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Method Of Making Light Emitting Device With Silicon-containing Encapsulant - Patent 7314770

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Method Of Making Light Emitting Device With Silicon-containing Encapsulant - Patent 7314770 Powered By Docstoc
					


United States Patent: 7314770


































 
( 1 of 1 )



	United States Patent 
	7,314,770



 Boardman
,   et al.

 
January 1, 2008




Method of making light emitting device with silicon-containing encapsulant



Abstract

A method of making a light emitting device is disclosed. The method
     includes the steps of providing a light emitting diode and forming an
     encapsulant in contact with the light emitting diode; wherein forming the
     encapsulant includes contacting the light emitting diode with a
     photopolymerizable composition consisting of a silicon-containing resin
     and a metal-containing catalyst, wherein the silicon-containing resin
     consists of silicon-bonded hydrogen and aliphatic unsaturation, and
     applying actinic radiation having a wavelength of 700 nm or less to
     initiate hydrosilylation within the silicon-containing resin.


 
Inventors: 
 Boardman; Larry D. (Woodbury, MN), Thompson; D. Scott (Woodbury, MN), Leatherdale; Catherine A. (St. Paul, MN), Ouderkirk; Andrew J. (Woodbury, MN) 
 Assignee:


3M Innovative Properties Company
 (St. Paul, 
MN)





Appl. No.:
                    
11/252,336
  
Filed:
                      
  October 17, 2005

 Related U.S. Patent Documents   
 

Application NumberFiling DatePatent NumberIssue Date
 10993460Nov., 20047192795
 

 



  
Current U.S. Class:
  438/30  ; 257/E21.352; 257/E21.366; 257/E21.368; 257/E21.499; 257/E33.059; 438/106
  
Current International Class: 
  H01L 21/00&nbsp(20060101)
  
Field of Search: 
  
  











 438/30,22,104,106,124,126,118,127 257/79,82,100,104
  

References Cited  [Referenced By]
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Speier et al.

3159662
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Ashby

3220972
November 1965
Lamoreaux

3410886
November 1968
Joy

3419593
December 1968
Willing

3445420
May 1969
Kookootsedes et al.

3715334
February 1973
Karstedt

3814730
June 1974
Karstedt

3933880
January 1976
Bergstrom et al.

3989666
November 1976
Nlemi

3989667
November 1976
Lee et al.

4256870
March 1981
Eckberg

4347346
August 1982
Eckberg

4421903
December 1983
Ashby

4504645
March 1985
Melancon

4510094
April 1985
Drahnak

4530879
July 1985
Drahnak

4600484
July 1986
Drahnak

4609574
September 1986
Keryk et al.

4613215
September 1986
Ayton

4670531
June 1987
Eckberg

4705765
November 1987
Lewis

4774111
September 1988
Lo

4916169
April 1990
Boardman et al.

RE33289
August 1990
Modic

5122943
June 1992
Pugh

5145886
September 1992
Oxman et al.

5313365
May 1994
Pennisi et al.

5403773
April 1995
Nitta et al.

5496961
March 1996
Dauth et al.

5523436
June 1996
Dauth et al.

5592397
January 1997
Shinoaki et al.

5639845
June 1997
Inomata et al.

5777433
July 1998
Lester

6046250
April 2000
Boardman et al.

6099783
August 2000
Scranton et al.

6114090
September 2000
Wu et al.

6150546
November 2000
Butts

6319425
November 2001
Tasaki et al.

6376569
April 2002
Oxman et al.

6451869
September 2002
Butts

6600175
July 2003
Baretz et al.

6653157
November 2003
Kondo

6664318
December 2003
Bymark et al.

6740465
May 2004
Liang et al.

6756731
June 2004
Sano

6806509
October 2004
Yoshino et al.

6806658
October 2004
Tan

6921929
July 2005
LeBoeuf et al.

6958250
October 2005
Yang

7192795
March 2007
Boardman et al.

2002/0030194
March 2002
Camras et al.

2004/0116640
June 2004
Miyoshi

2004/0145913
July 2004
Ouderkirk et al.

2004/0150991
August 2004
Ouderkirk et al.

2004/0245541
December 2004
Shitagaki et al.

2006/0157875
July 2006
Van Santen et al.

2006/0186428
August 2006
Tan et al.

2007/0112147
May 2007
Morita et al.



 Foreign Patent Documents
 
 
 
0 398 573
Nov., 1990
EP

1 198 016
Apr., 2002
EP

1 424 363
Jun., 2004
EP

2002 232018
Aug., 2002
JP

2004 0086871
Oct., 2004
KR



   Primary Examiner: Nhu; David


  Attorney, Agent or Firm: Gallo; Elizabeth A.



Parent Case Text



CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION


This application is a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser.
     No. 10/993,460, filed Nov. 18, 2004, U.S. Pat. No. 7,192,795 B2.

Claims  

What is claimed is:

 1.  A method of making a light emitting device, the method comprising the steps of: providing a light emitting diode;  and forming an encapsulant in contact with the light
emitting diode, wherein forming the encapsulant comprises: contacting the light emitting diode with a photopolymerizable composition comprising a silicon-containing resin and a metal-containing catalyst, wherein the silicon-containing resin comprises
silicon-bonded hydrogen and aliphatic unsaturation;  applying actinic radiation at a temperature of less than 120.degree.  C. to initiate hydrosilylation within the silicon-containing resin, the actinic radiation having a wavelength of 700 nm or less; 
and heating at less than 150.degree.  C.


 2.  The method of claim 1, wherein heating is at less than 100.degree.  C.


 3.  The method of claim 2, wherein heating is at less than 60.degree.  C.


 4.  A light emitting device comprising a light emitting diode and a photopolymerizable composition comprising a silicon-containing resin and a metal-containing catalyst activated by actinic radiation, wherein the silicon-containing resin
comprises silicon-bonded hydrogen and aliphatic unsaturation.


 5.  The light emitting device of claim 4, wherein the metal-containing catalyst comprises platinum.


 6.  The light emitting device of claim 4, wherein the photopolymerizable composition is at a temperature of from about 30.degree.  C. to about 120.degree.  C.


 7.  The light emitting device of claim 6, wherein the metal-containing catalyst comprises platinum.  Description  

FIELD OF THE INVENTION


The invention relates to a method of making a light emitting device.  More particularly, the invention relates to a method of making a light emitting device having a light emitting diode (LED) and a silicon-containing encapsulant.


BACKGROUND


Typical encapsulants for LEDs are organic polymeric materials.  Encapsulant lifetime is a significant hurdle holding back improved performance of high brightness LEDs.  Conventional LEDs are encapsulated in epoxy resins and, when in use, tend to
yellow over time reducing the LED brightness and changing the color rendering index of the light emitted from the light emitting device.  This is particularly important for white LEDs.  The yellowing of the epoxy is believed to result from decomposition
induced by the high operating temperatures of the LED and/or absorption of UV-blue light emitted by the LED.


A second problem that can occur when using conventional epoxy resins is stress-induced breakage of the wire bond on repeated thermal cycling.  High brightness LEDs can have heat loads on the order of 100 Watts per square centimeter.  Since the
coefficients of thermal expansion of epoxy resins typically used as encapsulants are significantly larger than those of the semiconductor layers and the moduli of the epoxies can be high, the embedded wire bond can be stressed to the point of failure on
repeated heating and cooling cycles.


Thus, there is a need for new photochemically stable and thermally stable encapsulants for LEDs that reduce the stress on the wire bond over many temperature cycles.  In addition, there is a need for encapsulants with relatively rapid cure
mechanisms in order to accelerate manufacturing times and reduce overall LED cost.


SUMMARY


A method of making a light emitting device is disclosed herein.  The method includes the steps of providing a LED and forming an encapsulant in contact with the LED; wherein forming the encapsulant includes contacting the LED with a
photopolymerizable composition consisting of a silicon-containing resin and a metal-containing catalyst, wherein the silicon-containing resin consists of silicon-bonded hydrogen and aliphatic unsaturation, and applying actinic radiation having a
wavelength of 700 nm or less to initiate hydrosilylation within the silicon-containing resin.  The method disclosed herein may further comprise the step of heating at less than 150.degree.  C.


Light emitting devices which may be prepared according to the above methods are also disclosed herein, in addition to a light emitting device comprising a light emitting diode and a photopolymerizable composition comprising a silicon-containing
resin and a metal-containing catalyst, wherein the silicon-containing resin comprises silicon-bonded hydrogen and aliphatic unsaturation.


The encapsulant described herein can have one or more of the following desirable features: high refractive index, photochemical stability, thermal stability, formable by relatively rapid cure mechanisms, and formable at relatively low
temperatures.


These and other aspects of the invention will be apparent from the detailed description below.  In no event, however, should the above summary be construed as a limitation on the claimed subject matter, which subject matter is defined solely by
the attached claims, as may be amended during prosecution. 

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING


The invention may be more completely understood in consideration of the following detailed description and examples in connection with the FIGURE described below.  The FIGURE is an illustrative example and, in no event, should be construed as a
limitation on the claimed subject matter, which subject matter is defined solely by the claims set forth herein.


The FIGURE is a schematic diagram of a light emitting device capable of being prepared according to the disclosed method.


DETAILED DESCRIPTION


A method of making a light emitting device is disclosed.  Referring to the FIGURE, LED 1 is mounted on a metallized contact 2a disposed on a substrate 6 in a reflecting cup 3.  LED 1 has one electrical contact on its lowermost surface and another
on its uppermost surface, the latter of which is connected to a separate electrical contact 2b by a wire bond 4.  A power source can be coupled to the electrical contacts to energize the LED.  Encapsulant 5 encapsulates the LED.


A method for preparing a light emitting device with an LED sealed within a silicon-containing encapsulant is disclosed.  Such silicon-containing encapsulants are advantageous because of their thermal and photochemical stability. 
Silicon-containing encapsulants are known in the art.  These compositions typically comprise organosiloxanes that are cured either by acid-catalyzed condensation reactions between silanol groups bonded to the organosiloxane components or by
metal-catalyzed hydrosilylation reactions between groups incorporating aliphatic unsaturation and silicon-bonded hydrogen, which are bonded to the organosiloxane components.  In the first instance, the curing reaction is relatively slow, sometimes
requiring many hours to proceed to completion.  In the second instance, desirable levels of cure normally require temperatures significantly in excess of room temperature.  For example, US Patent Application Publication US 2004/0116640 A1 states that
such compositions are " .  . . preferably cured by heating at about 120 to 180.degree.  C. for about 30 to 180 minutes."


The method disclosed herein also utilizes organosiloxane compositions that are cured by metal-catalyzed hydrosilylation reactions between groups incorporating aliphatic unsaturation and silicon-bonded hydrogen, which are bonded to the
organosiloxane components.  The metal-containing catalysts used herein can be activated by actinic radiation.  The advantages of initiating hydrosilylation using catalysts activated by actinic radiation include (1) the ability to cure the encapsulating
composition without subjecting the LED, the substrate to which it is attached, or any other materials present in the package or system, to potentially harmful temperatures, (2) the ability to formulate one-part encapsulating compositions that display
long working times (also known as bath life or shelf life), (3) the ability to cure the encapsulating formulation on demand at the discretion of the user, and (4) the ability to simplify the formulation process by avoiding the need for two-part
formulations as is typically required for thermally curable hydrosilylation compositions.


The disclosed method involves the use of actinic radiation having a wavelength of less than or equal to 700 nanometers (nm).  Thus, the disclosed methods are particularly advantageous to the extent they avoid harmful temperatures.  Preferably,
the disclosed methods involve the application of actinic radiation at a temperature of less than 120.degree.  C., more preferably, at a temperature of less than 60.degree.  C., and still more preferably at a temperature of 25.degree.  C. or less.


Actinic radiation used in the disclosed methods includes light of a wide range of wavelengths less than or equal to 700 nm, including visible and UV light, but preferably, the actinic radiation has a wavelength of of 600 nm or less, and more
preferably from 200 to 600 nm., and even more preferably, from 250 to 500 nm.  Preferably, the actinic radiation has a wavelength of at least 200 nm, and more preferably at least 250 nm.


A sufficient amount of actinic radiation is applied to the silicon-containing resin for a time to form an at least partially cured encapsulant.  A partially cured encapsulant means that at least 5 mole percent of the aliphatic unsaturation is
consumed in a hydrosilylation reaction.  Preferably, a sufficient amount of the actinic radiation is applied to the silicon-containing resin for a time to form a substantially cured encapsulant.  A substantially cured encapsulant means that greater than
60 mole percent of the aliphatic unsaturation present in the reactant species prior to reaction has been consumed as a result of the light activated addition reaction of the silicon-bonded hydrogen with the aliphatic unsaturated species.  Preferably,
such curing occurs in less than 30 minutes, more preferably in less than 10 minutes, and even more preferably in less than 5 minutes or less than 1 minute.  In certain embodiments, such curing can occur in less than 10 seconds.


Examples of sources of actinic radiation include tungsten halogen lamps, xenon arc lamps, mercury arc lamps, incandescent lamps, germicidal lamps, and fluorescent lamps.  In certain embodiments, the source of actinic radiation is the LED.


In some cases, the method disclosed herein may further comprise the step of heating after actinic radiation is applied to form the encapsulant.  Actinic radiation may be applied to gel the silicon-containing resin and control settling of any
additional components such as particles, phosphors, etc. which may be present in the encapsulant.  Controlled settling of the particles or phosphors may be used to achieve specific useful spatial distributions of the particles or phosphors within the
encapsulant.  For example, the method may allow controlled settling of particles enabling formation of a gradient refractive index distribution that may enhance LED efficiency or emission pattern.  It may also be advantageous to allow partial settling of
phosphor such that a portion of the encapsulant is clear and other portions contain phosphor.  In this case, the clear portion of encapsulant can be shaped to act as a lens for the emitted light from the phosphor.


Other than to control settling, the step of heating after actinic radiation is applied may be used to accelerate formation of the encapsulant, or to decrease the amount of time the encapsulant is exposed to actinic radiation during the previous
step.  Any heating means may be used such as an infrared lamp, a forced air oven, or a heating plate.  If applied, heating may be at less than 150.degree.  C., or more preferably at less than 100.degree.  C., and still more preferably at less than
60.degree.  C.


Also disclosed herein is a light emitting device comprising a light emitting diode and a photopolymerizable composition comprising a silicon-containing resin and a metal-containing catalyst, wherein the silicon-containing resin comprises
silicon-bonded hydrogen and aliphatic unsaturation.  In some embodiments, the metal-containing catalyst may comprise platinum.  In other embodiments, the photopolymerizable composition may be at a temperature of from about 30.degree.  C. to about
120.degree.  C. In other embodiments, the metal-containing catalyst may comprise platinum, and the photopolymerizable composition may be at a temperature of from about 30.degree.  C. to about 120.degree.  C.


In some cases, the method disclosed herein may further comprise the step of heating at a temperature of from about 30.degree.  C. to about 120.degree.  C. before actinic radiation is applied.  Heating may be carried out in order to lower the
viscosity of the photopolymerizable composition, for example, to facilitate the release of any entrapped gas.  Heat may optionally be applied during or after application of the actinic radiation to accelerate formation of the encapsulant.


The silicon-containing resin can include monomers, oligomers, polymers, or mixtures thereof.  It includes silicon-bonded hydrogen and aliphatic unsaturation, which allows for hydrosilylation (i.e., the addition of a silicon-bonded hydrogen across
a carbon-carbon double bond or triple bond).  The silicon-bonded hydrogen and the aliphatic unsaturation may or may not be present in the same molecule.  Furthermore, the aliphatic unsaturation may or may not be directly bonded to silicon.


Preferred silicon-containing resins are those that provide an encapsulant, which can be in the form of a liquid, gel, elastomer, or a non-elastic solid, and are thermally and photochemically stable.  For UV light, silicon-containing resins having
refractive indices of at least 1.34 are preferred.  For some embodiments, silicon-containing resins having refractive indices of at least 1.50 are preferred.


Preferred silicon-containing resins are selected such that they provide an encapsulant that is photostable and thermally stable.  Herein, photostable refers to a material that does not chemically degrade upon prolonged exposure to actinic
radiation, particularly with respect to the formation of colored or light absorbing degradation products.  Herein, thermally stable refers to a material that does not chemically degrade upon prolonged exposure to heat, particularly with respect to the
formation of colored or light absorbing degradation products.  In addition, preferred silicon-containing resins are those that possess relatively rapid cure mechanisms (e.g., seconds to less than 30 minutes) in order to accelerate manufacturing times and
reduce overall LED cost.


Examples of suitable silicon-containing resins are disclosed, for example, in U.S.  Pat.  No. 6,376,569 (Oxman et al.), U.S.  Pat.  No. 4,916,169 (Boardman et al.), U.S.  Pat.  No. 6,046,250 (Boardman et al.), U.S.  Pat.  No. 5,145,886 (Oxman et
al.), U.S.  Pat.  No. 6,150,546 (Butts), and in U.S.  Pat.  Appl.  Nos.  2004/0116640 (Miyoshi).  A preferred silicon-containing resin comprises an organosiloxane (i.e., silicones), which includes organopolysiloxanes.  Such resins typically include at
least two components, one having silicon-bonded hydrogen and one having aliphatic unsaturation.  However, both silicon-bonded hydrogen and olefinic unsaturation may exist within the same molecule.


In one embodiment, the silicon-containing resin can include a silicone component having at least two sites of aliphatic unsaturation (e.g., alkenyl or alkynyl groups) bonded to silicon atoms in a molecule and an organohydrogensilane and/or
organohydrogenpolysiloxane component having at least two hydrogen atoms bonded to silicon atoms in a molecule.  Preferably, a silicon-containing resin includes both components, with the silicone containing aliphatic unsaturation as the base polymer
(i.e., the major organosiloxane component in the composition.) Preferred silicon-containing resins are organopolysiloxanes.  Such resins typically comprise at least two components, at least one of which contains aliphatic unsaturation and at least one of
which contains silicon-bonded hydrogen.  Such organopolysiloxanes are known in the art and are disclosed in such patents as U.S.  Pat.  No. 3,159,662 (Ashby), U.S.  Pat.  No. 3,220,972 (Lamoreauz), U.S.  Pat.  No. 3,410,886 (Joy), U.S.  Pat.  No.
4,609,574 (Keryk), U.S.  Pat.  No. 5,145,886 (Oxman, et. al), and U.S.  Pat.  No. 4,916,169 (Boardman et. al).  Curable one component organopolysiloxane resins are possible if the single resin component contains both aliphatic unsaturation and
silicon-bonded hydrogen.


Organopolysiloxanes that contain aliphatic unsaturation are preferably linear, cyclic, or branched organopolysiloxanes comprising units of the formula R.sup.1.sub.aR.sup.2.sub.bSiO.sub.(4-a-b)/2 wherein: R.sup.1 is a monovalent, straight-chained,
branched or cyclic, unsubstituted or substituted hydrocarbon group that is free of aliphatic unsaturation and has from 1 to 18 carbon atoms; R.sup.2 is a monovalent hydrocarbon group having aliphatic unsaturation and from 2 to 10 carbon atoms; a is 0, 1,
2, or 3; b is 0, 1, 2, or 3; and the sum a+b is 0, 1, 2, or 3; with the proviso that there is on average at least 1 R.sup.2 present per molecule.


Organopolysiloxanes that contain aliphatic unsaturation preferably have an average viscosity of at least 5 mPas at 25.degree.  C.


Examples of suitable R.sup.1 groups are alkyl groups such as methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, iso-propyl, n-butyl, iso-butyl, tert-butyl, n-pentyl, iso-pentyl, neo-pentyl, tert-pentyl, cyclopentyl, n-hexyl, cyclohexyl, n-octyl, 2,2,4-trimethylpentyl,
n-decyl, n-dodecyl, and n-octadecyl; aromatic groups such as phenyl or naphthyl; alkaryl groups such as 4-tolyl; aralkyl groups such as benzyl, 1-phenylethyl, and 2-phenylethyl; and substituted alkyl groups such as 3,3,3-trifluoro-n-propyl,
1,1,2,2-tetrahydroperfluoro-n-hexyl, and 3-chloro-n-propyl.


Examples of suitable R.sup.2 groups are alkenyl groups such as vinyl, 5-hexenyl, 1-propenyl, allyl, 3-butenyl, 4-pentenyl, 7-octenyl, and 9-decenyl; and alkynyl groups such as ethynyl, propargyl and 1-propynyl.  In the present invention, groups
having aliphatic carbon-carbon multiple bonds include groups having cycloaliphatic carbon-carbon multiple bonds.


Organopolysiloxanes that contain silicon-bonded hydrogen are preferably linear, cyclic or branched organopolysiloxanes comprising units of the formula R.sup.1.sub.aH.sub.cSiO.sub.(4-a-c)/2 wherein: R.sup.1 is as defined above; a is 0, 1, 2, or 3;
c is 0, 1, or 2; and the sum of a+c is 0, 1, 2, or 3; with the proviso that there is on average at least 1 silicon-bonded hydrogen atom present per molecule.


Organopolysiloxanes that contain silicon-bonded hydrogen preferably have an average viscosity of at least 5 mPas at 25.degree.  C.


Organopolysiloxanes that contain both aliphatic unsaturation and silicon-bonded hydrogen preferably comprise units of both formulae R.sup.1.sub.aR.sup.2.sub.bSiO.sub.(4-a-b)/2 and R.sup.1.sub.aH.sub.cSiO.sub.(4-a-c)/2.  In these formulae,
R.sup.1, R.sup.2, a, b, and c are as defined above, with the proviso that there is an average of at least 1 group containing aliphatic unsaturation and 1 silicon-bonded hydrogen atom per molecule.


The molar ratio of silicon-bonded hydrogen atoms to aliphatic unsaturation in the silicon-containing resin (particularly the organopolysiloxane resin) may range from 0.5 to 10.0 mol/mol, preferably from 0.8 to 4.0 mol/mol, and more preferably
from 1.0 to 3.0 mol/mol.


For some embodiments, organopolysiloxane resins described above wherein a significant fraction of the R.sup.1 groups are phenyl or other aryl, aralkyl, or alkaryl are preferred, because the incorporation of these groups provides materials having
higher refractive indices than materials wherein all of the R.sup.1 radicals are, for example, methyl.


The disclosed compositions also include a metal-containing catalyst which enables the cure of the encapulating material via radiation-activated hydrosilylation.  These catalysts are known in the art and typically include complexes of precious
metals such as platinum, rhodium, iridium, cobalt, nickel, and palladium.  The precious metal-containing catalyst preferably contains platinum.  Disclosed compositions can also include a cocatalyst, i.e., the use of two or more metal-containing
catalysts.


A variety of such catalysts is disclosed, for example, in U.S.  Pat.  No. 6,376,569 (Oxman et al.), U.S.  Pat.  No. 4,916,169 (Boardman et al.), U.S.  Pat.  No. 6,046,250 (Boardman et al.), U.S.  Pat.  No. 5,145,886 (Oxman et al.), U.S.  Pat. 
No. 6,150,546 (Butts), U.S.  Pat.  No. 4,530,879 (Drahnak), U.S.  Pat.  No. 4,510,094 (Drahnak) U.S.  Pat.  No. 5,496,961 (Dauth), U.S.  Pat.  No. 5,523,436 (Dauth), U.S.  Pat.  No. 4,670,531 (Eckberg), as well as International Publication No. WO
95/025735 (Mignani).


Certain preferred platinum-containing catalysts are selected from the group consisting of Pt(II) .beta.-diketonate complexes (such as those disclosed in U.S.  Pat.  No. 5,145,886 (Oxman et al.),
(.eta..sup.5-cyclopentadienyl)tri(]4-aliphatic)platinum complexes (such as those disclosed in U.S.  Pat.  No. 4,916,169 (Boardman et al.) and U.S.  Pat.  No. 4,510,094 (Drahnak)), and C.sub.7-20-aromatic substituted
(.eta..sup.5-cyclopentadienyl)tri(.sigma.-aliphatic)platinum complexes (such as those disclosed in U.S.  Pat.  No. 6,150,546 (Butts).


Such catalysts are used in an amount effective to accelerate the hydrosilylation reaction.  Such catalysts are preferably included in the encapsulating material in an amount of at least 1 part, and more preferably at least 5 parts, per one
million parts of the encapsulating material composition.  Such catalysts are preferably included in the encapsulating material in an amount of no greater than 1000 parts of metal, and more preferably no greater than 200 parts of metal, per one million
parts of the encapsulating material composition.


In addition to the silicon-containing resins and catalysts, the encapsulating material can also include nonabsorbing metal oxide particles, semiconductor particles, phosphors, sensitizers, photoinitiators, antioxidants, catalyst inhibitors, and
pigments.  If used, such additives are used in amounts to produced the desired effect.


Particles that are included within the encapsulating material can be surface treated to improve dispersibility of the particles in the resin.  Examples of such surface treatment chemistries include silanes, siloxanes, carboxylic acids, phosphonic
acids, zirconates, titanates, and the like.  Techniques for applying such surface treatment chemistries are known.


Nonabsorbing metal oxide and semiconductor particles can optionally be included in the encapsulating material to increase the refractive index of the encapsulant.  Suitable nonabsorbing particles are those that are substantially transparent over
the emission bandwidth of the LED.  Examples of nonabsorbing metal oxide and semiconductor particles include, but are not limited to, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, ZrO.sub.2, TiO.sub.2, V.sub.2O.sub.5, ZnO, SnO.sub.2, ZnS, SiO.sub.2, and mixtures thereof, as well as
other sufficiently transparent non-oxide ceramic materials such as semiconductor materials including such materials as ZnS, CdS, and GaN.  Silica (SiO.sub.2), having a relatively low refractive index, may also be useful as a particle material in some
applications, but, more significantly, it can also be useful as a thin surface treatment for particles made of higher refractive index materials, to allow for more facile surface treatment with organosilanes.  In this regard, the particles can include
species that have a core of one material on which is deposited a material of another type.  If used, such nonabsorbing metal oxide and semiconductor particles are preferably included in the encapsulating material in an amount of no greater than 85 wt-%,
based on the total weight of the encapsulating material.  Preferably, the nonabsorbing metal oxide and semiconductor particles are included in the encapsulating material in an amount of at least 10 wt-%, and more preferably in an amount of at least 45
wt-%, based on the total weight of the encapsulating material.  Generally the particles can range in size from 1 nanometer to 1 micron, preferably from 10 nanometers to 300 nanometers, more preferably, from 10 nanometers to 100 nanometers.  This particle
size is an average particle size, wherein the particle size is the longest dimension of the particles, which is a diameter for spherical particles.  It will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that the volume percent of metal oxide and/or
semiconductor particles cannot exceed 74 percent by volume given a monomodal distribution of spherical particles.


Phosphors can optionally be included in the encapsulating material to adjust the color emitted from the LED.  As described herein, a phosphor consists of a fluorescent material.  The fluorescent material could be inorganic particles, organic
particles, or organic molecules or a combination thereof.  Suitable inorganic particles include doped garnets (such as YAG:Ce and (Y,Gd)AG:Ce), aluminates (such as Sr.sub.2Al.sub.14O.sub.25:Eu, and BAM:Eu), silicates (such as SrBaSiO:Eu), sulfides (such
as ZnS:Ag, CaS:Eu, and SrGa.sub.2S.sub.4:Eu), oxy-sulfides, oxy-nitrides, phosphates, borates, and tungstates (such as CaWO.sub.4).  These materials may be in the form of conventional phosphor powders or nanoparticle phosphor powders.  Another class of
suitable inorganic particles is the so-called quantum dot phosphors made of semiconductor nanoparticles including Si, Ge, CdS, CdSe, CdTe, ZnS, ZnSe, ZnTe, PbS, PbSe, PbTe, InN, InP, InAs, AlN, AlP, AlAs, GaN, GaP, GaAs and combinations thereof. 
Generally, the surface of each quantum dot will be at least partially coated with an organic molecule to prevent agglomeration and increase compatibility with the binder.  In some cases the semiconductor quantum dot may be made up of several layers of
different materials in a core-shell construction.  Suitable organic molecules include fluorescent dyes such as those listed in U.S.  Pat.  No. 6,600,175 (Baretz et al.).  Preferred fluorescent materials are those that exhibit good durability and stable
optical properties.  The phosphor layer may consist of a blend of different types of phosphors in a single layer or a series of layers, each containing one or more types of phosphors.  The inorganic phosphor particles in the phosphor layer may vary in
size (e.g., diameter) and they may be segregated such that the average particle size is not uniform across the cross-section of the siloxane layer in which they are incorporated.  If used, the phosphor particles are preferably included in the
encapsulating material in an amount of no greater than 85 wt-%, and in an amount of at least 1 wt-%, based on the total weight of the encapsulating material.  The amount of phosphor used will be adjusted according to the thickness of the siloxane layer
containing the phosphor and the desired color of the emitted light.


Sensitizers can optionally be included in the encapsulating material to both increase the overall rate of the curing process (or hydrosilylation reaction) at a given wavelength of initiating radiation and/or shift the optimum effective wavelength
of the initiating radiation to longer values.  Useful sensitizers include, for example, polycyclic aromatic compounds and aromatic compounds containing a ketone chromaphore (such as those disclosed in U.S.  Pat.  No. 4,916,169 (Boardman et al.) and U.S. 
Pat.  No. 6,376,569 (Oxman et al.)).  Examples of useful sensitizers include, but are not limited to, 2-chlorothioxanthone, 9,10-dimethylanthracene, 9,10-dichloroanthracene, and 2-ethyl-9,10-dimethylanthracene.  If used, such sensitizers are preferably
included in the encapsulating material in an amount of no greater than 50,000 parts by weight, and more preferably no greater than 5000 parts by weight, per one million parts of the composition.  If used, such sensitizers are preferably included in the
encapsulating material in an amount of at least 50 parts by weight, and more preferably at least 100 parts by weight, per one million parts of the composition.


Photoinitiators can optionally be included in the encapsulating material to increase the overall rate of the curing process (or hydrosilylation reaction).  Useful photoinitiators include, for example, monoketals of .alpha.-diketones or
.alpha.-ketoaldehydes and acyloins and their corresponding ethers (such as those disclosed in U.S.  Pat.  No. 6,376,569 (Oxman et al.)).  If used, such photoinitiators are preferably included in the encapsulating material in an amount of no greater than
50,000 parts by weight, and more preferably no greater than 5000 parts by weight, per one million parts of the composition.  If used, such photoinitiators are preferably included in the encapsulating material in an amount of at least 50 parts by weight,
and more preferably at least 100 parts by weight, per one million parts of the composition.


Catalyst inhibitors can optionally be included in the encapsulating material to further extend the usable shelf life of the composition.  Catalyst inhibitors are known in the art and include such materials as acetylenic alcohols (for example, see
U.S.  Pat.  No. 3,989,666 (Niemi) and U.S.  Pat.  No. 3,445,420 (Kookootsedes et al.)), unsaturated carboxylic esters (for example, see U.S.  Pat.  No. 4,504,645 (Melancon), U.S.  Pat.  No. 4,256,870 (Eckberg), U.S.  Pat.  No. 4,347,346 (Eckberg), and
U.S.  Pat.  No. 4,774,111 (Lo)) and certain olefinic siloxanes (for example, see U.S.  Pat.  No. 3,933,880 (Bergstrom), U.S.  Pat.  No. 3,989,666 (Niemi), and U.S.  Pat.  No. 3,989,667 (Lee et al.).  If used, such catalyst inhibitors are preferably
included in the encapsulating material in an amount not to exceed the amount of the metal-containing catalyst on a mole basis.


LEDs


The silicon-containing materials described herein are useful as encapsulants for light emitting devices that include an LED.  LED in this regard refers to a diode that emits light, whether visible, ultraviolet, or infrared.  It includes
incoherent epoxy-encased semiconductor devices marketed as "LEDs", whether of the conventional or super-radiant variety.  Vertical cavity surface emitting laser diodes are another form of LED.  An "LED die" is an LED in its most basic form, i.e., in the
form of an individual component or chip made by semiconductor wafer processing procedures.  The component or chip can include electrical contacts suitable for application of power to energize the device.  The individual layers and other functional
elements of the component or chip are typically formed on the wafer scale, the finished wafer finally being diced into individual piece parts to yield a multiplicity of LED dies.


The silicon-containing materials described herein are useful with a wide variety of LEDs, including monochrome and phosphor-LEDs (in which blue or UV light is converted to another color via a fluorescent phosphor).  They are also useful for
encapsulating LEDs packaged in a variety of configurations, including but not limited to LEDs surface mounted in ceramic or polymeric packages, which may or may not have a reflecting cup, LEDs mounted on circuit boards, and LEDs mounted on plastic
electronic substrates.


LED emission light can be any light that an LED source can emit and can range from the UV to the infrared portions of the electromagnetic spectrum depending on the composition and structure of the semiconductor layers.  Where the source of the
actinic radiation is the LED itself, LED emission is preferably in the range from 350-500 nm.  The silicon-containing materials described herein are particularly useful in surface mount and side mount LED packages where the encapsulant is cured in a
reflector cup.  They are also particularly useful with LED designs containing a top wire bond (as opposed to flip-chip configurations).  Additionally, the silicon containing materials can be useful for surface mount LEDs where there is no reflector cup
and can be useful for encapsulating arrays of surface mounted LEDs attached to a variety of substrates.


The silicon-containing materials described herein are resistant to thermal and photodegradation (resistant to yellowing) and thus are particularly useful for white light sources (i.e., white light emitting devices).  White light sources that
utilize LEDs in their construction can have two basic configurations.  In one, referred to herein as direct emissive LEDs, white light is generated by direct emission of different colored LEDs.  Examples include a combination of a red LED, a green LED,
and a blue LED, and a combination of a blue LED and a yellow LED.  In the other basic configuration, referred to herein as LED-excited phosphor-based light sources (PLEDs), a single LED generates light in a narrow range of wavelengths, which impinges
upon and excites a phosphor material to produce visible light.  The phosphor can comprise a mixture or combination of distinct phosphor materials, and the light emitted by the phosphor can include a plurality of narrow emission lines distributed over the
visible wavelength range such that the emitted light appears substantially white to the unaided human eye.


An example of a PLED is a blue LED illuminating a phosphor that converts blue to both red and green wavelengths.  A portion of the blue excitation light is not absorbed by the phosphor, and the residual blue excitation light is combined with the
red and green light emitted by the phosphor.  Another example of a PLED is an ultraviolet (UV) LED illuminating a phosphor that absorbs and converts UV light to red, green, and blue light.  Organopolysiloxanes where the R.sup.1 groups are small and have
minimal UV absorption, for example methyl, are preferred for UV light emitting diodes.  It will be apparent to one skilled in the art that competitive absorption of the actinic radiation by the phosphor will decrease absorption by the photoinitiators
slowing or even preventing cure if the system is not carefully constructed.


EXAMPLES


LED Package 1: Mounting Blue LED Die in a Ceramic Package


Into a Kyocera package (Kyocera America, Inc., Part No. KD-LA2707-A) was bonded a Cree XB die (Cree Inc., Part No. C460XB290-0103-A) using a water based halide flux (Superior No. 30, Superior Flux & Mfg. Co.).  The LED device was completed by
wire bonding (Kulicke and Soffa Industries, Inc.  4524 Digital Series Manual Wire Bonder) the Cree XB die using 1 mil gold wire.  Prior to encapsulation, each device was tested using a OL 770 Spectroradiometer (Optronics Laboratories, Inc.) with a
constant current of 20 mA.  The peak emission wavelength of the LED was 455-457 nm.


Preparation of Organopolysiloxane


The organopolysiloxane H.sub.2C.dbd.CH--Si(CH.sub.3).sub.2O--[Si(CH.sub.3).sub.2O].sub.100--Si(C- H.sub.3).sub.2--CH.dbd.CH.sub.2 was prepared as follows.  In a half-gallon polyethylene bottle were combined 1000.0 g (3.371 mol) of
octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (Gelest, Inc.), 25.1 g (0.135 mol) of 1,3-divinyl-1,1,3,3,-tetramethyldisiloxane (Gelest, Inc.), 1.0 g of concentrated sulfuric acid, and 5.0 g of activated carbon.  The mixture was agitated at room temperature for 24 hours
and filtered.  Volatiles were separated from the filtrate at 200.degree.  C. using a thin film evaporator to give 870.0 g of a clear, colorless fluid.  The .sup.1H and .sup.29Si NMR spectra of the product were consistent with the structure of the desired
organopolysiloxane.


Example 1


Visible Light Cure


A mixture of siloxanes consisting of 10.00 g (olefin meq wt=3.801 g) of the organopolysiloxane prepared as described in the previous paragraph and 0.44 g (Si--H meq wt=0.111 g) of
(CH.sub.3).sub.3SiO--[Si(CH.sub.3).sub.2O].sub.15--[SiH(CH.sub.3)O].sub.2- 5--Si(CH.sub.3).sub.3 (Dow Corning Corp., SYL-OFF.RTM.  7678) was prepared in a 35 mL amber bottle.  A catalyst stock solution was prepared by dissolving 22.1 mg of Pt(acac).sub.2
(wherein acac is acetoacetonate, purchased from Aldrich Chemical Co.) in 1.00 mL of CH.sub.2Cl.sub.2.  A 100 .mu.L aliquot of this catalyst stock solution was added to the mixture of siloxanes.  The final formulation was equivalent to a ratio of
aliphatic unsaturation to silicon-bonded hydrogen of 1.5 and contained approximately 100 ppm of platinum.


Into LED Package 1 was placed approximately 2 mg of the final formulation described above.  The LED was illuminated for 2.5 minutes at 20 mA.  The encapsulated device was allowed to sit for an additional 5 minutes.  The encapsulant was
elastomeric and cured as determined by probing with the tip of a tweezer.  The efficiency of the resulting encapsulated LED device was measured using an OL 770 spectroradiometer and increased from 9.3% before encapsulation to 11.8% after encapsulation.


Example 2


UV Light Cure


An encapsulated LED device was prepared and evaluated in the same manner as described in Example 1 except that 21.1 mg of CpPt(CH.sub.3).sub.3, prepared as described in Boardman et al., Magn.  Reson.  Chem., 30, 481 (1992), was used instead of
22.1 mg of Pt(acac).sub.2, and illumination was carried out using a UV lamp at 365 nm.  Efficiency increased from 8.9% before encapsulation to 11.6% after encapsulation.


FURTHER EMBODIMENTS


Examples 3-6 illustrate further embodiments of the invention that can be made.


Example 3


Visible Light Cure


A mixture of siloxanes consisting of 10.00 g (olefin meq wt=1.46 g) of the vinyl siloxane base polymer H.sub.2C.dbd.CH--Si(CH.sub.3).sub.2O--[Si(CH.sub.3)(C.sub.6H.sub.5)O].sub- .n--Si(CH.sub.3).sub.2--CH.dbd.CH.sub.2 (Gelest, Inc., PMV-9925) and
1.64 g (Si--H meq wt=0.16 g) of the siloxane crosslinking agent H(CH.sub.3).sub.2SiO--[SiH(CH.sub.3)O].sub.m--[Si(CH.sub.3)(C.sub.6H.sub.- 5)O].sub.n--Si(CH.sub.3).sub.2H (Gelest, Inc., HPM-502) is prepared in a 35 mL amber bottle.  A 100 .mu.L aliquot
of a Pt(acac).sub.2 solution in CH.sub.2Cl.sub.2 prepared as described in Example 1 is added to the mixture of siloxanes.  The final formulation is equivalent to a ratio of aliphatic unsaturation to silicon-bonded hydrogen of 1.5 and contains
approximately 100 ppm of platinum.


Into LED Package 1 is placed approximately 2 mg of the above final formulation.  The LED device is illuminated for 2.5 minutes at 20 mA and then allowed to sit for an additional 5 minutes.  The encapsulant is elastomeric and cured as determined
by probing with the tip of a tweezer.


Example 4


UV Light Cure


An encapsulated LED device is prepared and evaluated in the same manner as described in Example 3 except that 21.1 mg of CpPt(CH.sub.3).sub.3 is used instead of 22.1 mg of Pt(acac).sub.2, and illumination is carried out using a UV lamp at 365 nm. The encapsulant is elastomeric and cured as determined by probing with the tip of a tweezer.


Example 5


Visible Light Cure


A mixture of siloxanes consisting of 10.00 g (olefin meq wt=1.24 g) of the vinyl silsesquioxane base polymer [H.sub.2C.dbd.CH--SiO.sub.3/2].sub.m--[Si(C.sub.6H.sub.5)O.sub.3/2].sub.n (where m and n represent 10 and 90 mole percent, respectively,
of the monomer units in the silsesquioxane; Gelest, Inc., SST-3PV1) and 1.92 g (Si--H meq wt=0.16 g) of the siloxane crosslinking agent H(CH.sub.3).sub.2SiO--[Si(C.sub.6H.sub.5)[OSi(CH.sub.3).sub.2H]O].sub.n--- Si(CH.sub.3).sub.2H (Gelest, Inc., HDP-111)
is prepared in a 35 mL amber bottle.  A 100 .mu.L aliquot of a Pt(acac).sub.2 solution in CH.sub.2Cl.sub.2 prepared as described in Example 1 is added to the mixture of siloxanes.  The final formulation is equivalent to a ratio of aliphatic unsaturation
to silicon-bonded hydrogen of 1.5 and contains approximately 100 ppm of platinum.


Into LED Package 1 is placed approximately 2 mg of the above final formulation.  The LED is illuminated for 2.5 minutes at 20 mA and then allowed to sit for an additional 5 minutes.  The encapsulant is elastomeric and cured as determined by
probing with the tip of a tweezer.


Example 6


UV Light Cure


An encapsulated LED device is prepared and evaluated in the same manner as described in Example 5 except that 21.1 mg of CpPt(CH.sub.3).sub.3 is used instead of 22.1 mg of Pt(acac).sub.2, and illumination is carried out using a UV lamp at 365 nm. The encapsulant is elastomeric and cured as determined by probing with the tip of a tweezer.


ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES


LED Package 2: Mounting Blue LED Die in a Ceramic Package


Into a Kyocera package (Kyocera America, Inc., Part No. KD-LA2707-A) was bonded a Cree XT die (Cree Inc., Part No. C460XT290-0119-A) using a water based halide flux (Superior No. 30, Superior Flux & Mfg. Co.).  The LED device was completed by
wire bonding (Kulicke and Soffa Industries, Inc.  4524 Digital Series Manual Wire Bonder) the Cree XT die using 1 mil gold wire.  Prior to encapsulation, each device was tested using an OL 770 Spectroradiometer (Optronics Laboratories, Inc.) with a
constant current of 20 mA.  The peak emission wavelength of the LED was 458-460 nm.


Example 7


A mixture of siloxanes consisting of 10.00 g of the vinyl siloxane base polymer H.sub.2C.dbd.CH--Si(CH.sub.3).sub.2O--[Si(CH.sub.3).sub.2O].sub.8- 0--[Si(C.sub.6H.sub.5).sub.2O].sub.26--Si(CH.sub.3).sub.2--CH.dbd.CH.sub.2 (purchased from Gelest
as PDV-2331) and 1.04 g of H(CH.sub.3).sub.2SiO--[Si(CH.sub.3)HO].sub.15--[Si(CH.sub.3)(C.sub.6H.sub- .5)O].sub.15--Si(CH.sub.3).sub.2H (purchased from Gelest as HPM-502) was prepared in a 35 mL amber bottle.  A 100 .mu.L aliquot of a solution of 33 mg
of CH.sub.3CpPt(CH.sub.3).sub.3 in 1 mL of toluene was added to the mixture of siloxanes, the mixture was degassed under vacuum, and the final composition was labeled Encapsulant A.


Into LED Package 2 was placed a small drop of Encapsulant A using the tip of a syringe needle such that the LED and wire bond were covered and the device was filled to level to the top of the reflector cup.  The siloxane encapsulant was
irradiated for 3 minutes under a UVP Blak-Ray Lamp Model XX-15 fitted with two 16-inch Philips F15T8/BL 15 W bulbs emitting at 365 nm from a distance of 20 mm from the encapsulated LED.  The encapsulant was judged fully cured, tack free and elastomeric
by probing with the tip of a tweezer.


Example 8


A blue LED device was filled with Encapsulant A as described in Example 7.  The siloxane encapsulant was irradiated as described in Example 1 but only for 15 seconds.  The filled LED device containing the irradiated encapsulant was then placed on
a hotplate set at 100.degree.  C. After 1 minute the encapsulant was judged fully cured, tack free and elastomeric by probing with the tip of a tweezer.  Prior to heating at 100.degree.  C. the encapsulant was an incompletely cured tacky gel.


Example 9


A blue LED device was filled with Encapsulant A as described in Example 7.  The siloxane encapsulant was irradiated as described in Example 1 but only for 15 seconds.  The filled LED device containing the irradiated encapsulant was then allowed
to stand at room temperature.  After 10 minutes the encapsulant was judged fully cured, tack free and elastomeric by probing with the tip of a tweezer.  Prior to standing at room temperature, the encapsulant was an incompletely cured tacky gel.


Control Example


A blue LED device was filled with Encapsulant A as described in Example 7.  The siloxane-filled LED device was placed on a hotplate set at 100.degree.  C. After 20 minutes the encapsulant was still liquid and showed no indication of cure as
judged by probing with the tip of a tweezer.


The complete disclosures of the patents, patent documents, and publications cited herein are incorporated by reference in their entirety as if each were individually incorporated.  Various modifications and alterations to the invention will
become apparent to those skilled in the art without departing from the scope and spirit of the invention.  It should be understood that the invention is not intended to be unduly limited by the illustrative embodiments and examples set forth herein, and
that such examples and embodiments are presented by way of example only with the scope of the invention intended to be limited only by the claims set forth herein as follows.


* * * * *























				
DOCUMENT INFO
Description: The invention relates to a method of making a light emitting device. More particularly, the invention relates to a method of making a light emitting device having a light emitting diode (LED) and a silicon-containing encapsulant.BACKGROUNDTypical encapsulants for LEDs are organic polymeric materials. Encapsulant lifetime is a significant hurdle holding back improved performance of high brightness LEDs. Conventional LEDs are encapsulated in epoxy resins and, when in use, tend toyellow over time reducing the LED brightness and changing the color rendering index of the light emitted from the light emitting device. This is particularly important for white LEDs. The yellowing of the epoxy is believed to result from decompositioninduced by the high operating temperatures of the LED and/or absorption of UV-blue light emitted by the LED.A second problem that can occur when using conventional epoxy resins is stress-induced breakage of the wire bond on repeated thermal cycling. High brightness LEDs can have heat loads on the order of 100 Watts per square centimeter. Since thecoefficients of thermal expansion of epoxy resins typically used as encapsulants are significantly larger than those of the semiconductor layers and the moduli of the epoxies can be high, the embedded wire bond can be stressed to the point of failure onrepeated heating and cooling cycles.Thus, there is a need for new photochemically stable and thermally stable encapsulants for LEDs that reduce the stress on the wire bond over many temperature cycles. In addition, there is a need for encapsulants with relatively rapid curemechanisms in order to accelerate manufacturing times and reduce overall LED cost.SUMMARYA method of making a light emitting device is disclosed herein. The method includes the steps of providing a LED and forming an encapsulant in contact with the LED; wherein forming the encapsulant includes contacting the LED with aphotopolymerizable composition consisting of a silicon-contain