Heroin Heroin Sources from the opium derivatives morphine diacetyl, a chemical called diacetyl morphine. Characters White crystalline powder, black variety purity varies from light brown to white; also mixed milk powder, caffeine, baking powder, or glucose and other substances. Different according to the purity of I, II, III, IV, V heroin distinction. Usually to seal plastic wrap or foil with a way to flow the market. Patterns of abuse of cigarette inhalation, burns hot foil suction, intravenous injection, swallowing, subcutaneous, intramuscular, powder nasal, mucosal friction. Poison With some early euphoria, inability to concentrate, will produce fantastic phenomenon. Excessive use cause acute poisoning, symptoms include drowsiness, respiratory depression, hypotension, pupil smaller. With a high degree of psychological and physical dependence, withdrawal will occur after long-term use of drug craving, anxiety, tears, sweating, runny nose, irritability, tremors, chills, chills, anorexia, diarrhea, curl the body, cramps and other withdrawal disease. Once the addiction is extremely difficult to Rehabilitation Institution References: ¡ï What is heroin? Heroin, morphine chemical called diacetyl, diacetyl derivative of morphine. In 1874, a United Kingdom hospital Â×¶ØÊ¥ÂêÀö chemist from morphine and acetic acid are two kinds of white crystalline powder. Test in dogs was immediately collapse occurred, fear and sleepy and some terrible symptoms. More than 10 years later, German chemist, announced that such compounds with high analgesic effect than morphine, 4 to 8 fold, bronchitis, bronchial asthma, tuberculosis and other frequently wonders. After it was discovered that it is not only a good analgesic effect and a stronger sense of psychedelic bliss, but also the stimulating effect of both extraordinary. 1898, the German pharmaceutical chemistry Bell companies began mass production, when the purpose is to treat morphine addiction and as a strength to sell narcotics, officially named as heroin (heroin) and for clinical use. And people want to cure morphine addiction opium cause the same idea, at first it again get rid of opium and heroin as the drug morphine addiction, but it is more soluble than morphine, has faster absorption, and the fat-soluble also large and easy to play through the blood-brain barrier into the central role, while the addiction itself more strongly, its personal and social consequences of the harm caused, has far exceeded its medical value. Held in The Hague in the Netherlands in 1912 International Conference on opium, to be unanimously in favor of the control of opium, morphine and heroin trafficking. , The U.S. Congress has expressly prohibited drugs such as heroin production and sales. However, this is not the disappearance of heroin, opium family in this most excellent because of its high titer and pure, with less and smuggling of convenience, to become the most used illegal drug in order to attract a growing number of drug addicts, it is traces have been all over the world, in turn, stimulates the production of substantial growth. Today's opium, the main source of heroin in Southeast Asia, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos adjacent to the Golden Triangle area, and Southwest Asia Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan at the junction of the Golden Crescent region; in addition to South Asia, India and other places. In recent years, increasingly sophisticated technology, chemical synthesis, the purity of heroin is also rising. On the black market in drugs, usually heroin, opium, called 1, black or brown; the opium into morphine product of this process is called 2, heroin, and ranking of heroin, shaped like a brick, pale grayish brown; 3 Number of heroin known as brown sugar, the other acetyl morphine content 3O a 50% share, also known as heroin No. 3-saver or yellow arsenic, yellow, etc.; 4 heroin is refined, purity about 90%, white Portugal; now have what is known as white powder heroin, 5, and its purity reached 99.9%. Of heroin on the black market can hardly hear the word, generally referred to as "a few numbers" or "white powder." Usually sell in the street is not very high purity heroin, the heroin smuggled through the large and small layers of doped pumping the hands of drug traffickers stripping can be reduced to below 40% purity, or even 10% are common ¡ï How to preliminary identification of heroin? Heroin is usually white or gray block, powder-like material, there are relatively moist brown powder-like material, and some other substance for incorporation of light yellow, gray and so on. Most heroin are acetic acid odor. ¡ï "smoke three will be addicted to heroin," the statement has been made under it? Heroin has a comfortable and pharmacological characteristics of euphoria. Heroin addiction has a strong initial euphoria, practice shows that the majority of drug addicts for the first time there after the whole body tired, very uncomfortable feeling, and desire for a second drug, leading to addiction. Because people have to adapt to the drug, resulting in physical and psychological dependence. So, to say it will suck three heroin addiction is a large number of examples, and those who believe that occasional smoking heroin does not matter what the view is very wrong and very dangerous. ¡ï heroin Heroin is diacetyl morphine, opium drug series products the most pure essence, is the injection of drug abuse and one of the main drug. 1874, British chemist C ¡¤ Wright morphine acetic acid and other substances, for the first time to extract a better analgesic effect of semi-synthetic derivative of morphine or heroin, diacetyl. Heroin because the white powder, slightly soluble in water, soluble in organic solvents, heroin hydrochloride soluble in water, the solution colorless and transparent. Heroin into the body, is first hydrolyzed to a single acetyl morphine, and then further hydrolyzed to morphine and work. Because water-soluble heroin, morphine than the big fat-soluble, so it is absorbed in the body faster and easy through the blood-brain barrier into the central nervous system, produced a strong reaction, with a stronger inhibitory effect than morphine, its analgesic effect of morphine is also 4-8 times. Heroin was used as the initial drug addicts kick the morphine, and later found it both stronger than morphine, drug dependence, commonly used doses of two weeks or less continuous use can be addictive, which have a serious drug dependence. The current international order is divided into ten of the number of drugs, mainly opium, heroin, marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, hallucinogenic agent ten categories, including heroin occupy the third and fourth number, the drug and III IV drugs, and that the world is widely known as the "Three heroin", "IV heroin." Because of this habit it is called so that people mistakenly think there is a, II heroin, morphine or morphine salts actually. Three of heroin, also known as "Hong Kong Stone", "brown sugar", "White Pearl" and so on, is the process of morphine produced by the chemical diacetyl morphine, and then add a large amount of diluent (such as strychnine, quinoline enjoin , scopolamine, aspirin, caffeine, etc.) made of granular drug, and sometimes also in powder form, color from light gray to dark gray. Three heroin diacetylmorphine diacetylmorphine and the total content of a single 25% -45% generally, caffeine content in the 30-60% generally adulterated. IV heroin morphine by acetylation in the reaction does not dilute them, but purified, and then through the precipitation, to be dry. Diacetylmorphine content of which is generally more than 80%, up to 98%, pure, or purity of IV heroin is a white, odorless, transparent powder, and very delicate rub on the skin that will disappear. However, if the manufacturer will not show yellow, pink, sandy brown, rough or even a granular powder. On the current international only qualitative identification of heroin Indefinite. Available sniffing heroin, smoking, subcutaneous and intravenous injection, of which the latter two methods are more common. According to the determination of heroin morphine on the human body toxicity is more than five times the second, after heroin, are addictive in most cases, resulting in physical and psychological dependence. Heroin withdrawal symptoms are as follows: anxiety, irritability, irritability, tears, whole body pain, insomnia, from the "goose bumps", a burning sensation, vomiting, throat infarction, abdominal and other muscle cramps, dehydration and so on. Also appeared nervous, mental excitement, generalized muscle twitching, a lot of sweating or chills, male erectile also appear spontaneously or ejaculation, or both. The main symptoms of heroin poisoning: miosis, such as pinholes, skin cold and black, breathing slow, deep coma, paralysis of respiratory center, failure fatal. Heroin addicts prone to bacterial skin infections, such as abscesses, sepsis tetanus, hepatitis, AIDS, and even death due to acute poisoning. The main source of heroin, drug sources are located in Laos, Thailand, Myanmar, the three countries bordering the "Golden Triangle" region. ¡ï China for the first time found that "heroin encephalopathy" China news agency, Guangzhou, August 15 - (WU Dao Hill Xumin Qian Ning Xi source) Nanfang Hospital, First Military Medical University, disclosed today, the experts in Guangdong Province by the five patients with nasal disease follow-up survey of heroin, found that the "heroin spongiform white matter encephalopathy. " This is the first species found in the disease. Currently, the five patients had one death and four others are gradually recovered. Among them, the hospital four months, two patients before treatment, recovery from treatment than did not have significantly improved. The five patients in a short span of five months of continuous discovery. Experts believe that this that the disease in the Guangdong region of China, especially the trend of bulk disease. And called, "Sponge heroin leukoencephalopathy," should cause the medical profession and society. Nanfang Hospital, the official said, since March of this year, the hospital has treated five neurology nasal disease in patients with heroin, have unsteady gait, slurred speech and other symptoms of cerebellar injured. LU Bing-xun Zhou Liang, director and attending physician through careful examination, found that five patients with other lesions in patients with heroin intoxication significantly different. According to the pathological results and the characteristics of CT, MRI performance, the last of the five patients diagnosed as "heroin spongiform leukoencephalopathy." According to LU Bing-xun introduced the mechanism of the disease in the medical profession is still a mystery, but the patients had history of snorting heroin, and other analysis, the disease may be related to heroin ingredients impure, since the brain contains many impurities are heroin evidence of damage of toxic substances. According to reports, "of heroin spongiform leukoencephalopathy" in 1982 first discovered in the Netherlands. The past decade, the world is not more than ten cases that is very rare. ¡ï psychological characteristics of heroin addicts Heroin is not a single act, but integrated with a variety of reasons caused the results of the psychological characteristics of heroin addicts around the following four aspects. One. Personality: 1. Instant gratification and have not yet learned to delay the meeting; 2. Emotions are impulsive, they act without considering the consequences; 3. Withstand failures and setbacks, who Poguanposhuai attitude towards life; 4. A lack of self-confidence and decision-making capacity; 5. Inferiority strong and subtle, shy, lonely heart will not make close friends; 6. Cold hatred, lack of love; 7. No sense of responsibility. II. Behavior: 1. Medication overwhelming: the dependence of life is the decisive impact of compulsive drug use. Overriding medication, medication than eating, sleeping, sex and other basic needs is also important. Medication can sacrifice everything for what the future of work, personal health, self-esteem, self-love, social morality and law can be disregarded all. 2. Life uncharacteristically: heroin abuse or dependence in early life can maintain the status quo, even confidential. Medication after a period of time, lifestyle has changed completely, do not sleep at night, during the day can not afford them only a meal a day, or even fruit, drinks as the day's diet. 3. Lie talks about: heroin addicts continue to use heroin in order to avoid or mitigate the pressure inside and outside, lying is inevitable. As lying to deceive what they want. In order to get drug money, they must be lying, cheating his family, friends, relatives. Over time, there is no habit of telling the truth out. Even if only one telling the truth, that is like drugs. 4. Drug half-truths: drug use and drug nearly every day they face the choice of drug and seek immediate drug is not containment, treatment sucked to have to do. Both contain the ingredients really, but it is difficult to find out true or otherwise, on the one hand promises to repentant drug, on the other hand every effort to find heroin to drug addicts. 5. Gaoqian unscrupulous: Heroin addiction, the purchase of drugs will soon become a problem. Expensive because of drugs, the normal income is reduced, the amount of heroin will gradually increase, Gao Qian life of heroin addicts has become another center. Three emotional characteristics: Comfort and euphoria are typical of many opioid pharmacological characteristics, is to produce abuse and dependence of the root of all evil. After disabling when the patient may appear anxious heroin irritability and other mood disorders and easy to get angry. Thinking four characteristics: A mental disorder drug. Another manifestation of thought disorder as paranoia. Delusion is a kind of two patients with no objective basis in fact but firmly believe in and can not be persuaded to a pathological belief, the content of delusions and more absurd, bizarre, horror, often appear self-injury, suicide, assault and other dangerous behaviors more than women depression, low self-esteem. Psychology is easy to see from the above characteristics, once addicted to drugs, in addition to physical detoxification, but also must be systematic and long-term psychological rehabilitation for heroin addicts from the little things, establish the correct values of life, the Church certain survival skills improve the ability of social adaptation. Dai Tuopu drug rehabilitation village based on years of accumulated experience, the introduction of foreign advanced TC model to help heroin addicts out of many drugs, teach them how to conduct long-term, psychological rehabilitation in the treatment achieved good results. ¡ï reasons for relapse in heroin addicts and Countermeasures (-) The reasons for relapse analysis: 1. Drug addiction, physical and psychological reasons. One drug, the drug substance will rapidly spread to human brain, and with people with a body of material, the body of the drug after repeated tolerance improved. Gradually weakened the role of drugs, drug users can only larger doses to suppress the body continuously respond to meet the physical demands, and thus unable to extricate themselves bogged down, people once drug addiction, psychological dependence and physical dependence and mutually reinforcing, due to psychological increased reliance physiological dependence, physical dependence and withdrawal symptoms produced by repeated exacerbations psychological dependence. 2. Not easy to kick the habit because, relapse rate of causes. Drug addiction treatment staff from the process analysis, psychological addiction than the physical addiction hard to quit. Drug addicts during detoxification in the hospital can not touch drugs, so the concept of psychological dilute the drug, the determination of drug repent, soon after discharge may be shut oneself up and ponder over one's mistakes or under the supervision of the family try not to get involved in the original circle of drug abuse. However, with the society and the family gradually weakened its binding, and ultimately unable to go empty or lonely not bear the pressure of the environment, will be involuntarily pursue the original drug to become friends in the degree of drug prisoners, while the lack of strong social and family monitoring mechanism of helpers, led to high relapse rate, another important reason. Different degrees from more than 300 cases of relapse staff 90% of unmarried or divorced people, most of them do not have a full house and the majority of social idlers, no fixed occupation. Drugs after their recalcitrant family, the children repeated drug ring fails, despair holding rejected the mentality of indifference, or even allowed to launch their own homes destroyed, families are not further enhanced with the uncooperative attitude of drug abuse staff ÆÆ¹Þ×ÓÆÆË¤ psychological, time and space so that the discharged drug addicts to relapse to leave more room for instability. In addition, ethics, values, dislocation, a small number of drug addicts to drug for fashion, in terms of ideology can not stay away from drugs, dependence on drugs has been "lingering" This mind distorted. There are a lot of people lose confidence in ourselves but in the form of its drug treatment only once in the environment will be immediately lifted drug relapse. (B) of the responses: Drug is a drug, and the social environment are three major interrelated factors, the result of interaction, which is the spread of drugs is dependent on the objective material basis for drug addicts, the social environment plays an important role is the external conditions, people's quality level is can withstand the temptation of drugs determinants. Therefore, to protect the rehabilitation work is essentially a healthy growth of youth work is an educational one, to save the people and transform people's work. From the educational content of view, there are five aspects: (1) recognize that drug control is opposed to decadent lifestyle of an important initiative, critical drug use is "fashionable", "can heal", "seek to enjoy their own money" and other misconceptions. (2) for a correct world outlook, outlook on life and values education. (3) education for social morality. (4) recognize the phenomenon of drug abuse is a social evil. (5) The social atmosphere is polluted, endangering public security, induced the bane of all crime. Of heroin addicts during detoxification and rehabilitation stages of psychological therapy should be given to their public health aspects of drug treatment theory, treatment modalities, so that in their treatment process to eliminate psychological barriers, and actively cooperate with the treatment, the specific implementation of the following: 1) allow patients to understand the human body and anatomy knowledge base. 2) to patients to explain the physiology, let know after the drug-drug operation in the human body or metabolism. 3) talk to drug addicts and drug abuse easily lead to the syndrome of individual reasons, allowed to understand drugs and drug abuse and self-induced cause of death in the severity of chronic suicide. 4) to the patients to talk about "family, friendship, love," allowed to feel "love" in the human internal changes. 5) make clear to the patients to their treatment methods and procedures, allowed understanding of their treatment, combined with physiological functions, allowed to understand every step of treatment. 6) to patients to explain the need for strict management, convinced that the treatment effect, teach them for anti-relapse after detoxification methods how to conduct and consolidate drug efficacy. 7) experienced by the patients to the podium to complaints of drug hazards. The indictment of drugs on individuals, families, social hazards; complaint quit his tired tired after exposure to smoke can not get rid of the reason; complaints pull themselves into the water, induced drug instigator and drug dealers. Through the "three complaints" activities, so that drug addicts conscience recovery, anti-drug awareness enhanced. 8) about how to reshape the addicts life, and establish the dignity and actively participate in social activities out to be a "magic circle" of the winner. Tell them what hazardous to health, what health benefits, and guide them how to do that, although the reason people do not understand, how the do not listen to advice. Subtle influence on the drug addicts using a "new psychotherapy" is not a general way of preaching, but "something of value torn to see" this approach in drug therapy and will certainly play a big role in and effect.