MDP 10

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					MDP 10


Gerundive, a.k.a. Future Passive(!) Participle
    Gerundive = Adjective (-us,-a,-um)
         Deliberative Subjunctive
In English, a verbal noun ending in –ing; it has all the uses of the noun
but retains certain characteristics of the verb, such as the ability to take
an object or an adverbial modifier.
In English, a verbal noun ending in –ing; it has all the uses of the noun
but retains certain characteristics of the verb, such as the ability to take
an object or an adverbial modifier.
     1) Studying is worthwhile.
    2) Studying Latin is very worthwhile.
    3) The good students are desirous of studying.
    4) The best students are desirous of studying Latin.
    5) The library should be suitable for studying.
    6) The library should always be suitable for studying Latin.
    7) The good students like studying.
    8) The best students like studying Latin.
    9) By studying hard you will succeed in life.
    10) By studying Latin you will succeed very well in life.
Gerundive: a Latin verbal adjective….
     Formation of a
Present Active Participle
    present stem + -ns,-ntis

   vocans, vocantis - calling
  monens, monentis - warning
    regens, regentis - ruling
   capiens, capientis - taking
  audiens, audientis - listening
     Formation of a
Perfect Passive Participle
     perfect stem + -us,a,um

vocatus,a,um - having been called
monitus,a,um - having been warned
  rectus,a,um - having been ruled
 captus,a,um - having been taken
 auditus,a,um - having been heard
    Formation of a
Future Active Participle
perfect passive stem + -urus,-a,-um

 vocaturus,-a,-um - about to call
 moniturus,-a-um - about to warn
   recturus,-a,um - about to rule
  capturus,a,um – about to take
  auditurus,a,um – about to hear
         Formation of a
   Future Passive(!) Participle
       (a.k.a.-Gerundive)
Present Active Stem + -ndus,-nda,-ndum

 vocandus,-a,-um – about to be called
 monendus,-a-um - about to be warned
  regendus,-a,um - about to be ruled
 capiendus,-a,-um - about to be taken
  audiendus,a,um – about to be heard
 Deponent verbs form gerundives regularly.
      hortandus, hortanda, hortandum
    pollicendus, pollicenda, pollicendum
      sequendus, sequenda, sequendum
congrediendus, congredienda, congrediendum
       potiendus, potienda, potiendum



 The irregular verb eo, ire, ivi, itus,a,um – go
     Gerundive: eundus, eunda, eundum
          Summary of Participles
                Active      Passive
Present         vocans
                monens
                regens
                capiens
                audiens
Perfect                     vocatus
                            monitus
                            rectus
                            captus
                            auditus
Future          vocaturus   vocandus
                moniturus   monendus
                recturus    regendus
                capturus    capiendus
                auditurus   audiendus
        Translations of Participles
       vocans, vocantis: calling, while calling
      vocatus,a,um: called, having been called
vocaturus,a,um: about to call, going to call, intending
        to call, fixin’ to call, destined to call
      vocandus,a,um: about to be called (rare!)

      Usually, the Latin gerundive is translated
     as if it were an English gerund + an object.

                      HUH??
   Uses of the Gerundive (= Adjective)
    Genitive: + causā or gratiā (for the sake of) = purpose
                         (cf. e.g. < exempli gratiā)
           In piscinam me inmisi opis ferendae causā.
           I threw myself in the pool for the sake of bringing
                             (to bring) aid.
          Gito cibum sparserat canis placandi gratiā.
 Gito had spread food around for the sake of calming (to calm) the dog.
Dative: (I.O. or Adjectives)
            Multum tempus consilio parando dedit.
              He gave much time to/for preparing a plan.
           Hic locus non idoneus ponendis castris est.
              This place is not suitable for pitching camp.
  Uses of the Gerundive (= Adjective)
Accusative: ad + acc.= purpose
                Puer surrexit ad versus recitandos.
      The boy rose for the purpose of reciting (to recite) verses.
        Dominus meus Capuam exierat ad servos emendos.
  My master went to Capua for the purpose of buying (to buy) slaves.
Ablative: means
   Pulchro monumento faciendo curamus ut post mortem vivamus.
   We ensure that we live after death by building beautiful tombs.
         Ille versibus male recitandis aures mean offendit.
            He offended by ears by reciting poetry badly.
         Passive(!) Periphrastic
 Future Passive Participle + Sum = necessity,
              obligation, haftagotta
              Hoc faciendum est.
                 This has to be done.
                 This must be done.
                This ought to be done.
           Melissa mihi adiuvanda fuit.
I had to help Melissa (Melissa had to be helped by me).
      Naves in monumento faciendae sunt.
      Ships must be fashioned on the tombstone.
       Passive(!) Periphrastic
Future Passive Participle + Sum = necessity,
            obligation, haftagotta
               Pax servanda est.
          The peace must be maintained.
       Scio pontem transeundum esse.
      I know that the bridge must be crossed.
    Censeo Carthaginem delendam esse.
   I feel/move that Carthage must be destroyed.
  Caesar intellexit cur via sequenda esset.
Caesar understood why the road had to be followed.
             Passive(!) Periphrastic
             Uses “Dative of Agent”
         instead of “Ablative of Agent”
               Pax nobis servanda est.
           The peace must be preserved by us.
      Scio pontem militibus transeundum esse.
  I know that the bridge must be crossed by the soldiers.
    Caesar intellexit cur via sibi sequenda esset.
Caesar understood why the road had to be followed by him.
       Deliberative Subjunctive
The subjunctive in a main clause is likely to be:
                         Jussive
                   Exeat neve plura dicat
               Let him leave and say no more
                 Hortatory/Optative
                     Stet haec urbs!
                    May this city stand!
                      Gaudeamus!
                     Let us rejoice!
                      Deliberative
                      Quid agam?
                   What should I do?
                 Quo me nunc vertam?
              Where should (can) I turn now?
           Deliberative Subjunctive
The deliberative subjunctive is typically a direct question,
              using the subjunctive the sense of
         potentiality/indecision (might/could/would):
             Quid faciamus novi generis labyrintho inclusi?
               What should we do, shut up (as we are) in
                       a new kind of Labyrinth?

             Quid facerent novi generis labyrintho inclusi?
              What could they do, shut up (as they were) in
                       a new kind of Labyrinth?

       Ad cenam a Trimalchione invitatus, quid diceret Encolpius?
         What could Encolpius say when he was invited to dinner
                            by Trimalchio?