C4ISR Data Ontology

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					 C4ISR Data Ontology


                Presented by:
               Mr. George Herc
RDECOM CERDEC Software Engineering Directorate
         In support of CELCMC SEC
                06 April 2005

                                                 Page 1
      DoD Net-Centric Data Strategy

DoD Net-Centric               Consumer
                              Searches metadata
                                                                                         Producer
                              catalogs to find data                                      Describes content

Data Goals:                   Analyzes metadata to
                              determine context of data
                                                                                         using metadata
                                                                                         Posts metadata in
                              found                                                      catalogs and data in
                                                                                         shared space
                              Pulls selected
                              data based on
•   Ensure data is:           understanding
                              of metadata
                                                                          Security Services
                                                                             (e.g., PKI,
                                                                               SAML)
     • Visible                                               Metadata
                                                             Catalogs                           Shared Data
                                                                                                                Ubiquitous
                                                                                                                Global
     • Available                                                                                  Space
                                                                                                                Network

     • Understandable
                                                      Enterprise &
                                                      Community
                                                          Web           Application Services
     • Trusted                                           Sites               (e.g., Web)          Metadata
                                                                                                  Registries

     • Interoperable
     • Responsive to users’ needs
                                                                                                COI / Developer
•   Institutionalize Data                                                                        Posts to and uses

    Management                                                                                   metadata registries
                                                                                                 to structure data and
                                                                                                 document formats for
                                                                                                 reuse and
                                                                                                 interoperability




Strategy enabled by COIs, metadata, registries, catalogs and shared data spaces
                                                                                                                         Page 2
DoD Net-Centric Data Strategy Guidance

       DoD 8320.2: Data Sharing in a Net-Centric
       Department of Defense – December, 2004

             • Puts in Policy DoD Data Strategy
             • The Heads of DoD Components shall:
                 • Ensure implementation of Net-Centric data sharing,
                 including establishing appropriate plans, programs, policies,
                 processes, and procedures consistent with policies herein.
                 • Ensure that all current and future data assets are made
Mission Areas    consistent with policies herein.
must form COIs   • Support Mission Areas and Domains by taking an active
                 role in COIs
to manage data


          CIO/G6 lead for implementing DoD 8320.2
                                                                            Page 3
    Summary of Data Strategy Roles and
            Responsibilities
                •    Define Domains and Domain owners; review Domain governance
  Mission       •    Mission Area architecture and capability planning
   Area         •    Cross Mission Area and enterprise coordination


                         •   Manage Domain Portfolios and information capabilities
                         •   Ensure COI capabilities and Infrastructure are resourced
            Domain       •   Domain architecture and capability planning; Identify Services
                         •   Facilitate information sharing among Domains



                                    •   Develop semantic and logical agreements for data;
                                        register COI data schemas and models
                      COI           •   Identify Authoritative Data Sources
                                    •   Promote data sharing across the Enterprise


Program Managers,            •   Tag Data with discovery metadata; make data available to
                                 “Shared Space”
 System Owners,              •   Create searchable catalogs of data assets
                             •   Register metadata in appropriate registries, directories
  Data Producers             •   Offer Services by planning and budgeting for services or
                                 capabilities to be exposed to the enterprise


                Reflects draft Army COI Policy and DODD 8320.2                                Page 4
DoD Net-Centric Goals and COI
 DoD Goals
           External Metrics
                     External Metrics

     Visible             Data posted/Data listed in catalogs

   Accessible               Data available in shared space

 Institutionalized   Data management follows relevant guidance
                       Ontologies, taxonomies, content and format
 Understandable                    metadata developed
                     Security data developed and posted/Authoritative
     Trusted                      Data Sources identified
                      Metadata registered/Data management follows
  Interoperable
                               mandated technical standards
   Responsive           All stakeholders are members of COI



                                                                        Page 5
DoD Net-Centric Goals and their Meanings

    DoD Goals                              Meaning

      Visible                  Who has what data available?

    Accessible            Where is this data and in what format?
                        What and who governs the definition, lifecycle,
  Institutionalized                and use of this data?

  Understandable                What does this data mean?

      Trusted         Is this data trustworthy, accurate, and authoritative?

   Interoperable             Can my application use this data?

    Responsive                        Is this data timely?



                                                                               Page 6
     DoD Net-Centric Goals and Approaches
  Catalogs
    Catalogs
                                                           Metadata
    Registries
                          Visible          Discovery Metadata       Security Metadata
                                          COI-specific Ontologies   Semantic Metadata
                        Accessible
    Shared                                 Syntactic Metadata       Content Metadata
    Spaces                                 Structural Metadata      Pedigree Metadata
                      Institutionalized
                                                   Authoritative Data Sources
                      Understandable
 Governance
     Oversight            Trusted                          Services
Processes/Practices
                       Interoperable      Metadata Registration         Search
 Metrics/Incentives
                                             Asset Inventory          Data Access
Education/Training
                        Responsive             Mediation             User Feedback
   Communities
    of Interest



                                                                                     Page 7
             OBJECTIVE

Define a C4ISR Data Ontology for the Integrated
  Data Environment being developed for the
                 warfighter.




                                                  Page 8
        What is an Ontology
•   Metaphysics that studies the nature of existence

•   An ontology is a description (like a formal
    specification of a program) of the concepts and
    relationships that can exist for an agent or a
    community of agents


        C4ISR Data Ontology
    A specification mechanism for conceptualization
    of C4ISR interoperability data


                                                       Page 9
                    C4ISR Data Ontology
                        Aug 04       Feb 05        Oct 05        Feb 06                    C4ISR
            C2IEDM           Add VMF            Add MTF       Add TDL                       Data
             v6.1                                                                         Ontology



                               Add COI/Domain Concepts


  TECHNICAL APPROACH                                                          STATUS
The C4ISR Data Ontology is being                            Initial Ontology Complete
developed as an evolving baseline                           • Translated C2IEDM v6.1 into OWL,
describing data exchanges performed                           a W3C Ontology Language
by current message-based systems.                           • Adding VID data to Initial Ontology
                                                            • Aligning with DoD/Army Stakeholders
  USMTF = U.S. Message Test Format                          COI = Community of Interest
  VMF = Variable Message Format                             W3C = World-wide Web Consortium
  TDL = Tactical Data Link                                  VID = VMF Integrated Database
  C2IEDM = C2 Information Exchange Data Model               OWL = Web Ontology Language

                                                                                                     Page 10
                                   Semantic Web:
              Dynamically Accessible Services
   UDDI
(Discovery)
     WSDL                                                                Ontology
 (Description)                                          Service
       SOAP                                             Registry
       (Access)
          XML                                                       API for
         (Form)
                                                                   Web Service




     Application                        Access Web Service
                                                 SOAP              Web Service
                                                Receive Data

UDDI = Universal Description, Discovery & Integration
WSDL = Web Service Description Language
SOAP = Simple Object Access Protocol

                                                                                 Page 11
          Ontologies Enable
          The Semantic Web
• Interweave concepts & their representation
• Capture semantics describing processes
  within domains
• W3C languages provide common syntax
  for cross-domain information exchange



                                               Page 12
                      ISSUE
 Current Systems Are Not Web-Enabled
• Support tasks, not processes
  – Local optimization (vertical integration)
  – Lack enterprise perspective (horizontal integration)
• Point-to-point data exchanges using military
  message formats
  – Difficult to implement
  – Expensive to maintain
• Current systems must co-exist with new
  web-enabled systems
  – Same data is needed to support processes

                                                       Page 13
                   C4ISR Data Ontology
           Describes AS-IS Data Exchange
• Translates IERs into a form useful to Data Modelers
   – Implemented in OWL, a W3C ontology language
       • Supports re-use: No need to re-engineer for each DM
       • Generates code: could be used as core for future Physical Data Models
   – Uses C2IEDM v6.1 for core concepts
       • C2 data used supporting multi-national operations
       • System-specific concepts flagged as potential extensions to C2IEDM
• Supports IER refinement
   – Early identification of gaps
       • E.g., new data requirements introduced by system implementations
   – Eliminate need for rarely used data concepts.
• Supports Net-Centric Data Strategy
   – Reduces need for pair-wise system-specific interfaces
   – Supports management of Net-Centric Checklists
        IER = Information Exchange Requirements

                                                                              Page 14
   Ontologies Reduce # of Interfaces
      to Implement and Manage
                          Ontology
   4 DMs
   means
# Interfaces        I
                         For 100 DMs: IV
 3+2+1=6
   Equals               4950 Interfaces
                         II       III
 Interface
   # DMs
      s                   (99+98+…)
                             1
          DMA                                  DMD

                    2                  3
                4                          5


                    DMB      6
                                     DMC
                                                     Page 16
       Ontology-Driven
    Information Exchange
 USER @
                            Ontology &                                    DATABASE
SYSTEM A
                            Inference Engine
                                                                 ”
           1
               “I need X”                                   sX
                                                         ed
                                                      ne
                             SERVER               A
                                               em
                                            yst 2
                                       “S
                                                                      3          “For X:
                                                                          System A needs
                “X”   7                                              Y from System B and
                                                                        Z from System C”



                6     “Z”                        “Y”             5
                                  4


           “Send me Z
           for System A”          “Send me Y
                                  for System A”


                      Current Systems Unchanged!
SYSTEM C                                                               SYSTEM B


                                                                                           Page 17
      Data Modeling & Products

• Develop Data Products       USER @
                             SYSTEM A
                                                         Ontology &
                                                         Inference
                                                                                                   DATABASE



  –   IESS                                               Engine                          X”
                                        1
                                            “I need X”                               s
                                                                                  ed
                                                                                ne
                                                         SERVER            A
                                                                          em
                                                                       yst 2
                                                                  “S


  –
                                                                                                           “For X:

      Data Models                            “X”   7
                                                                                               3
                                                                                                    System A needs
                                                                                              Y from System B and
                                                                                                  Z from System C”


  –   Ontology                               6     “Z”
                                                            4
                                                                               “Y”        5




  –   Other as defined                  “Send me Z
                                        for System A”        “Send me Y
                                                             for System A”



                           SYSTEM C          Current Systems Unchanged!                         SYSTEM B




• Develop Web Applications
  – Inference Engines
  – Translation Services



                                                                                                                     Page 18
       C4ISR Data Ontology
        Aug 04   Feb 05      Oct 05     Feb 06         C4ISR
C2IEDM      Add VMF       Add MTF     Add TDL           Data
 v6.1                                                 Ontology



             Add COI/Domain Concepts

 Created Initial Ontology from Existing C2IEDM
   – Converted to OWL, a W3C Ontology Language
• Version 1: Expand Ontology to Include VMF Data
   – All messages identified for “minimum implementation”
   – Additional VMF messages supporting SWB-2 threads
• Version 2: Expand Ontology to Include MTF Data
   – Leverage Air Force USMTF ontology work
• Version 3: Expand Ontology to Include TDL Data

                                                                 Page 19
       C4ISR Data Ontology
   Applies to Net-Centric Attributes
ASD/NII Net Centric Checklist questions are
designed to gather program information to assist
DoD leadership in better understanding our
move to net-centricity.
Questions are tagged as Foundational [F] or
Discovery [D].
 – Foundational questions relate to a net-centric attribute
 – Discovery questions relate to how programs implement a
   feature.
                 The DoD C4ISR Data Ontology
                 Supports Foundational Issues


                                                          Page 20
                    C4ISR Data Ontology

•   Translate IERs into a form useful to Data Modelers
     – Supports Re-use: No need to re-engineer for each COI’s DM
     – Generates code that can be used as core for Physical Data Model (SV-11)
•   Flexible, Conceptual Representation
     – Allows system-specific dialects
     – Keeps system-specific concepts hidden from other systems
•   Supports Net-Centric Data Strategy
     – Configuration managed organizationally aligned with Army COIs.
     – Configuration Management scales to DoD {and broader) enterprise scope.
•   Reduces Complexity
     – Reduces need for pair-wise system-specific (and COI-specific) interfaces
     – Objective identification of potential extensions to C2IEDM (and other core DMs)
     – Early identification of gaps
         • E.g., new data requirements introduced by system implementations
     – Supports IER refinement: Eliminate need for rarely used data concepts.

                                                                                         Page 21
    Communities of Interest (COIs)
                             • COI is a set of stakeholders
                                – Who must exchange information
                                  in pursuit of their shared
                                     •   Goals
                                     •   Interests
                                     •   Missions
                                     •   Business processes
                                 – Who must have shared
                                   vocabulary for the information
                                   they exchange



COI define shared vocabulary, information to be shared, how it
should be shared.

                                                                    Page 22
    COI Formation – Institutional COI
                                      Functional Relationships
                                             COI
• Institutional COI
   – Activity/Entity Based
   – Hierarchical
                                                                 COI
   – Reflects all Relationships           Entity
                                      Relationships
   – Based on Integrated
     Architectures
   – Functional Area (Data
     Developer)
   – Examples: C2, Sensors,
     Effectors, Logistics, Medical,
     Acquisition, etc




            Army Enterprise must form Institutional COIs
                                                                       Page 23
         COI Formation – Expedient COI
                                   Functional Relationships
                                                                    Overlap

• Expedient COI
   – Thread Based
   – Capabilities Based
   –                                  Entity
     Cross-Domains/Functional Relationships                         Overlap

   – Reflects Partial Relationships
   – Based on Integrated
     Architectures
                                          Mission
   – Data Consumer (use                    Thread
                                    Mission
     Functional Area standard       Thread
     vocabulary)
   – Examples: TST, JCAS, Global
     Strike, etc.

Systems Engineering and Governance of COI Boundaries Minimizes Overlap and
Coupling Issues
                                                                       Page 24
             Currently Registered COIs*

•     Computer Network Defense (CND)
•     Distribution COI
•     Force Projection
•     Global Force Management - Community of Interest (GFM-COI)
•     Information Operations
•     Joint Electronic Warfare Data Standardization WG
•     Joint Targeting Intelligence
•     MASINT Community of Interest
•     METOC (METEOROLOGY-OCEANOGRAPHY)
•     Modeling and Simulation Community of Interest
•     Sample COI Instructions
•     Space COI


* From DoD Community of Interest Directory: https//extranet.itis.osd.mil/coi
                                                                               Page 25
•
                               Summary
    DoD Net-Centric Data Strategy is now Policy (DoD 8320.2 & AR 25-1)
•   All must identify, prioritize, select information (data assets) to be shared with the
    enterprise, and designate authoritative data sources
•   Mission Areas and Domain leads must organize for battle by…
     – Forming and resourcing expedient COIs (lead/support joint & Army)
     – Forming Army Institutional COIs (focus area)
•   CIO-G6 is organized to support Data Strategy implementation of Mission Area &
    Domain leads with:
     – Services and Methodology (COI Administration, Data System Engineering, Data
        Modeling and products, Configuration Control, & Data Test Support)
     – Best Practices/Lessons Learned (COI Program Management Plan)
     – Policy & Guidance (Draft COI Policy, Draft COI Guidance Document, initial draft
        of Data Engineering Guidance Document, & DA PAM 25 1-1)
•   CIO-G6 teamed with Navy & Air Force to ensure common approach to implement
    Net-Centricity through Net-Centric Enterprise Support for Interoperability (NESI)
•   System Engineering and Integrated Architecture approach is required to execute
    Data Strategy. (CJCSI 3170 - JCIDS process)

Data Strategy is critical but not sufficient to achieve Net-Centricity
                                                                                       Page 26
Building Toward Shared Data Interoperability


                                 GAP Analysis
                                Interoperability
                                  Assessment
                                Register
                                  Data
                                Products
                            AV-2, OV-6a, OV-
                             7, SV-6, SV-11,
                            ADS, EIDs, XML
                         Create Common
                                 Schema
                             Vocabulary
                    Identify Critical Business Transactions
                  Identify Information Exchanges and Rules
                  Identify Data Elements Meaning/Structure
                      Identify Authoritative Data Sources

                         Form COIs
Define purpose, participants, expectations. Establish the relationships
between COIs, Mission Area Leads, sub-domains, program managers,
 system owners and other data producers. Develop governance and
                         funding requirements.

                                                                          Page 27