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Comparative Virology October 2005 KARAN CHOPRA MOHAN BOLISETTY Virus Classification Group: Group V (-)ssRNA. Order:Mononegavirales Family:Filoviridae Genus:Ebolavirus • Ebola’s natural reservoir is unknown. • Non human primates have been the source of human infections but are not thought to be the reservoirs. History • Named after the Ebola River in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire), near the first epidemics. • Two species were identified in 1976: – Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) and – Sudan ebolavirus (SEBOV) • Case fatality rates of 83% and 54% respectively. • A third species, Reston ebolavirus (REBOV), was discovered in November 1989 in a group of monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) imported from the Philippines. • Ivory Coast ebolavirus – Only one case. Unlucky scientist. OUTBREAKS EBOLA Saga Saga Continues http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/spb/mnpages/dispages/ebotabl.htm Most Recent • April 25 – June 16 2005 total of 12 cases including 9 deaths were reported in Etoumbi and Mbomo in the Cuvette Quest Region. Modes of Transmission There are 3 modes of infection: 1. Unsterilized needles 2. Suboptimal Hospital conditions 3. Personal contact http://www.ecplanet.com/pic/2003/12/1071257871/ebola.jpg Symptoms • Onset of fever. • Intense weakness. • Muscle Pain. • Headache. • Soar Throat. • Vommitting, Diarrhoea. • Impaired Kidnay and liver function. Is There a Cure? • There are no known curative medications for Ebola. • However, there have been very recent developments in preventative medications. Vaccines • In June, Jones and his colleagues, Dr. Heinz Feldmann of Winnipeg and Dr. Thomas Geisbert at Fort Detrick, Maryland announced that they had successfully vaccinated monkeys against the deadly Ebola virus • The Ebola vaccine is based on the 1976 strain of the Zaire species and protects from the 1995, but not the other 2 species that affect humans. Bioterrorism • Airborne transmission of Ebola Zaire has been demonstrated in monkeys in a controlled laboratory experiment • Plum Island…? Conclusion • Even though scientists have recently made breakthroughs there is still need for extensive research to find vaccines and cures for this deadly virus. References • www.wikipidea.com • http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/spb/mnpages/dispages/ebotabl.h tm • http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs103/en/ • Hampton, Tracy. Vaccines Against Ebola and Marburg Viruses Show Promise in Primates Studies. Maedical News and Perspectives. JAMA. Vol. 294 No. 2 July 2005. • Jones, Steven. Live attenuated recombinant vaccine protects nonhuman primates against Ebola and Marburg viruses. Nature Medicine. Vol. 11 No. 7 July 2005.
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