Changing the Paradigm of Automated X-Ray Inspection XStation MX

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					Changing the Paradigm of
Automated X-Ray
Inspection

XStation MX




         Peter Edelstein
       AXI Product Manager

   Peter.Edelstein@Teradyne.com

           May 9, 2007




    BECAUSE TESTING MATTERS
 Agenda

     • Industry Trends And Resulting Issues
     • Current And Future X-ray Technologies
     • Teradyne’s 3D X-ray Approach
     • XStation MX Detection Capability
     • XStation MX – Z-Find and Enhancements
     • Summary


22
 Drivers for Automated X-Ray Inspection

                                    Increased
                                 Product Quality
                                  Requirements
                Loss Of Visual                     Increasing Board
                   Access                             Complexity




                                  Automated
          Loss Of
     Electrical Access              X-Ray                 BGA Usage
                                  Inspection



                                                      High
                   Lead Free
                                                   Frequency
                                                      Nets
                                      IPC

33
 Technology Challenges




     • AOI - No Visual        • MXI and 2D X-Ray will      • 3D X-Ray allows for full
       Access to the BGA        see components on the        inspection of double
       Connections              opposite sides of the        sided boards
                                boards as defects          • Laminographic 3D X-ray
     • ICT - No Access to       limiting defect coverage     systems resolve the
       Parallel Capacitors,
                                                             coverage issues with AOI
       Multiple VCC and GND
                                                             and 2D X-ray but exhibit
       pins on BGAs
                                                             high false call rates and
     • ICT - Loss of net                                     poor reliability
       access due to
       component density

44
 Solder Joint Feature Measurements

     Algorithms extract solder                                   GULLWING SOLDER JOINT

     joint features to
     determine:
     • Width (Sub-Pixel Accuracy)
                                                                                         X-Ray Image
     • Heel Solder
                                        Heel Fillet
     • Toe Solder                           Side Fillets
                                                    Toe Fillet
     • Pad Solder
     • Fillet Shape / Slope
                                                                     Heel Fillet
     • Side Fillet Shape
     • Length + Many More
                                X-RAY
                                              AOI                         Side             Toe Fillet
                       ICT                                                Fillet

                                                                         3D Solder Joint Profile



55
 ICT and AXI Each Have Unique and Overlapping Fault Coverage
 Strengths

     ICT and AXI have overlapping and unique abilities to test for component
     “structural” vs. “operational” defects. AOI has only overlapping
     capabilities.

                                                                    AOI                                       AXI
              Defect Coverage                  AOI   AXI   ICT
      Solder Defects   Opens
                       Bridges
                       Shorts
                                                                                   Lifted Leads
                                                                               Parallel Components     Solder Quality
      Solder Quality   Insufficient     Toe
                                                                                                       Hidden Joints
                                        Heal                     Cosmetic
                                                                                                       VCC/GND pins
                       Void                                                                            Voids
                       Excess                                                    Shorts, Opens
                       Misc. Solder                                                Bridges
                       Solder Quality
                                                                              Component Presence,
                                                                                   Absence
       Component       Lifted Lead
                                                                       Comp.
                       Missing Component
                                                                       Polarity,                     Hidden
                       Misalign                                        Wrong Part                    Joints
                       Misplaced Part
                       Wrong Part
                       Non Functional

       Area Array      Shorts                                                   Component Value
                       Opens                                                  Component Operation
                                                                                                                 Duplicate
                       VCC/GND                                                                                 Coverage/Cost


                                                                                     ICT
66
XStation MX Compliments The Value Of ICT & Extends
The Life Of Your Existing Systems

     • Increased Coverage Reduces Manufacturing Costs By Increasing the Yield to Functional
       Test While Reducing Scrap from un-detected defects.




     • Adding AXI on average improves joint coverage by ~30% and component coverage by
       ~25%.
77
Current and Future X-ray
     Technologies




     BECAUSE TESTING MATTERS
Limitations of MXI & Semi-Automated AXI


 MXI - Transmission – Pseudo 3D   • Throughput
                                    –Only sample tests can be performed
                                  • High False Fail Rates Above
                                   3000 – 10,000 ppmJ
                                    – Angled views are described as 3D,
                                      but still have obscuration issues
                                    – 7-axis manipulation and low
                                      accuracy of motion
         PCBA
                                    – Manual Programming Tools



                 Static
                Detector




99
     Limitations of Laminography


         Laminography - 3D                                         • High False Fail Rates Above
                                                                    3000 – 10,000 ppmJ
                               Rotating X-Ray Source
                                                                     – Low Resolution at Large FOV
          Laser




                                                                     – Uses Averaging to Reconstruct
                                                                       Images
                                                                     – Inaccurate Mechanical Motion Induces
                                                                       Errors
                                         Board movement in Z to
                                         converge on focal plane

       PCBA

                                                                   • Low uptime
                                                                     – Mechanical Complexity




          Rotating Detector
                  (1000 RPM)



10
10
Teradyne’s 3D
X-ray Approach




BECAUSE TESTING MATTERS
 Measurement Methods


                                                                 • High Quality Imaging
                                                    TM
     ClearVueTM - 3D        High Speed! TraX              - 2D      – High resolution at large FOV to inspect 0201’s
                                                                    – Uses computational techniques to reconstruct
                                                                      images – No blurring

                                                                 • Typically less than 500 ppmJ False
                             PCBA                                 Fail Rates
                                                                    – Removal of mechanical errors and averaging
                                                                    – Static image capture increases image quality
      PCBA                                                          – No moving parts during image capture

                                                                 • Allows for TraX 2D inspection
                                                                    – Highest Quality Images
        Static Detector
                                                                    – Up to 6 Sq inches per second throughput
      Static X-Ray Source       New! Static Detector!
          Static Board        New! Static X-Ray Source!
                                 New! Static Board!




12
12
     XStation MX Detection Techniques:
     TraXTM High-Speed Transmission X-Ray


                                                                   Detector




            Large FOV                                                   PCB
            High-Speed
           Transmission
               Image



                                                                   Transmission
                                                                   X-Ray source

      The detector is area is divided into a single region, each region is now a FOV

13
13
     XStation MX Detection Techniques:
     ClearVueTM Image Reconstruction
                                              4.4”


                                                                             Detector

                             A                B            A
                                                                                  PCB

                                 Range used
                                  23o - 41o




                                                                      Transmission
                                                                      X-Ray source
              2.2”


     The detector area is divided into 9 regions, each region is 1/9 of a particular FOV

14
14
 ClearVue Slicing Capabilities

                                         X
     B            B              B

         T        T        T
                                     Z

     B   T                 T     B
                                                  x
                                         Rx 
                                                tan 

         T        T        T                      y
                                         Ry 
                                                tan 
     B            B              B

15
15
 ClearVue Provides Clear Accurate Slices


     B           B             B    Top Slice        T
                                    Pad Slice

         T       T         T
             B   B     B
                                    Bottom Slice    B
             B   TTT   B
                 TTT
     B   T       TB
                  TT       T   B
                                        Objects at different
                                   elevations move by different
             B   B     B                horizontal distances
         T       T         T         allowing for automated Z
                                          height detection
     B           B             B     “Max Value” algorithm
                                       removes artifacts

16
16
   XStation MX
Detection Capability




   BECAUSE TESTING MATTERS
 XStation MX – High Fault Coverage

     • Designed for manufactures that have quality as their
      number 1 priority. Provides the highest level of defect
      detection of any test or inspection solution.
     • Allows for boards up to 18” x 20” to be inspected in a
      single pass with automated in-line operation.

           ClearVue             TraX          Fully Automated
           3D X-Ray           2D X-Ray        Defect Detection




18
18
      XStation MX Provides Maximum Fault Detection and Lowest
      False Call Rates.


     • By Providing High Resolution Without Loss Of Original Image Information
       – All Defect Types Can Be Located.


                 Capacitor



                       Looks Like Short with 2D X-Ray   In this slice all bottom-side
                                                          components have been
                                                                   removed




                                   BGA Ball


                      Resistor



         Test Point

                             2D                         ClearVue
19
19
 Example ClearVue Defect Detection
                           Example Defect located on                       Example Defect located on
     Defect                                            Defect
                           XStation MX                                     XStation MX


     BGA Open                                          BGA Void




     Leaded Open                                       BGA Bridge




     Leaded Insufficient                               Leaded Bridge



                                                       Passive Open and
     Passive Skew
                                                       Skew



     Missing Resistor                                  Missing Capacitor




     Solder Ball                                       Capacitor Open



20
20
       XStation MX
Z-Find and Enhancements




     BECAUSE TESTING MATTERS
 How Does XStation Find the Correct Slice to Inspect?


     • For most solder joints the optimal joint elevation is
      the pad level where the lead of a device touches the
      copper layer on the PCB.
       – For BGAs the optimal joint elevation is the equator of the ball

     • Z-Find is the task that estimates the optimal joint
      elevation to inspect a solder joint by:
       – synthesizing multiple slices (typically 20 to 30) across a ROI over a
         range of heights
       – plotting the profile of amount of solder over the z elevation




22
22
     Z-Find Profile Example – Fine Pitch QFP




23
23
 Z-Find Process Visualized

                                              TOP SLICE
     Signature




                 Top Slice          Bottom
                                     Slice




                      Z Elevation
                                             BOTTOM SLICE
24
24
 Enhanced Z-Find


     • Z-Find works best when given a small range to
      search over, approximately 10-20 mils
     • Bare boards can be warped by up to 1% of their
      diagonal size ( No limit for loaded boards)
       – For a 10”x10” board, that’s almost 75 mils at the center


           Nominal board                                      Nominal board
             surface                                            surface




25
25
 Enhanced Z-Find


     • 100 or more measurements made per move
     • A new software task determines the board surface
      from the data:
       – Correlate the measurements with the X-ray views
       – Smart enough to filter presence of parts on the board
       – Will interpolate if data for a view is unavailable

     • Still no need for a special mapping procedure; the
      mapping occurs in parallel with the inspection



26
26
 Other Performance Enhancements


     • Reduced Programming Time in the Production
      Environments
     • Image enhancement to improve fault detection
     • Increased the standard FOV with no loss of accuracy
      which allows for higher throughput




27
27
Summary




BECAUSE TESTING MATTERS
     XStation MX – Automated X-Ray Inspection


                                                             Software




                                                         XFrame Programming
                                                              Software




                                                          XVer Repair Station




            Accurate Defect Detection, High Performance Automated
                       In-Line X-Ray Inspection System.
29
29
 Strength of XStation MX
     • XStation MX is the only Automated X-ray Inspection solution that
         deploys two patented* X-ray measurement techniques
     • 3D X-ray
           – The first is our Patented ClearVue 3D technique that allows for
             slicing from top to bottom side of the board at ~1 mil increments
             using a static imaging train
     • High Speed 2D X-ray
           – Our Patented TraX, Transmission X-ray solution provides full
             defect coverage on single sided boards at higher throughput than
             most AOI platforms
     • These techniques can be used in the same inspection program
         allowing the best fault coverage and throughputs to be achieved


* Patents include: 6,748,046, 4,809,308, RE35,423, EP 0236 001 and
  5,541,856.
30
30
 Summary – XStation MX Provides


     • Industry leading image quality
       – The Highest Fault Coverage to reduce DPMO rates and increase
         delivered quality
       – Lowest False Call Rates, reducing repair costs and increasing call
         accuracy
     • Multiple X-Ray inspection techniques
       – Allows for optimum throughput while retaining defect detection
     • Proven hardware and software lineage from our
      installed base
     • High MTBF’s and service coverage from Teradyne’s
      world-wide support network

31
31
Changing the Paradigm of
Automated X-Ray
Inspection

XStation MX




         Peter Edelstein
       AXI Product Manager

   Peter.Edelstein@Teradyne.com

           May 9, 2007




    BECAUSE TESTING MATTERS

				
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