations, it was criticized respected as a constant
by, is not published theory. On the other hand, it is also being
formed in the holy book worship. Its competition in the classic years,
some books are still important, but not Classic; some of the books,
the original is also common, but in a classic of the historical
conditions.
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Sages when the philosophy says, gives people quite a lot of
inspiration.
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We often say that the classic, are those that have a significant
impact, and enduring works, its contents or generally accepted, or a
model in a field of expertise and authority.
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If we do not discuss professional classic, just from the general
sense, then the classic characteristics of a triple or three elements:
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Influence:
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Influence the content reflects the attractiveness of work. Who have
become classic works, all in a certain area has an important
influence, such as "Book of Changes", "Art of War"
and so on. Of course, the impact of positive and negative points, but
also long-term and short-lived. Those "of a moment," the
work can be called classics. The influence should be said that the
work is not entirely out of their own, or that the influence of
naturally occurring absolutely does not exist. Read each one of us are
affected by many factors, such as political forms, family, personal
qualities and interests, teachers and students, the environment and
advertisements.
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Timing:
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A work, may affect the moment, perhaps in a particular period of time
being worshiped, but the passage of time, soon to be forgotten or
abandoned. Classic, must stand the test of time, to be durable but not
bad. In other words, all the works, to become a classic, I think it
must stand the test of history.
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Extensive:
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I understand the classic (non-classical fields), must be broad, that
the issues it is that people are generally concerned, is generally
acceptable. Such as "Book of Songs," "The Analects of
Confucius", "Historical Records", "Three
Kingdoms" and so on, their content is extensive. "Book of
Songs" three or four thousand years, it still discussed the topic
of concern for us today, there are many verses in a pop music today,
like Teresa Teng sang "in the water side," and so on.
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I want to say, these three points, that is, influence, historical and
widespread, is probably the classic elements of the need to have.
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Song Edition of "The Analects of Confucius"
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Reading the Chinese Tradition: Classic Worship
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China's long history of reading, studying the formation of a rich
tradition, accumulation and inheritance of this tradition on later
scholars have an important impact, reading and reading in the value of
psychological orientation are all at its disposal. China, an important
element of the traditional reading is the reading of the ideas and
methods, however, the purpose of reading there is a strong and dynamic
reality of demand, this demand is profound and extensive impact on the
reader's reading values.
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First of all, is "good scholar official." Confucius
advocated an official from the school, to the "university"
in the elucidation of the self-cultivation, regulating the family,
ruling the state and the world; from the Sui Dynasty imperial
examination system created to spread the Song Dynasty "book,
house of gold", "traveling book more, such as cluster
", etc., a very distinct purpose: to study so rich. The
traditional Chinese culture, traditions and values of the important
part of the development of Chinese culture can not be underestimated
the impact.
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Followed by Diligent study hard. Read the history of the Chinese, hard
study hard and moving cases are legion, such as "cantilever
Cigu", "cutting the wall to steal light", "capsule
Ying xue", "Wei compiled Ruin" and so on, these stories
have inspired several thousand years intellectual energies into
studying and positive, its impact so far remain.
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Third, respect for the text. Over the past scholars are often books or
Transcription in person. The invention of printing in China very
early, but the spread of printed books is still not very popular. Song
of the block printing Although popular, but generally not printed a
lot of books, or limited to some classics, history, classics. In the
early 11th century, "Historical Records", "Han",
is normally read people still rely on handwritten. Ancient Chinese
scholars of plagiarism, is a very common phenomenon. Over the past
scholars believe that when copy books, Transcription in useful,
Transcription in is also a reading and learning. Not easy to get both
books, reading books people respect and value can be imagined. Sun
Qing bibliophile book from Tim in "possession of secretary
to" section in the narrative is quite capable of reflecting the
reader's general mentality. He said:
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And with two or three friends, and to the ancient knowledge of the
current books of the persons, and to channel its origins who could
distinguish the different flap of the original board who know the
long-suppressed Shuayin a book, a book of only have the transcript, or
kai, visit the Square between the home, close to ask for cool shop,
with no heart was one of the most rare of books, at the Code of
clothing, despite the heavy price of hatred was then only. It also
acquired the better than arch bi. Seeking good work that is binding,
set the desk, hand burn myohyang, stuttering bitter tea, and then read
the open book, so why not this world a great romance or Down?
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Book valuable not only because of the added value, while the book is
also a scholar living in an integral part. Ming Dynasty, a scholar
once said: You can no clothing, no food, no books can not. This is not
no food, clothing, and here only want to show the importance of the
book. Often addicted to reading books such as life, and have fun.
Respected in the school constructed on the basis of the text of
private reading room, study, internal and external environment, books,
books, library, plagiarism, reading, some scholars, such as crazy as
crazy, it is the most unique in the history of Chinese reading and
moving chapter.
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Reading books is an important part of life, in books, the classic and
important and has its special status. In the eyes of scholars, have
strength of the classic, classic, or read the classics of great
symbolic significance. Tang Wei Zheng in the "Chi Sui order"
in the classical symbolism of strength and made a very excellent
summary, he said: Classic and is sage wisdom, can be used to
comprehend the mystery of the universe, explore the world, yin and
yang messages, correct the world's discipline, promoting human
morality. The membership was the world can be relief, may be spared by
the Tibetan nationality. Reading of the Scriptures can cause progress,
otherwise you will fall behind. National Cheng Kung University had
gained by the industry to membership, then there is a bright moral
respect; ordinary people can classics in mind, emphasis will be for
the people of the world. Rulers to establish a political voice, was
Yang Dulwich, London Knight cultivation, refinement, how can it not
come from the classics?
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First of all, is a treasure house of knowledge by the membership,
ancient and modern scholars in this regard are in possession of the
same or similar views. Sushi in the "Book Collection secretary
Lee," said: Classic and is inexhaustible, not with the
disadvantages, and different people's talents, Yin or the
unscrupulous, reading would have received. British philosopher Karl
Popper once said: If all of our machines and tools, together with all
of our subjective knowledge have been destroyed, however, as long as
the library and our ability to learn from them still exist, our world
will re-forward. Classics stored knowledge, and provide the basis for
the creation of the people.
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Secondly, in the Chinese Imperial era, the classics, especially the
classics, together with Zhu Xi's comments, has become the most
important examination of textbooks, a school official who entered the
ladder. More than a thousand years, the scholars all by their impact.
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Third, the membership will help or even affect the governance of the
country. Can we now agree with this view is not important, at least in
ancient China scholars think so. Sima Qian in talking about
"Spring," he said, "Spring" discernment personnel
broker, determine the suspect, right and wrong, good and evil, to
promote the benevolent, is a political, Baiguan of the Dharma, ethics,
propriety and justice of the bulk, there are countries who for the
ministers who are not do not know "Spring and Autumn."
Secretary Ma Guangzhuan "Mirror", not the general sense of
Zhushulishuo and historical research, but a highly political purposes.
He gave the emperor "into the Mirror table," said: The book
"designed to take off the national ups and downs, joys and
sorrows on livelihood, good for the law, evil person can be a warning
for the compilation of a book." Said, through this book can be
"Kam past life rise and fall of the pros and cons of today's
test, Jiashan boast evil, is to take care not enough of Sidley Mao Ji
Gu, Ji-free before the matter to government." "Mirror"
has become the treatment a mirror of the country, popular appreciation
when the emperor, the emperor and the size of the government officials
on the future generations have a significant impact. Even in the 20th
century, some people think that the book is essential reading for
civil servants.
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Fourth, the membership will benefit the nation's governance, the
establishment and cultivation of faith formation.
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Fifth, by nationality or school is symbolic, from the point of view to
some extent, it reflects a person's status, rights or features.
Reading makes a person more educated, if not, it also makes a person
look and educated. We often see on television, some people interviewed
often sitting in front of shelves, which is a highly symbolic
statement is not correct it? Even those who were interviewed did not
read, or simply do not have time to read. Of course, from the
perspective of the history of reading, we hope that the book is not a
symbol, but should be reading.
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Song Edition of "Spring and Autumn Annals"
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Read the Classics: a part of every educated person
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In China, with the introduction of Western learning, abandoned the
imperial examination system, the more traditional classic lines with
the scholars in the distance. Before and after the May Fourth
Movement, the establishment of the new education system and the
implementation of the vernacular, youth students, especially primary
and secondary students, is no longer the traditional reading of the
classics as a major. At that time, some scholars have even said that
the bindings thrown into latrines should go. Therefore, why to read
classics, had been raised in that era. Nearly a hundred years, the
issue has frequently been mentioned.
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Over the past decade, with the development of new technologies,
television, phone and the network caused by the popularity of the
impact of people's reading time greatly reduced. At the same time, as
China's economic strength, and cultural soft power by scholars
continue to preach, and read the classic, carry forward the Chinese
culture, it is essential content of this soft power.
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In 1923, Liang writing "National primer ISSUE and read law"
also wrote a "rule of Tuition words," the article. Here,
Leung as to why to read classic, made two observations.
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First, as Chinese scholars, the need to read some Chinese classic. In
his "Minimum required reading," postscript later said:
"The above book, regardless of mineral science, engineering ...
... are required reading, if this is not read, I really can not
believe that China scholars carry on."
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Second, Liang believes that is necessary not only to read the classic,
for those "most valuable literary work" and "healthy
motto," also need to familiarize themselves into a chant. He
said: Good literature is a tool for conservation fun, do elements of a
nation, the total of the literature for the good of the nation is a
taste, to become familiar chant, only in our "unconscious"
inside, have a foundation, unknowingly will "ferment."
Healthy Shengzhe Ge words, part of the long-form in our common sense
of the whole society, we do elements of this community, they want to
thoroughly understand him, not only to the students and the common
sense of estrangement. Receiving the one hand, we should do, I often
battle he has given us light.
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Those in good literary classic, pouring irrigate and nourish our
minds, so we have the conservation and taste; and Sheng Zhege words,
in terms of personal behavior, to guide us, not cause us to fall into
the darkness of confusion. 90s in the 20th century, after several
turbulent Chinese educational, how many have been aware of the
profound meaning Liang, began to emphasize the quality of education
students.
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In 1925, Sun Fuyuan hosted in their own "Beijing newspaper
supplement" on the issue of "ten young love reading"
and "ten young people will read" Enlightenment essay.
"Youth must read ten" writing, there were more than seventy
scholars writers apply.
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1934, "Education Journal" editor consulted the education
sector to the nation He Bingsong "read by" views. May the
following year, "Education Journal" will be back to seven
dozen articles in the form of album release. A collection of Wuxi post
when he was president of the views of Tang rule. Tang rule said:
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When the promotion of reading stolen dimensional long! By Englishman
to Jordan and I Huabo Shi Yan Youling phase friendly, serious taste of
the Chinese peril for concern, said Zhu: China will never to die.
Strict inquiry why, Zhu said: Chinese classics, are also Collection,
hair and Reading, enjoys popular support. Keelung shut solid, anything
too perish the reason? Zhu said more than that good then. My Country
by the book, not only for consolidation of the people, and can
conserve Collected in Shanghai Museum, and civilian air, inspiring
wisdom. House Jinzhi Shi and wish to save the country, non-reading is
not.
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Tang rule in view, the foundation for the country by the book, you can
unite the people, improve quality, develop wisdom, and create a
harmonious society.
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In 1942, the National Southwest Associated University of qing, written
in "classic often talk about", published or reprinted
several times thereafter. Author of "order," said: above
average education, the classical training should be a necessary item.
The value of classical training is not practical, and in the culture
... ... say, be a very educated population, at least for their
classic, but also access obligations.
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By the qing "culture" of the word, can be seen sixty years
ago, Chinese intellectuals had been aware of the impact of Chinese
culture by Western culture the question, worry that the Chinese people
to the world will forget about the nation's culture. As the nation's
intellectuals, self-responsibility with the national culture heritage.
Sixty years, "the classic often talk about" Reading has
become a classic study of the classic people.
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In 1978, New Asia College, Chinese University of Hong Kong set up a
"Ch'ien Mu Lecture," please 84-year-old Qian had made a
"history of China from the Chinese national character and Chinese
culture" lecture series. In the speech, Qian said: There are
seven books are "required reading for all Chinese people the
book." He said: We are an intellectual, a scholar, should read
four books: one is the "Analects of Confucius", a
"Mencius", and the third is the "I", fourth is the
"Chuang Tzu." Reading this side, that side should read, this
is called "yin and yang." Said: This four books are ancient.
Future generations to read, I cite three. First Zen Hui Neng's
"Add new event." Zhu Xi selected second is
"Reflections." The third part is the Wang Yangming's
"Record of Instructions." Take the following three Tang
Dynasty, the Warring States Period on the convergence of four, could
become the new "Seven Classic."
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Mr. Qian is committed to the Chinese culture of life, is a
"history of their own past experience there is a warmth and
respect those." Their "Seven Classics" said the study
is the experience of their lifetime income.
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Stem Qian Yu Ying-shih, long taught in American universities. The end
of the century, as "how to read Chinese books," and called
for reading traditional classic, to promote "a hundred back tire
of reading books." A paragraph in the article is worth our
consideration. He said: the Chinese intelligentsia has not yet
completely out of the colonial mentality, all to Western ideas as
final. Or even "anti-Western" thinking also comes from the
West, such as "dependency theory", such as "critical
theory", such as "deconstruction" and the like.
Therefore, especially the last ten years, as long as the slightest
sign of trouble in Western intellectual (mainly from the United States
transferred a commercially), there will be some trouble a number of
Chinese intellectuals, and immediately used on the Chinese reading of
the above, this is not China and the West pass, but with the foreign
tunes and dance like a puppet was holding the line, like the
unfortunate young friends into the room the Magic, you would then ruin
their future learning.
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We focus on classical reading, perhaps from China's long tradition
gives us the inherent emotions. However, in the United States,
teaching reading classics, especially the reading of classical
learning, the same topic of concern. In the early 20th century,
Columbia University, to create a "literary humanism" and
"Contemporary Civilization" two undergraduate required
course. The former is committed to providing a European standard of
literary masterpieces selected projects, which provides a selection of
philosophy and social theory famous head. United States, "New
York" magazine film critic David Danby insist on talking about
his alma mater, the reasons for creation of such courses, said: The
school is well aware, consumerism, and pollution of mediocre fun is
never far away these classics list. Schools trying to organize and
teach it the way these two get rid of this pollution course. First of
all, reading is often incomprehensible, to contemporary students in
particular. This is an extremely respected Western tradition, but the
school insists that it is necessary. ... ... They should be part of
everyone's education.
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48-year-old man returned to his alma mater and take "Literature
Humanities" and "Contemporary Civilization" course two,
read the Western classics. Which he said: the media to give
information, but the information in the 90's has become a rapidly
changing, very unstable thing. "I have information, but without
knowledge," "serious end of the reading may be a media life
of my way to assimilation, a way to get back my world."
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Tea and Salt Song Liangzhe East Division Edition of "Mencius
Exegeses"
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Sima Qian Temple Hancheng
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Read what the classic: the test of time the essence of ancient culture
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Many people think that reading: Books and Ancient vast, will encounter
while reading the book selection and identification of other issues.
To solve these problems, people often through books, to understand the
status of classics books, Ming Xiao gateway to reading. Bibliography,
especially those who guide the reading of recommended books, in our
textbook, books and reading can provide important help when.
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However, due to various factors, the recommended recommended books are
often not very fair, accurate and objective.
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The first is the timing factors. Reading is a reflection of the needs
of the times, different times of the readers the choice of reading is
different. 120 years ago, Zhang compiled the "question and answer
books" available, popular with students was welcomed by more than
100 years later, today's general reader, will not be based
"question and answer books" to study. In 1924, Taiyan list
of "secondary Chinese books," not suitable for students of
today. Titles listed in the "two-way suicide note",
"driving fast support ten new record," "Shen Jian"
and other books, I am afraid there is no school of liberal arts
college students read. Thus, a good recommended books, the reader must
be able to meet the needs of the times.
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Secondly, the recommended books were recommended by the impact of
knowledge and interest. In 1923, a group of Tsinghua students to study
abroad, in order to obtain short-term Guoxue common sense, please Hu
developed a bibliography on Sinology. Hu sets out "a minimum of
Sinology Bibliography" Books and more emphasis on the history of
philosophy, literature, history, the history books Yigai exclusion
must, like "Mirror" This book has not selected, then on that
Liang Hu this bibliography, "irrelevant." 30 years later, in
1953, the Beijing Library sets out a "selected important works of
ancient Chinese eye," Books and 20 species. This bibliography is
the result of Guo, Yu Pingbo, Qifang et al ranking of before. Now
known as the "Ancient important works," then as "Book
of Changes," "The Analects of Confucius" and
philosophical, ideological writings of an unselected, this is very
puzzling.
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Again, the recommended books were recommended by the bias or
ideological implications. In 1945, the British general election out of
the ten writers Xi "shock the world of books," There is no
Chinese books. In 1985, the United States, "Life" magazine
in the tens of millions of readers, to carry out named "man of
the twenty best books ever," the Chinese people here, and no
book. American library scientists Downs has written a "book to
change the world", the book chosen from the Renaissance to the
mid-20th century, published 16 books of natural science and social
science, then he wrote a book " since 1492, has 111 species of
modern civilization, shaping the Outstanding famous feed. " These
two books are not included the writings of the Chinese people. In the
latter book, "Introduction", the author of the classic,
while recognizing the East, "including many books as the West had
a profound impact," but these books still be "omitted."
Another American columnist Feidi Man has published "a lifetime
reading plan" the age of 18 to 80 years to scholars who
recommended the 100 classics, classics that are also 100 works of
European and American people. Chinese classics were neglected by the
above recommendation, it is indeed "the restrictions in view of
the world." In other words, these recommendations are well
received by those who "center of Europe," the impact.
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Perhaps no one has recommended books are inevitably subjective and
recommended by chance. However, for readers, accurately and
objectively to understand, select, read the real world famous, often
very necessary.
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In view of this, we gathered 80 foreign recommended books (54 species
in China recommended books, recommended books in foreign countries
26), using the measurement method, these 80 books recommended books
for statistics, to the book is recommended order of the number of how
many, listing directories. The bibliography is not with our
subjectivity and contingency. Thus, it is famous in terms of
recommendation should be said that more fair, accurate and objective.
I think that in the bibliography, the book most frequently
recommended, it may be called classic. Which China works to the
following eight categories:
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1. Classics
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Such book, "The Book of Songs," "The Analects of
Confucius" was included in two books most often. Since the Han
has more than two thousand years between these books on Chinese
politics, academia, have a great impact. Why do these two books by
scholars as the most important reason is that there is a simple and
easy to understand, and "Book", "Book of Changes",
is not most people read understand.
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"The Analects" of Confucius's remarks as a record of a
people come to be respected, after the Han Dynasty, it is almost
required reading for every scholar of the book. "The
Analects" by Zhu Xi's comments after they have become the most
important examinations of textbooks, Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasty
official a few people who read all affected. Vertical is the
examination after the abolition of "The Analects" or read a
book often read, and today, the book is still a reprinted large
circulation is amazing. Many words in the book, even in the vernacular
of the times, people are still being written or verbal are often used.
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"Book of Songs" as the literary heritage of ancient
excellent, with rich ideological content and artistic charm charm of
letters by the poet admired for future generations, learn, learn,
strongly influence the development of Chinese literature. "Book
of Songs" satire, folk songs and the performance of noble spirit
of realism, creating a tradition of poetry. "Book of Songs"
also affected the development of prose. Mid-Tang Dynasty, Han Yu, Liu
literary movement was launched to promote prose, against the prose, to
regard the "Book of Songs" content and a beautiful artistic
form, as a model of learning, creating a brilliant Chinese prose
literature in the period. Can almost be said, "The Book of
Songs," the impact, penetration in the various fields of
literature and art. "Book of Songs" is not only an important
literary works, but also a historical value of ancient documents have.
"Book of Songs" recorded some poems Shang and Zhou national
origin legend, the Shang and Zhou on the occasion of the major
historical events and the early weeks of the activities of national
history, are very valuable, and a "Historical Records" is
based on one of the materials .
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"Book of Songs" to understand a lot of very good poetry.
Poetry to the latest of which there are now 2500, but today is also
very interesting read, the emotional feelings described are still with
us today agree. From the "Book of Songs", the Chinese three
thousand years to see the love expressed: from passionate to the
winding; from a closed and then open. "Book of Songs"
Missing the river as our source. Let me give an example of "Book
of Songs" often mentioned in the two rivers: Qin Wei River water
and water, the name of the poem, "Cats and Dogs":
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Qin and Wei Gu, Fang Huan Huan Xi. Disabilities and women, Fang Ping
Jian Xi. Woman said: "we look?" Who said: "both
and." "And to the judging. Wei River, the Xun Xu, and
music." DeVos and women, the phase ridiculed Iraq, presented them
with a spoon medicine.
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The poem was written in the time of the Spring and Autumn Zheng, place
in this Xinzheng County, Henan Province, Qin water remaining, Wei
River water now known as Shuangji River. This poem is written in
Shangsi Festival (lunar calendar three days in March), when young men
and women came to Qin, Wei River bank shower of play. They put the
bluegrass, but also give each other a peony to expressing your love.
It can be said to be three days of March, China's Valentine's Day
should be peony flower tokens of love.
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2. Before the Four and the "Mirror"
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Such the book "Historical Records" and "Mirror"
included the second highest number of books. In the traditional
history books, the "Historical Records", "Han" and
"Mirror" the most attention.
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The Swan Song of historians, no rhyme of "Li Sao" --- This
is Lu Xun, "Historical Records" praise, but also on the
"Historical Records" in the history and achievements of the
brilliant literary history evaluation. "Historical Records"
can be a novel, "Historical Records" in the discipline,
communication with the fiction is very popular, great plot.
"Historical Records" that it is a history book, but in fact
was a lot of literary works, such as television dramas, plays, novels,
and many more it is based, such as "Farewell My Concubine"
and so on. Fuxing endure the pain of Sima Qian to complete the
"Historical Records", and expressed hope to past events to
expect in the future, where the significance of the existence of life
in the writings has been sublimated. There are many ancient Chinese
text entry with disabilities can work and hope that their possession
of the mountains, passed after the person, however, imitate others,
hath often hit it, being voluminous, there are several books with
"Historical Records", a clear winner?
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"Mirror" 294 volumes, edited by Sima Guang Song. The book
records the last 23 years since Zhou Wei WANG \ (formerly 403 \),
finished under the 6 years after the Zhou Xiande \ (959 \) of the 1362
history, is a famous ancient Chinese general history in chronological
style.
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Not only is the historian Sima Guang, also a politician, he wrote
history books, but also hope that their books can provide a reference
for the sovereign country.
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3. Early Qin
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Such book, "I", "Zhuang Zi", "Zi",
"Han Fei Zi," "Art of War" recorded the highest
number of all homes.
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Taoist book is his later years many intellectuals read the book, where
"I" and "Chuang Tzu" is the most representative.
For thousands of years, Taoist doctrine has been continuity with the
thinking of the Chinese people's thoughts have a deep impact. Western
Han Dynasty, the political implementation of the "inaction",
"rest with the people" policy, that is, "I" as its
basis the idea, and brought the King Wen Sheng. Eastern Han Dynasty,
Taoism after the election, "I" as a classic, as the Taoist
practice of the chant. Metaphysics scientists to Zushu Lao argument,
the Zhuangzi and the "Book of Changes" collectively, the
"San Xuan." Tang, "Chuang Tzu" has become a major
classic of Taoism, is known as the "South Scriptures", I was
regarded as a founder of Taoism, Chuang Tzu was deified. "Han Fei
Zi" on our understanding of Chinese politics go a long way, it is
a political textbook. Even today, "Art of War" in the
military, business management, there is still reference.
"Xunzi" a book in the Han Dynasty and "Mencius"
with the column thinkers and scholars of the popular weight. Evil
nature that is probably the idea, so after the Confucian sense of
shame by Li, could not be included by the book. However,
"Xunzi" contribution to Confucianism and the Chinese
academic, intellectual status can not be ignored. Feng has been the
subject of a match, he said:
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Confucius in Chinese history in the position, such as Socrates in
Western history, Mencius, the status in Chinese history, such as the
Plato of the Western history, the cool weather of the wise are like
the Kang; Xunzi's position in the Chinese history such as the
Aristotle of the Western history, the weather of the Tokujitsu Shen Bo
also like it.
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4. Other Zibu book
?
The book is more to be included: "On balance", "Tan
Jing", "Family Instructions," "Ming Yi Dai Fang
Lu."
?
In modern times, "Lun Heng," a book by scholars of common
concern. Taiyan that Wang was "one of Han Dynasty", and must
not fire. Arguments and others in the "General History of Chinese
Thought" in this evaluation were made of Wang, he said:
?
Chen Wei Wang's anti-anti-religious ideology, no doubt thinking of the
history of the Middle Ages the first great "heresy" system,
since the Han Dynasty is opposed to "authentic" medieval
thought and theocratic rule against the thinking of the great
representatives.
?
Tui "Family Instructions," was published, has been under the
reader's attention, Song, Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties many scholars
praised that ancient family motto, as a progenitor, family education
in ancient China, the most with impact. Xi of the "Ming Yi Dai
Fang Lu" is Caishang Si bibliography included with several
universities, we can see the book by the current academic attention.
This classic intellectual history of China two thousand years of
authoritarian system has been criticized on the Enlightenment in
Modern China played a very important role.
?
5. Tang and Song poems
?
New Year's Day 2000, the China Youth Development Foundation and
jointly organized by the National Library, "the torch relay
ceremony of Chinese Civilization", an important part of the
chorus of the students of classical poetry. Organizers said: recite
ancient poetry, is to make the national spirit of the blood flow in
the body from generation to generation, is the activation of
conventional and future of a powerful move. According to a recent
survey: 73.1% of the parents and 86.7% of teachers think that
recitation of classical poetry to promote traditional culture; 88.7%
of parents and 96.7% of teachers think that their children good
manners and character development; 94.2% of the parents and 100 % of
teachers think that raising good children's language ability. These
data suggest that people basically reached a consensus on this issue:
Read the classic of our culture and heritage is a great benefit to
improve quality, and those great ancient poetry, especially the Tang
and Song poetry, but also by the attention of people.
?
6. Other Poems
?
To "Songs of the South", "Selected Works",
"Tao Collection", "Shi" recorded the highest
number of Song Dynasty poems after being recommended less.
?
"Songs of the South" as one of the sources of Chinese
literature, and the "Book of Songs" has almost equal
importance. Western Zhou Dynasty to the Spring and Autumn Period from
about mid-spring and last years after the poem is no longer popular in
the Yellow River basin was added were made, and the south of the
Yangtze River Chu, culture gradually developed it, many more
achievements in literature, which Chu is the rise. As the DPRK Liu Xie
Liang, "Wen Xin Diao Long Lisao" and said: Since the
"national style", "Xiao Ya", "Daya" In
the future, not someone to write "The Book of Songs" as a
poem was. Later, the emergence of some strange Acme, that is, "Li
Sao" the works of a class. This is a rise in the "Book of
Songs" of, the active in the Fu family before, probably because
not far away from the saints also, and Chu and the reason most
talented, right? Chu generated in the Yangtze River basin, and the
"Book of Songs" and more different in style. Chan Yiu Nam in
the "Classics IAC", the difference will be summarized as
five of their clients:
?
Collected works of poetry, mostly in the Yellow River Basin (North),
Chu is the Yangtze River (South);
?
Personnel to write poetry, realistic, subtle and Songs of the South
more than myth, imagination and imaginative;
?
Stacked multi-word phrase poem to the main four characters, Chu long
sentence to five words as a dry, add the virtual word to chant;
?
Multiple Poetic neat chapters, repeated singing sigh, Chu divided into
chapters, which means less complex language or heavy;
?
More than the owner of the name of poetry, Songs of the South and more
knowledge of the name of the Lord.
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